Category:1792 events of the French Revolution
Pages in category "1792 events of the French Revolution"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 9 September massacres – The 9 September massacres were two series of massacres of prisoners at Versailles on 9 September 1792 during the French Revolution. They occurred in the context of the September Massacres, Claude Fournier was accused of complicity in them. Those killed included Charles dAbancour, Claude Antoine de Valdec de Lessart, the same evening, the assassins returned to the écuries de la Reine, which had become Versailles prison, to carry out another massacre of 30 prisoners there. Diagnopsy, Les massacres de septembre Quid, see the chapter Constitution du 3-9-1791
2. 10 August (French Revolution) – The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés from Marseilles, King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly, which was suspended. The formal end of the monarchy that occurred six weeks later was one of the first acts of the new National Convention, the war declared on 20 April 1792 against the King of Bohemia and Hungary started badly. The initial battles were a disaster for the French, and Prussia joined Austria in active alliance against France, the blame for the disaster was thrown first upon the king and his ministers, and secondly upon the Girondin party. The King vetoed the decrees and dismissed Girondins from the Ministry, events came to a head on 16 June when Lafayette sent a letter to the Assembly, recommending the suppression of the anarchists and political clubs in the capital. The Kings veto of the Legislative Assemblys decrees was published on 19 June, the popular journée of 20 June 1792 was organized to put pressure on the King. The King, appearing before the crowd, put on the bonnet rouge of liberty and drank to the health of the nation and it was a brave but belated gesture. It could do nothing against the universal distrust in which the hero of 89 was now held, the deputies indicted the general for deserting his command. The king rejected all suggestions of escape from the man who had so long presided over his imprisonment, the crowd burnt him in effigy in the Palais-Royal. There was no place for such as Lafayette beside that republican emblem, within six weeks he was arrested whilst in flight to England, and immured in an Austrian prison. He failed because it clashed with national sentiment, the inaction in which he had kept the armies for more than 2 months past seemed inexplicable. It had given the Prussians time to finish their preparations and concentrate upon the Rhine undisturbed, six days later the Assembly declared La patrie est en danger. Banners were placed in the squares, bearing the words. That they devastate our fatherland through fire and murder, in a word, that they overcome you with chains dyed with the blood of those whom you hold the most dear. Citizens, the country is in danger. it is in the name of the King that liberty is being attacked, by this means he put the idea of deposing the King into the minds of the public. His speech, which made an impression, was circulated by the Assembly through all the departments. Evading the royal veto on a camp, the Assembly had invited National Guards from the provinces, on their way to the front, to come to Paris. These fédérés tended to have radical views than the deputies who had invited them
3. Armoire de fer – Larmoire de fer refers to a hiding place at the apartments of Louis XVI of France at the Tuileries Palace where some secret documents were kept. The existence of this cabinet, hidden behind wooden panelling, was publicly revealed in November 1792 to Roland. The resulting scandal discredited the King, a locksmith by the name of François Gamain helped reveal these documents to the authorities, who rewarded him with a government pension. The cabinet hid correspondence between Louis XVI and, among others, Mirabeau, whose venality and duplicity were exposed, most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI. Other letters involved prominent figures of the Revolution, such as General Santerre, Lafayette, Antoine Rivarol, there were rumors that only selected documents were made public, and that certain other documents were destroyed. The Interior Minister Roland would have played a role in this regard and these documents, despite the likely gaps and pre-selection, showed the duplicity of advisers and ministers—at least those that Louis XVI trusted—who had set up parallel policies. After the discovery of the armoire de fer, Mirabeaus remains were removed from the Pantheon, on 20 November 1792, Jean-Marie Roland filed these archives—at least what was left of them —with the office of the National Convention, negating all maneuvers to prevent putting Louis XVI on trial. By the order of the Convention of 6 December 1792, many of these documents were published by the printing office in 1792–1793. This article is based on French Wikipedia, andrew Freeman, The Compromising of Louis XVI, the armoire de fer and the French Revolution, University of Exeter Press, collection « Exeter studies in history »,1989. Olivier Blanc, La corruption sous la Terreur, Paris, Robert Laffont, paul and Pierrette Girault de Coursac, Enquête sur le procès du Roi Louis XVI, La Table Ronde,1982. An alternative version This is a version of the story by Louis XVIs defenders—based on the work of Girault de Coursac—that claims that the iron chest didnt even exist
