Category:17th-century BC establishments in Egypt
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Abydos Dynasty (1 C, 2 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Ancient Egypt – Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations to arise independently, Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander the Greats death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter and this Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture, the predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world and its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history, nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were covered in treed savanna and traversed by herds of grazing ungulates, foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when many animals were first domesticated. The largest of these cultures in upper Egypt was the Badari, which probably originated in the Western Desert, it was known for its high quality ceramics, stone tools. The Badari was followed by the Amratian and Gerzeh cultures, which brought a number of technological improvements, as early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East, particularly Canaan, establishing a power center at Hierakonpolis, and later at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile. They also traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the desert to the west. Royal Nubian burials at Qustul produced artifacts bearing the oldest-known examples of Egyptian dynastic symbols, such as the crown of Egypt. They also developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines. During the last predynastic phase, the Naqada culture began using written symbols that eventually were developed into a system of hieroglyphs for writing the ancient Egyptian language. The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contemporary to the early Sumerian-Akkadian civilisation of Mesopotamia, the third-century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties, a system still used today
2. Abydos Dynasty – The Abydos Dynasty is hypothesized to have been a short-lived local dynasty ruling over parts of Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt. The Abydos Dynasty would have been contemporaneous with the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties, the existence of an Abydos Dynasty was first proposed by Detlef Franke and later elaborated on by Kim Ryholt in 1997. Additionally, Wepwawetemsaf, Pantjeny and Snaaib, another king of the period, are known from single stelae discovered in Abydos. Finally, Ryholt argues that the existence of an Abydos Dynasty would explain 16 entries of the Turin canon at the end of the 16th Dynasty. If Senebkay indeed belongs to the Abydos Dynasty, his tomb might signal the royal necropolis of this dynasty, the existence of an Abydos Dynasty is not agreed by all scholars. Thus if the Abydos Dynasty did exist, this workshop would have been producing stelae for two enemy dynasties, something which he judges to be rather unlikely. It remains unclear however, whether these two dynasties ever coexisted at any one time, for instance, in Ryholts reconstruction of the Second Intermediate Period, at the opposite, he wonders whether Senebkay might be a king of the Theban 16th Dynasty. If the Abydos Dynasty was indeed a dynasty, the seat of its power would probably have been either Abydos or Thinis. A possible graffito of Wepwawetemsaf was discovered by Karl Richard Lepsius in the tomb BH2 of the 12th Dynasty nomarch Amenemhat at Beni Hasan, about 250 km North of Abydos, in Middle Egypt. If the attribution of this graffito is correct and if Wepwawetemsaf did belong to the Abydos Dynasty, since the dynasty was contemporaneous with the 16th Dynasty, the territory under Abydene control could not have extended farther than Hu,50 km south of Abydos
3. 17th century BC – C.1700 BC, Minoan Old Palace period ends and Minoan Second Palace period starts in Ancient Greece. C.1700 BC, beginning of the Late Minoan period on Crete, C.1700 BC, Aegean metalworkers are producing decorative objects rivaling those of Ancient Near East jewelers, whose techniques they seem to borrow. C.1700 BC, Lila-Ir-Tash started to rule the Elamite Empire, C.1700 BC,1450 BC, Young girl gathering saffron crocus flowers, detail of wall painting, Room 3 of House Xeste 3, Akrotiri, Thera, is made. It is now kept in Thera Foundation, Petros M. Nomikos, C.1700 BC, Bronze Age starts in China. C.1698 BC, Lila-Ir-Tash the ruler of the Elamite Empire died, Temti-Agun I started to rule the Elamite Empire. 1691 BC, Belu-bani, the King of Assyria died, C.1690 BC, Temti-Agun I, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, died. Tan-Uli started to rule the Elamite Empire,1690 BC, Libaia became the King of Assyria. C.1680 BC, Egypt, Development of leavened bread,1675 BC, Tang of Shang, first ruler of the Shang Dynasty becomes ruler in China. C.1673 BC, Sharma-Adad I became the King of Assyria, C.1661 BC, Iptar-Sin became the King of Assyria. C.1655 BC, Tan-Uli, the ruler of the Elamite Empire,1633 BC—May 2—Lunar Saros 34 begins. 1627 BC, Beginning of a cooling of world climate lasting several years recorded in all over the world. It might have been caused by the Minoan eruption of Thera or the Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius,1625 BC, Samsu-Ditana becomes King of Babylon. 1621 BC, Lullaia becomes the King of Assyria,1620 BC, Mursili I becomes King of the Hittite Empire. 1615 BC, Shu-Ninua became the King of Assyria, jie, The last ruler of Xia Dynasty, ruled China for 52 years until 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. 1686 BC—Hammurabi 1684 BC—Heremon, Irish legend The last known population of mammoth, preserved on Wrangel Island. See, List of sovereign states in the 17th century BC