Category:1795 events of the French Revolution
Pages in category "1795 events of the French Revolution"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Constitution of the Year III – The Constitution of the Year III is the constitution that founded the Directory. It remained in effect until the coup of 18 Brumaire effectively ended the Revolution and it was more conservative than the abortive democratic French Constitution of 1793. The central government retained power, including emergency powers to curb freedom of the press. The Declaration of Rights and Duties of Mankind at the beginning of the constitution included a ban on slavery. It was succeeded by the Constitution of the Year VIII, which established the Consulate
2. Council of Five Hundred – Besides functioning as a legislative body, the Council of Five Hundred proposed the list out of which the Ancients chose five Directors, who jointly held executive power. Voting rights were restricted to owning property bringing in income equal to 150 days of work. Each member elected had to be at least 30 years old, meet residency qualifications, to prevent them coming under the pressure of the sans-culottes and the Paris mob, the constitution allowed the Council of the Five Hundred to meet in closed session. A third of them would be replaced annually, in the elections of April 1797, there were a number of voting irregularities a very low turnout, resulting in a strong showing for Royalist tendencies. A number of the newly-elected deputies formed the Clichy Union in the Council, the elections of April 1798 were heavily manipulated. The Council of the Five Hundred passed a law on 8 May barring 106 recently-elected deputies from taking their seats, elections in 48 departments were annulled. In October 1799 Napoleons brother Lucien Bonaparte was appointed President of the Council of Five Hundred, soon afterwards, in the coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon led a group of grenadiers who drove the Council from its chambers and installed him as leader of France as its First Consul. This ended the Council of Five Hundred, the Council of Ancients and the Directory
3. French Directory – It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution. The Directory was continually at war with foreign coalitions which at different times included Britain, Austria, Prussia, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia and it annexed Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, while Bonaparte conquered a large part of Italy. The Directory established six short-lived sister republics modelled after France, in Italy, Switzerland, the conquered cities and states were required to send to France huge amounts of money, as well as art treasures, which were used to fill the new Louvre museum in Paris. An army led by Bonaparte conquered Egypt and marched as far as Saint-Jean-dAcre in Syria, the French economy was in continual crisis during the Directory. At the beginning, the treasury was empty, the money, the Assignat, had fallen to a fraction of its value. The Directory stopped printing assignats and restored the value of the money, but this caused a new crisis, prices and wages fell, and economic activity slowed to a standstill. The Jacobin political club was closed and the government crushed an uprising planned by the Jacobins. The Jacobins took two seats in the Directory, hopelessly dividing it. In 1799, after several defeats, French victories in the Netherlands and Switzerland restored the French military position, Bonaparte returned from Egypt in October, and was engaged by the Abbé Sieyès and other moderates to carry out a parliamentary coup détat on 8–9 November 1799. The coup abolished the Directory, put the French Consulate led by Bonaparte in its place, Robespierre and his leading followers were declared outside the law, and on 28 July were arrested, and guillotined the same day. The Terror quickly came to a halt, the Revolutionary Tribunal, which had sent thousands to the guillotine, ceased meeting and its head, Fouquier-Tinville, was arrested and imprisoned, and after trial was himself guillotined. More than five hundred suspected counter-revolutionaries awaiting trial and execution were immediately released, in the wake of these events, the members of the Convention began planning an entirely new form of government. They wished to continue the Revolution, but without its excesses and this executive will have a force concentrated enough that it will be swift and firm, but divided enough to make it impossible for any member to even consider becoming a tyrant. A single chief would be dangerous, each member will preside for three months, he will have during this time the signature and seal of the head of state. By the slow and gradual replacement of members of the Directory, you will preserve the advantages of order and continuity and will have the advantages of unity without the inconveniences. To assure that the Directors would have some independence, each would be elected by one portion of the legislature, the members of this legislature had a term of three years, with one-third of the members renewed every year. The Ancients could not initiate new laws, but could veto those proposed by the Council of Five Hundred, the new Constitution required the Council of 500 to prepare, by secret ballot, a list of candidates for the Directory. The Council of the Ancients then chose, again by secret ballot, the Constitution required that Directors be at least forty years old