4. Cult of Reason – The Cult of Reason was Frances first established state sponsored atheistic religion, intended as a replacement for Roman Catholicism during the French Revolution. Most of the dechristianisation of France was motivated by political and economic concerns, jacques Hébert gained a significant degree of popularity after being arrested for attacks on Girondists. Upon his release and with his popularity, along with Pierre Gaspard Chaumette. Unlike Robespierres Cult of the Supreme Being, Héberts cult rejected the existence of a deity, the cult was founded on the principles of the Enlightenment and anticlericalism. The Cult of Reason was explicitly anthropocentric and its goal was the perfection of mankind through the attainment of Truth and Liberty, and its guiding principle to this goal was the exercise of the human faculty of Reason. In the manner of conventional religion, it encouraged acts of congregational worship and they are not gods, for properly speaking, they are part of ourselves. The overarching theme of the Cult was summarized by Anacharsis Clootz, the Cult was intended as a civic religion—inspired by the works of Rousseau, Quatremère de Quincy, and Jacques-Louis David, it presented an explicit religion of man. Adherence to the Cult of Reason became an attribute of the Hébertist faction. It was also pervasive among the ranks of the sans-culottes, numerous political factions, anti-clerical groups and events only loosely connected to the cult have come to be amalgamated with its name. As a military commander dispatched by the Jacobins to enforce their new laws and his methods were brutal but efficient, and helped spread the developing creed through many parts of France. The official nationwide Fête de la Raison, supervised by Hébert and Momoro on 20 Brumaire, in ceremonies devised and organised by Chaumette, churches across France were transformed into modern Temples of Reason. The largest ceremony of all was at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, the Christian altar was dismantled and an altar to Liberty was installed and the inscription To Philosophy was carved in stone over the cathedrals doors. Festive girls in white Roman dress and tricolor sashes milled around a costumed Goddess of Reason who impersonated Liberty, before his retirement, Georges Danton had warned against dechristianizers and their rhetorical excesses, but support for the Cult only increased in the zealous early years of the First Republic. Undeterred, Chaumette and Hébert proudly led a delegation of deputies to Notre Dame. Many contemporary accounts reported the Festival of Reason as a lurid, licentious affair of scandalous depravities and these accounts, real or embellished, galvanized anti-revolutionary forces and even caused many dedicated Jacobins like Robespierre to publicly separate themselves from the radical faction. Robespierre particularly scorned the Cult and denounced the festivals as ridiculous farces, Robespierre denounced the Hébertistes on various philosophical and political grounds, specifically rejecting their perceived atheism. Both cults were banned by Napoleon Bonaparte with his Law on Cults of 18 Germinal, Year X. Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution Religion of Humanity Carlyle. The Oxford History of the French Revolution, encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815
5. Demonstration of 20 June 1792 – The demonstration occurred during the French Revolution. Its objectives were to convince the government to enforce the Legislative Assemblys, rulings, defend France against foreign invasion, the demonstrators hoped that the king would withdraw his veto and recall the Girondin ministers. The Demonstration was the last phase of the attempt to establish a constitutional monarchy in France. After the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, the monarchy fell, under the Girondin ministry, on 20 April 1792, they declared war against Austria. The resulting war, which would last almost continuously until 1815 and shake the foundations of Europe. The monarchy was its first victim, of even greater consequence was a major economic crisis. As it struck Frances towns, it set the masses in motion. The crisis was caused by inflation rather than scarcity as past crises, with continued depreciation of the assignat, the exchange rate fell even more rapidly. By March of 1793, French money once worth British ₤100 would buy only ₤50 worth of goods in Paris, the flood of paper notes, misused by speculators, aggravated unrest. France declared war on the King of Bohemia and Hungary on 20 April 1792, the French troops and their leadership were inadequate from the beginning, leaving the French army in a state of total disarray. But despite these attractions, even the battalions were slow to form. Few volunteers were motivated to fight. Frequently, National Guardsmen, not wishing to leave their homes, offered bonuses to convince others to take their place, consequently, it took time for a sufficient quantity of men to enlist. Equipment was furnished by local authorities but arrived slowly, and insufficient arms were available, French general Charles François Dumouriez thought the army could get its training in combat. He argued that the enemy had no more than 30,000 men to throw into a campaign, and that foreign troops would be arranged in a cordon from the sea to Lorraine. He proposed to break through this barrier, one each from Furnes, Lille, Valenciennes. The other generals, however, were trained for regular war, additionally, the officers distrusted their undisciplined troops, while the troops were suspicious of their generals in return. Out of 9,000 officers, at least half had already emigrated, in May, several others took three regiments into the enemy camp
6. French National Convention election, 1792 – The French National Convention election elected the National Convention. The election was held in September and were the first to be held under universal suffrage, an absolute majority of the deputies elected belonged to the Marais party, a political faction of vague but largely moderate policies. The Montagnards or Jacobins received 200 seats and the republican, though more moderate Girondin faction 160 seats
7. Louis XVI and the Legislative Assembly – The National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on 1 October 1791. Upon Robespierres motion it had decreed that none of its members should be capable of sitting in the next legislature and its legacy, the Constitution of 1791, attempted to institute a liberal constitutional monarchy. This had been envisioned as an arrangement not to be tampered with for a generation but, in the event, in the attempt to govern, the Assembly failed altogether. In the words of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, It left behind an empty treasury, an army and navy. The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October 1791, few were nobles, very few were clergymen, and the great body came from the middle class. The members were young, and, since none had sat in the previous Assembly. The Right consisted of about 165 Feuillants, among the extreme Left—those who would retain the name of Jacobins—sat Cambon, Couthon, Antoine-Christophe Merlin, François Chabot, and Claude Bazire. The Girondins could claim the most brilliant orators, Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Marguerite-Élie Guadet, Armand Gensonné and this strong representation of the left in the Assembly was supplemented by the political clubs and the disorderly revolutionary elements in Paris and throughout France. The remainder of the Assembly, about 350 deputies, did not belong to any definite party, the kings ministers, named by him and excluded from the Assembly, were mostly persons of little mark. Montmorin gave up the portfolio of foreign affairs on 31 October 1791 and was succeeded by De Lessart, bon-Claude Cahier de Gerville was minister of the interior, Louis Hardouin Tarbé, minister of finance, and Bertrand de Molleville, minister of marine. But the only minister who influenced the course of affairs was the comte de Narbonne, overtly, the king had embraced the newly codified constitution. Marie Antoinette surely wished to shake off the impotence and humiliation of the Crown, the Left had three objects of enmity. First among these was the couple, King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette. The Left as a whole wished to replace the monarchy with a republic, second came the émigrés – now seen as a threat from abroad—and, third, the non-juring clergy. Those émigrés who had assembled in arms on the territories of the electors of Mainz and Treves and their chiefs were the kings brothers, who affected to consider Louis as a captive and his acts as therefore invalid. The count of Provence gave himself the airs of a regent, the non-juring clergy – those who refused to take an oath under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy – although harassed by the local authorities, kept the respect and confidence of most Catholics. But the anti-clerical bias of the Legislative Assembly was too strong for such a policy and it was increasingly unlikely that two rival Churches could co-exist. Insurrection along religious lines broke out in Calvados, Gévaudan, from the first, relations between the king and the Legislative Assembly were less than friendly
8. Legislative Assembly (France) – The Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention. The National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on 30 September 1791, upon Robespierres motion it had decreed that none of its members would be eligible to the next legislature. The Legislative Assembly entrenched the perceived left-right political spectrum that is commonly used today. The elections of 1791, held by franchise, brought in a legislature that desired to carry the Revolution further. Prominent in the legislature were the Jacobin Club and its affiliated societies throughout France, the Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October 1791. It consisted of 745 members, mostly from the middle class, the members were generally young, and since none had sat in the previous