4. First White Terror – The term White Terror describes a period of the French Revolution during which a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France in 1795. The victims of violence were people identified as being associated with the Reign of Terror - followers of Robespierre and Marat. In particular locations, there were more organised counter-revolutionary movements such as the Companions of Jehu in Lyon. The name White Terror derives from the white cockades worn in the hats of royalists, the Reign of Terror ended on 9 Thermidor Year II when Robespierre and his associates were overthrown. However there was not a reaction to his rule. In Paris, there were increasing attacks on sans-culottes by Muscadins, however only when a number of conditions changed did anti-Jacobin forces feel sufficiently confident to escalate these attacks into a full-scale White Terror. It took a period of months before all of the leading figures associated with the Reign of Terror were brought to trial or removed from power. Economically, there were food shortages as a result of a winter in 1794-5. The harvest of 1794 was poor, particularly in the areas which supplied Paris, further south, rivers remained iced over and roads remained impassible in the Spring, hindering trade and raising local prices. The assignat fell from 31% of its value in August 1794 to 24% in November, 17% in February. In Paris, hunger and desperation led to the Germinal uprising of April 1795, militarily, the National Convention was fighting the Chouannerie rebellion in western France until December 1794. 1 August 1794 - arrest of Jacobin Terrorist Fouquier-Tinville, the Convention repeals the Law of 22 Prairial 3 September 1794 - Arrest of Jean-Baptiste Carrier 8 September 1794 - The Revolutionary Tribunal begins to hear the case of the 94 Nantes Federalists. The accused made a powerful appeal to public opinion by recounting in horrific detail the Terror in their city under Carrier. This trial was critical in hardening public opinion against the Jacobins,16 October - The Convention bans any correspondence and affiliations between clubs, effectively outlawing the nationwide network of Jacobin clubs. 17 October 1794 - The trial of the 94 Nantais ends with their acquittal, the Convention imposes martial law in Paris and decides that the arrested Jacobins Barère, Billaud-Varenne, Vadier and Collot-dHerbois should be deported to Guyana without a trial. 5 April 1795 - the Convention issues arrest warrants for a number of left-wing deputies, including Cambon, Levasseur de la Sarthe, Thuriot and Lecointre. August–October 1794 - newly freed press allows right-wing papers in Paris to call for revenge on the Jacobins, gave instructions for action and pointed out prominent Terrorist targets. In the provinces, Thermidorean représentants en mission opened the prisons and stirred up calls for revenge on Jacobins - Boisset at Bourg, Goupilleau at Avignon and Auguis and they broke up local Jacobin committees and imprisoned many associated with them
5. Insurrection of 12 Germinal, Year III – The insurrection of 12 Germinal Year III was a popular revolt in Paris on 1 April 1795 against the policies of the Thermidorian Convention. It was provoked by poverty and hunger resulting from the abandonment of the economy after dismantling of the Revolutionary Government during Thermidorian Reaction. The abandonment of the controlled economy provoked an economic catastrophe. Prices soared and the rate of exchange fell, the Republic was condemned to massive inflation and its currency was ruined. In Thermidor, Year III, assignats were worth less than 3 percent of their face value, neither peasants nor merchants would accept anything but cash. The debacle was so swift that economic life seemed to come to standstill, the insurmountable obstacles raised by the premature reestablishment of economic freedom reduced the government to a state of extreme weakness. Lacking resources, it became almost incapable of administration, and the crisis generated troubles that nearly brought its collapse. The sans-cullots, who had permitted the Jacobins to be proscribed, began to regret the regime of the Year II, now that they themselves without work. The Thermidorians accused the Montagnards of pushing them to revolt in desperation, on 17 March delegation from faubourgs Saint-Marceau and Saint-Jacques complained that, «We are on the verge of regretting all the sacrifices that we have made for the Revolution». Police law was passed which lay down the death penalty for use of seditious language, arms were distributed to the good citizen, the faithful nucleus of the National Guard. On 12 Germinal, the session of the Convention was interrupted by a crowd which invaded the chamber with cries of Bread, Bread. and created a prolong uproar. The demonstration finally allowed themselves to be persuaded, by the Montagnards themselves, to march past the bar and evacuate the chamber. In point of fact, it is impossible to talk of an insurrection organized by the sections, on the thirteenth, the agitation continued at the Quinze-Vingts. The main consequence of the insurrection was to still further the political reaction. The Assembly immediately voted the deportation of Collot, Billaud, the main weight of repression fell on the sans-cullots. A state of siege was declared in Paris and many of the leaders were arrested. Under pressure from the Sections, the Assembly, on 10 April, ordered the disarming, in Paris and it is estimated that only in Paris about 1,600 sans-culottes were affected by the measure. In the provinces the decree of 10 April was often the signal for the arrest, in Lyons and the south-east it probably helped to set off the prison massacres for which it designated the victims