Assembly, they largely lacked national political experience. They tended to be people who had made their name through successful political careers in local politics and they were staunch constitutional monarchists, firm in their defence of the King against the popular agitation. The leftists were of 136 Jacobins and Cordeliers and its most famous leaders were Jacques Pierre Brissot, the philosopher Condorcet, and Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud. The Left drew its inspiration from the radical tendency of the Enlightenment, regarded the émigré nobles as traitors. They were suspicious of Louis XVI, some of them favoring a general European war, the remainder of the House,345 deputies, generally belonged to no definite party. They were called the Marsh or the Plain and they were committed to the ideals of the Revolution, hence generally inclined to side with the Left but would also occasionally back proposals from the Right. The kings ministers, named by him and excluded from the Assembly, are described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as mostly persons of little mark. For a detailed description of the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly and related events, see The Legislative Assembly, the 27 August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz already threatened France with attack by its neighbors. King Louis XVI favored war hoping to exploit a military defeat to restore his absolute power and this led in April 1792 to the first of the French Revolutionary Wars. Louis vetoed the decree as a matter of conscience, Louis XVI formed a series of cabinets, veering at times as far left as the Girondins. However, by the summer of 1792, amid war and insurrection, it had become clear that the monarchy, on 11 July 1792, the Assembly formally declared the Nation in danger because of the dire military situation. On 9 August 1792, a new revolutionary Commune took possession of Hôtel de Ville, and early on the morning of 10 August, the insurgents assailed the Tuileries, Louis and his family sought asylum with the Legislative Assembly
9. National Convention – The National Convention was the third government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic. The Convention sat as an assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by a suffrage without distinctions of class, although the Convention lasted until 1795, power was effectively stripped from the elected deputies and concentrated in the small Committee of Public Safety from April 1793. After the fall of Robespierre, the Convention lasted for year until a new constitution was written. The election took place from 2 to 6 September 1792 after the election of the colleges by primary assemblies on 26 August. Therefore, the increased suffrage had very little impact, the electorate returned the same sort of men that the active citizens had chosen in 1791. In the whole of France, only eleven primary assemblies wanted to retain the monarchy, of the electoral assemblies, all tacitly voted for a republic – though only Paris used the word. None of the deputies stood as a royalist for elections, out of the five million Frenchmen able to vote, only a million showed up at the polls. The Salle des Machines had galleries for the public who often influenced the debates with interruptions or applause, the members of the Convention came from all classes of society, but the most numerous were lawyers. 75 members had sat in the National Constituent Assembly,183 in the Legislative Assembly, the full number of deputies was 749, not counting 33 from the French colonies, of whom only some arrived in Paris in time. Besides these, however, the newly formed départements annexed to France from 1792 to 1795 were allowed to send deputations, according to its own ruling, the Convention elected its President every fortnight, and the outgoing President was eligible for re-election after the lapse of a fortnight. Ordinarily the sessions were held in the morning, but evening sessions also occurred frequently, sometimes in exceptional circumstances the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat for several days without interruption. For both legislative and administrative the Convention used committees, with more or less widely extended and regulated by successive laws. The most famous of these included the Committee of Public Safety. The Convention held legislative and executive powers during the first years of the French First Republic and had three periods, Girondin, Montagnard or Jacobin, and Thermidorian. The abolition of the royalty is a matter you cannot put off till tomorrow, the first session was held on 20 September 1792. The following day, amidst profound silence, the proposition was put to the assembly, on the 22nd came the news of the Battle of Valmy
10. Paris Commune (French Revolution) – The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, the Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795. In 1792, the Commune was dominated by those Jacobins who were not in the Legislative Assembly due to the Self-Denying Ordinance, the all-powerful Commune demanded custody of the royal family, imprisoning them in the Temple fortress. A list of opponents of the Revolution was drawn up, the gates to the city were sealed, the government of the republic was succeeded by the French Directory in November 1795
11. Revolution Controversy – The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795. A pamphlet war began in earnest after the publication of Edmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France, because he had supported the American colonists in their rebellion against England, his views sent a shock-wave through the country. Many writers responded, defending the revolution in France, among them Thomas Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft, alfred Cobban calls the debate that erupted perhaps the last real discussion of the fundamentals of politics in Britain. The themes articulated by those responding to Burke would become a feature of the radical working-class movement in Britain in the nineteenth century. Most Britons celebrated the storming of the Bastille in 1789, believing that Frances monarchy should be curtailed by a democratic form of government. However, by December 1795, after the Reign of Terror and war with France, when he failed to do so, it shocked the populace and angered his friends and supporters. Burkes book sold 30,000 copies in two years, the Reflections defended the aristocratic concepts of paternalism, loyalty, chivalry, the hereditary principle and property. Burke criticized the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French Revolution and he viewed the French Revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government, contending that citizens do not have the right to overthrow their government. Civilizations and governments, he maintained, are the result of social and political consensus, liberals such as William Godwin, Thomas Paine, and Mary Wollstonecraft argued for republicanism, agrarian socialism, and anarchism. Many of their works were published by Joseph Johnson, who was jailed for his seditious activities. Wollstonecraft had been influenced by the ideas she ingested from Prices sermons at Newington Green Unitarian Church. These seeds germinated into A Vindication of the Rights of Men, wollstonecrafts most famous work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written in 1792, in the spirit of rationalism extending Prices arguments about equality to women. Butler, Marilyn, ed. Burke, Paine, Godwin, Vindication, A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft
12. Revolutionary sections of Paris – The revolutionary sections of Paris were subdivisions of Paris during the French Revolution. They first arose in 1790 and were suppressed in 1795, at the time of the Revolution, Paris measured 3440 hectares, compared to the 7800 hectares of today. It was bounded to the west by the place de lÉtoile, to the east by the cimetière du Père-Lachaise, to the north by place de Clichy, under the Ancien Régime, the city had been divided into 21 quartiers. In 1789, with a view to elections to the Estates General, by a decree of 21 May 1790, sanctioned by King Louis XVI on 27 June, the National Constituent Assembly created 48 sections to replace the 60 districts. Each section was made up of a committee, a revolutionary committee. After the Thermidorian Reaction on 27 July 1794, the sections still played an important role in suppressing the popular uprisings, in 1795, however, they were suppressed by the French Directory, which renamed the areas covered by sections as divisions, then quartiers. Each section was headed by a committee of 16 members. From 1792 onwards, the sections occupied themselves permanently with political questions, at the end of July 1792, the Parisians decided to abolish the distinction between active citizens and passive citizens. As a result the sections assemblies sat permanently and became the organ of the sans-culottes. After the Brunswick Manifesto they demanded the deposition of the king, on 9 August 1792 each section delegated commissioners elected by the active and passive citizens, as a replacement for the municipalité of Paris. There were 52 of these commissioners in total and they triggered the events of 10 August 1792, putting an end to the monarchy and giving rise to the Revolutionary Commune of Paris. Set up by a law of 21 March 1793, the task of the sections revolutionary committees was surveillance on foreigners without interfering in the lives of French citizens. Their activities towards that end were enabled by the Law of Suspects of 17 September 1793 and they also had the power to make lists and issue arrest warrants. They also had the right to deliver citizenship certificates, all in establishing a correspondence with the Committee of General Security. Pariss armed force was headed by a commander in chief and divided into 6 legions, the troops of each section had their own commander in chief, second in command and adjutant-major. The companies were made up of 120 to 130 men, being bigger or smaller according to their sections population, a company was commanded by a captain, a lieutenant and two sous-lieutenants. Each section also had a company of artillery, in the Thermidorian Reaction of 27 July 1794, during the fall of Maximilien Robespierre,18 companies had been sent to the front by order of Lazare Carnot. Of the 30 remaining companies, three were used to keep order – at the National Convention, the Arsenal, and the Temple, seventeen remaining companies replied to the Communes appeal during the night of 27–28 July 1794