6. National Convention – The National Convention was the third government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic. The Convention sat as an assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by a suffrage without distinctions of class, although the Convention lasted until 1795, power was effectively stripped from the elected deputies and concentrated in the small Committee of Public Safety from April 1793. After the fall of Robespierre, the Convention lasted for year until a new constitution was written. The election took place from 2 to 6 September 1792 after the election of the colleges by primary assemblies on 26 August. Therefore, the increased suffrage had very little impact, the electorate returned the same sort of men that the active citizens had chosen in 1791. In the whole of France, only eleven primary assemblies wanted to retain the monarchy, of the electoral assemblies, all tacitly voted for a republic – though only Paris used the word. None of the deputies stood as a royalist for elections, out of the five million Frenchmen able to vote, only a million showed up at the polls. The Salle des Machines had galleries for the public who often influenced the debates with interruptions or applause, the members of the Convention came from all classes of society, but the most numerous were lawyers. 75 members had sat in the National Constituent Assembly,183 in the Legislative Assembly, the full number of deputies was 749, not counting 33 from the French colonies, of whom only some arrived in Paris in time. Besides these, however, the newly formed départements annexed to France from 1792 to 1795 were allowed to send deputations, according to its own ruling, the Convention elected its President every fortnight, and the outgoing President was eligible for re-election after the lapse of a fortnight. Ordinarily the sessions were held in the morning, but evening sessions also occurred frequently, sometimes in exceptional circumstances the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat for several days without interruption. For both legislative and administrative the Convention used committees, with more or less widely extended and regulated by successive laws. The most famous of these included the Committee of Public Safety. The Convention held legislative and executive powers during the first years of the French First Republic and had three periods, Girondin, Montagnard or Jacobin, and Thermidorian. The abolition of the royalty is a matter you cannot put off till tomorrow, the first session was held on 20 September 1792. The following day, amidst profound silence, the proposition was put to the assembly, on the 22nd came the news of the Battle of Valmy
7. Paris Commune (French Revolution) – The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, the Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795. In 1792, the Commune was dominated by those Jacobins who were not in the Legislative Assembly due to the Self-Denying Ordinance, the all-powerful Commune demanded custody of the royal family, imprisoning them in the Temple fortress. A list of opponents of the Revolution was drawn up, the gates to the city were sealed, the government of the republic was succeeded by the French Directory in November 1795
8. Revolt of 1 Prairial Year III – The insurrection of 1 Prairial Year III was a popular revolt in Paris on 20 May 1795 against the policies of the Thermidorian Convention. It was the last and one of the most remarkable and stubborn popular revolts of the French Revolution, after their defeat in Prairial, the sans-culottes ceased to play any effective part until the next round of revolutions in the early nineteenth century. The abandonment of the controlled economy provoked an economic catastrophe. Prices soared and the rate of exchange fell, the Republic was condemned to massive inflation and its currency was ruined. In Thermidor, Year III, assignats were worth less than 3 percent of their face value, neither peasants nor merchants would accept anything but coin. The debacle was so swift that economic life seemed to come to standstill, the insurmountable obstacles raised by the premature reestablishment of economic freedom reduced the government to a state of extreme weakness. Lacking resources, it became almost incapable of administration, and the crisis generated troubles that nearly brought its collapse. The sans-culottes, who had permitted the Jacobins to be proscribed, began to regret the regime of the Year II, now that they themselves without work. A pamphlet, published in the evening of 30 Floreal and entitled Insurrection of the People to obtain bread and reconquer their right, gave the signal for the movement. This pamphlet, which was known as The Plan of Insurrection, provided the popular agitators with definite objectives, the people were asked to march in a body to the Convention on 1 Preirial. There can be no doubt about the preparation of the insurrection by the sans-culottes leaders, as early as 29 Germinal, Rovère had reported a plot to the Convention. As for the deputies of the Left, their attitude on the first of Prairial showed that they looked favorably on the movement, early on 1 Prairial the tocsin was sounded in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine and in the Jardin des Plantes. Once more, as in October 1789, it was the women took the initiative. In the Faubourg du Nord they called the men out from the workshops at 7 oclock in the morning, there were food riots and assemblies of women at bakers shops in Popincourt, Gravilliers, and Droits de lHomme. As they marched, they compelled women in shops and private houses, and other riding in carriages, to join them. They reached the Place du Carrousel, in front of the Tuileries, at 2 oclock, pinned to their hats, bonnets, thus equipped, they burst into the assembly-hall, but were quickly ejected. They returned with armed groups of the National Guard an hour later, meanwhile, a general call to arms had been sounded in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, men quickly armed and prepared to follow the women to the Tuileries. A similar movements began in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel and in the central sections, in some cases, a minority of insurgents forced the doors of the armories, distributed arms to their comrades, and compelled their commanders to lead them to the Convention