13. September Massacres – The September Massacres were a wave of killings in Paris and other cities in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. There was a fear that foreign and royalist armies would attack Paris, radicals called for preemptive action, especially journalist Jean-Paul Marat, who called on draftees to kill the prisoners before they could be freed. The action was undertaken by mobs of National Guardsmen and some fédérés, it was tolerated by the city government, the Paris Commune, by 6 September, half the prison population of Paris had been summarily executed, some 1200 to 1400 prisoners. Of these,233 were nonjuring Catholic priests who refused to submit to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, however, the great majority of those killed were common criminals. The massacres were repeated in many other French cities, no one was prosecuted for the killings, but the political repercussions first injured the Girondists and later the Jacobins. The political situation in Paris on the eve of the September Massacres was highly excited and aroused by rumors of traitors. The next day the insurrectionists stormed the Tuileries Palace, the 48 sections of Paris were fully equipped with munitions from the plundered arsenals in the days before the assault, substituting for the 60 National Guard battalions. Now, supported by a new armed force, the Commune and its sans-culottes took control of the city and dominated the Legislative Assembly, for some weeks the Commune functioned as the actual government of France. These events meant a change of direction from the political and constitutional perspective of the Girondists to a more social approach given by the Commune, besides these measures, the Commune engaged in a policy of political repression of all suspected counter-revolutionary activities. Beginning on 11 August, every Paris section named its committee of vigilance, mostly these decentralized committees, rather than the Commune, brought about the repression of August and September 1792. From 15 to 25 August, around 500 detentions were registered, half the detentions were made against non-juring priests, but even priests who had sworn the required oath were caught in the wave. In Paris, all monasteries were closed and the rest of the orders were dissolved by the law of 15 August. On 2 September, news reached Paris that the Duke of Brunswicks Prussian army had invaded France and he was advancing quickly toward the capital. On 1 August, Brunswick had issued the Brunswick Manifesto, additionally, the Manifesto threatened the French population with instant punishment should it resist the Imperial and Prussian armies, or the reinstatement of the monarchy. Such information fueled this first wave of mob hysteria of the Revolution, by the end of August, rumors circulated that many in Paris – such as non-juring priests – who opposed the Revolution, would support the First Coalition of foreign powers allied against it. Furthermore, Paris lacked extensive food stocks, when news that Brunswick had captured Verdun reached the Convention, they ordered the alarm guns fired, which escalated the sense of panic. Of 284 prisoners,135 were killed,27 were transferred,86 were set free, in the afternoon of 2 September 150 priests in the convent of Carmelites were massacred, mostly by sans-culottes. On 3 and 4 September, groups broke into other Paris prisons, where they murdered the prisoners, from 2 to 7 September, summary trials took place in all Paris prisons
14. Society of the Friends of the Blacks – The Society of the Friends of the Blacks was a group of French men and women, mostly white, who were abolitionists. The Society was created in Paris in 1788, and remained in existence until 1793 and it was led by Jacques Pierre Brissot, with advice from Thomas Clarkson, who headed the abolitionist movement in the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the beginning of 1789, it had 141 members, during the five-year period of its existence, it published anti-slavery literature and addressed its concerns on a substantive political level in the National Assembly of France. Ironically, however, any real, practical legislative mitigation of the slaves plight would emerge only after the demise of the Society in 1793, in February 1794, the National Assembly legislated the Universal Emancipation decree, which effectively freed all colonial slaves. The economy of France was dependent upon revenues from the colonies, figures indicate that slave-trade activity during the years leading up to the French Revolution resulted in some profit percentages exceeding 100 percent. In 1784, for example, the outfitter Chaurands realized a profit of 110 percent through the use of a single ship, in 1789, one outfitter reached 120 per cent. The initial formation of La Société des Amis des Noirs was undertaken by Jacques Pierre Brissot, a follower of the Philosophes, Brissots anti-slavery efforts were also due to his exposure to humanitarian activities on both sides of the Atlantic. In the United States, where he visited Philadelphias constitutional convention, in England, Thomas Clarkson invited Brissot to attend a meeting of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade. So enthused was Brissot that shortly thereafter he would create his own abolitionist society in Paris and its objectives would be to suppress the slave trade and, at a later date, to attain equal rights for free men of color. The Amis advocated freedom in the French colonies, arguing that the ideas of the Revolution should extend to the colonies. The French concept of liberté, égalité, fraternité did not include the liberation of slaves, the Societys founder, Brissot, decided at the outset that the method of spreading the societys message would be through literature, and this he did in profusion. The Society emitted not only French translation of the English literature, but also written by Brissot. Addresses were delivered to other societies as well, such as the Amis de lhumanité, and it was a reflection of not only the Philosophe upbringing of the Society members, but also of their efforts to be active participants in the moulding of the revolutionary government. La Société des Amis des Noirs was most active dispersing its anti-slavery literature in and around Paris, the Society, nevertheless, did make attempts to convey its message to those living outside Paris. The political activities of the Friends of the Blacks also included addresses to the National Assembly, addresses promoting the abolition of the slave trade were made in February and April 1790. Another address was delivered a few months later, four months later, a discourse was presented concerning the violence in Saint Domingue. In July 1791, Clavière addressed the National Assemblys commercial interests, the Society also addressed government individuals such as Barnave, who was a member of the Committee on Colonies, and Jacques Necker, Frances Controller-General Of Finance. Although Necker was a believer in the in-humaneness of slavery, he could not sanction emancipation unless the practice of slavery, in this manner, the existing economic balance between nations would be maintained
15. Trial of Louis XVI – The trial of Louis XVI was a key event of the French Revolution. It involved the trial of the former French king Louis XVI before the National Convention, the trial began on 3 December. On 4 December the Conventions president Bertrand Barère presented it with the indictment and we shall read you the act giving the offenses with which you are charged. On 20 June 1789, Louis shut down the Estates-General, resulting in the commoners swearing not to disband, Mailhe characterized this as an attack on the sovereignty of the people. Louiss answer, No laws then existed to prevent me from it and you ordered an army to march against the citizens of Paris and ceased only after the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789. Louiss answer, It was my right but I never had an intention of spilling blood, despite promises made to the National Constituent Assembly, Louis refused to acknowledge the abolition of feudalism, as stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. He invited troops to Versailles and feted them in a banquet where the tricolor cockade was trampled under foot resulting in the insurrectionary Womens March on Versailles on 5 October,1789. Louiss answer, My refusals were just, I never saw the desecration of the cockade, at Fête de la Fédération of 14 July 1790, Louis took an oath which Mailhe said he did not keep by conspiring with the counter-revolutionaries Antoine Omer Talon and Mirabeau. Louiss answer, I do not remember, Louis is accused of disbursing millions to effect this corruption and planning escape. Louiss answer, I felt no greater pleasure, than that of relieving the needy, Louis did attempt to escape to Verennes on 21 June 1791, protesting in writing the activities of the National Constituent Assembly. Louiss answer, Refer to what I told the assembly at that time and that Louis was complicit in the Champ de Mars Massacre on 17 July 1791. Louiss answer, I do know nothing of it, Louiss answer, This is my ministers fault. Louis supported the counter-revolutionary Arles rebellion, Louiss answer, I followed my ministers advice. When Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin were annexed to France following a referendum, Louis delayed, Louiss answer, I dont remember the delay and the fault lies in the commissioners, not me. Louis did nothing about the counter-revolutions in Nîmes, Montauban, Louiss answer, This was done by my ministers. Louis sent twenty-two battalions against the people of Marseilles who were marching to subdue the counter-revolutionaries of Arles, Louis received a letter from M. de Wittgenstein, Commandant General of the Army of Southern France asking for additional time to rally support for the throne. Louiss answer, I dont remember the letter and he doesnt work for me anymore, Louis paid his former bodyguards even after they emigrated out of France to Coblentz along with other noble émigrés. Louiss answer, I stopped paying the bodyguards after they emigrated, as for the nobles, I dont remember