9. Revolution Controversy – The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795. A pamphlet war began in earnest after the publication of Edmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France, because he had supported the American colonists in their rebellion against England, his views sent a shock-wave through the country. Many writers responded, defending the revolution in France, among them Thomas Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft, alfred Cobban calls the debate that erupted perhaps the last real discussion of the fundamentals of politics in Britain. The themes articulated by those responding to Burke would become a feature of the radical working-class movement in Britain in the nineteenth century. Most Britons celebrated the storming of the Bastille in 1789, believing that Frances monarchy should be curtailed by a democratic form of government. However, by December 1795, after the Reign of Terror and war with France, when he failed to do so, it shocked the populace and angered his friends and supporters. Burkes book sold 30,000 copies in two years, the Reflections defended the aristocratic concepts of paternalism, loyalty, chivalry, the hereditary principle and property. Burke criticized the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French Revolution and he viewed the French Revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government, contending that citizens do not have the right to overthrow their government. Civilizations and governments, he maintained, are the result of social and political consensus, liberals such as William Godwin, Thomas Paine, and Mary Wollstonecraft argued for republicanism, agrarian socialism, and anarchism. Many of their works were published by Joseph Johnson, who was jailed for his seditious activities. Wollstonecraft had been influenced by the ideas she ingested from Prices sermons at Newington Green Unitarian Church. These seeds germinated into A Vindication of the Rights of Men, wollstonecrafts most famous work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written in 1792, in the spirit of rationalism extending Prices arguments about equality to women. Butler, Marilyn, ed. Burke, Paine, Godwin, Vindication, A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft
10. Revolutionary sections of Paris – The revolutionary sections of Paris were subdivisions of Paris during the French Revolution. They first arose in 1790 and were suppressed in 1795, at the time of the Revolution, Paris measured 3440 hectares, compared to the 7800 hectares of today. It was bounded to the west by the place de lÉtoile, to the east by the cimetière du Père-Lachaise, to the north by place de Clichy, under the Ancien Régime, the city had been divided into 21 quartiers. In 1789, with a view to elections to the Estates General, by a decree of 21 May 1790, sanctioned by King Louis XVI on 27 June, the National Constituent Assembly created 48 sections to replace the 60 districts. Each section was made up of a committee, a revolutionary committee. After the Thermidorian Reaction on 27 July 1794, the sections still played an important role in suppressing the popular uprisings, in 1795, however, they were suppressed by the French Directory, which renamed the areas covered by sections as divisions, then quartiers. Each section was headed by a committee of 16 members. From 1792 onwards, the sections occupied themselves permanently with political questions, at the end of July 1792, the Parisians decided to abolish the distinction between active citizens and passive citizens. As a result the sections assemblies sat permanently and became the organ of the sans-culottes. After the Brunswick Manifesto they demanded the deposition of the king, on 9 August 1792 each section delegated commissioners elected by the active and passive citizens, as a replacement for the municipalité of Paris. There were 52 of these commissioners in total and they triggered the events of 10 August 1792, putting an end to the monarchy and giving rise to the Revolutionary Commune of Paris. Set up by a law of 21 March 1793, the task of the sections revolutionary committees was surveillance on foreigners without interfering in the lives of French citizens. Their activities towards that end were enabled by the Law of Suspects of 17 September 1793 and they also had the power to make lists and issue arrest warrants. They also had the right to deliver citizenship certificates, all in establishing a correspondence with the Committee of General Security. Pariss armed force was headed by a commander in chief and divided into 6 legions, the troops of each section had their own commander in chief, second in command and adjutant-major. The companies were made up of 120 to 130 men, being bigger or smaller according to their sections population, a company was commanded by a captain, a lieutenant and two sous-lieutenants. Each section also had a company of artillery, in the Thermidorian Reaction of 27 July 1794, during the fall of Maximilien Robespierre,18 companies had been sent to the front by order of Lazare Carnot. Of the 30 remaining companies, three were used to keep order – at the National Convention, the Arsenal, and the Temple, seventeen remaining companies replied to the Communes appeal during the night of 27–28 July 1794
11. Revolutionary Tribunal – It was composed of a jury, a public prosecutor, and two substitutes, all nominated by the Convention, and from its judgments there was no appeal. Herman as president and Fouquier-Tinville as public prosecutor, the tribunal terrorized the royalists, soon, too, it came to be used for personal ends, particularly by Robespierre, who employed it for the condemnation of his adversaries. Although Robespierre was the principal purveyor of the tribunal, we possess only one of these lists bearing his signature, the Revolutionary Tribunal was suppressed on 31 May 1795. Among its most celebrated victims may be mentioned Marie Antoinette, the Hebertists, » This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed