Category:17th-century Dutch cartographers
Pages in category "17th-century Dutch cartographers"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Joan Blaeu – Joan Blaeu was a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu. In 1620 he became a doctor of law but he joined the work of his father, in 1635 they published the Atlas Novus in two volumes. Joan and his brother Cornelius took over the studio after their father died in 1638, Joan became the official cartographer of the Dutch East India Company. Blaeus world map, Nova et Accuratissima Terrarum Orbis Tabula, incorporating the discoveries of Abel Tasman, was published in 1648 and this map was revolutionary in that it depicts the solar system according to the heliocentric theories of Nicolaus Copernicus, which show the earth revolving around the sun. Blaeus map was copied for the map of the set into the pavement of the Groote Burger-Zaal of the new Amsterdam Town Hall, designed by the Dutch architect Jacob van Campen. As Jean Blaeu, he published the 12 volume Le Grand Atlas, ou Cosmographie blaviane, en laquelle est exactement descritte la terre, la mer. That was folio, and contained 593 engraved maps and plates, in March 2015, a copy was on sale for £750,000. Around 1649 Joan Blaeu published a collection of Dutch city maps named Toonneel der Steeden, in 1651 he was voted into the Amsterdam council. In 1654 Joan published the first atlas of Scotland, devised by Timothy Pont, in 1662 he reissued the Atlas Novus, also known as Atlas Maior, in 11 volumes, and one for oceans. A cosmology was planned as their project, but a fire destroyed the studio completely in 1672. Joan Blaeu died in Amsterdam the following year and he is buried in the Westerkerk there. Blaeu and Joan Blaeu, Houten, Hes & De Graaf publishers BV, ISBN 90-6194-438-4 BROTTON, Jerry, A History of the World in Twelve Maps, London, utrecht University Arader Galleries Collection of Maps from Blaeus Atlas Major. Brazil map by Joan Blaeu, Amsterdam 1650 Plan of Delft from Joan Blaeu Town book, Amsterdam 1660 Blaeu on the Dutch map Jonathan Potter Maps
2. Hessel Gerritsz – Hessel Gerritsz was a Dutch engraver, cartographer and publisher. Gerritsz moved with Blaeu’s workshop to Amsterdam, where he married Geertje Gijsberts of Alkmaar in 1607, Geertje would die before 1624, when Hessel remarried. By 1610 he had a workshop on his own. Many of his engravings and maps made it into the atlases of Blaeu, Janssonius, in 1613, Gerritsz wrote and published a “History of the land named Spitsbergen”, describing the discovery, early voyages and whaling activities on these islands. This volume also showcases Gerritszs considerable talents as an engraver, another example of an engraving is his often reproduced 1619 posthumous portrait of the playwright Bredero. He got the position on recommendation of Petrus Plancius, chief scientist of the VOC, Gerritsz kept this post until his death, after which the position was held by the Blaeu family, starting with Willem Jansz, until 1705. Hessel Gerritszs map of 1622 showed the first part of Australia to be charted, if this be so, then the land from 9 to 14 degrees would be a separate land, different from the other New Guinea. All charts and logs from returning VOC merchants and explorers sailors had to be submitted to Gerritsz, in return Gerritsz’ charts accompanied all VOC captains on their voyages. Hessel Gerritsz published in Amsterdam in 1612 a Dutch translation of the memorial of Quiros. This is believed to be the earliest occurrence in print of the word Australia outside Spain, the publication of 1612 referred to included Isaac Massas description of Siberia, his short account of the roads from Muscovy, and the memorial mentioned. It included three maps, one of which was a map of the world by Gerritsz, in which Torres Strait is clearly shown. In 1618 Gerritsz produced a chart of the Indonesian islands, far better represented than on earlier efforts, and, for the first time, in 1622 he bundled many of his maps in a map book for the VOC. This map book included a 1622 map of the Pacific, probably the Map of the Great South Sea that Abel Tasman consulted extensively on his voyage around Australia and to New Zealand in 1642. In 1627 Gerritsz made a map, the Caert vant Landt van dEendracht, Australia is called “Eendrachtsland”, a name given by Dirk Hartog after his stay on its coast in 1616, and which would be in use until the end of the 17th century. In 1628, he added the 1627 charting of Australia’s South coast by François Thijssen to the map mentioned above, Gerritsz’ interest in the New World was so extensive that, unusual for a cartographer in his position, he joined on a 1628/29 voyage to Brazil and the Caribbean. He contributed the maps of Joannes de Laet’s Beschrijvinghe van West-Indiën published in 1630, especially his map of Florida, based on French and Spanish sources, became influential. In 1632 Hessel Gerritsz died, he was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk on September 4, Willem Janszoon Blaeu would take his place as cartographer of the VOC in January of the following year
3. Pieter Goos – Pieter Goos was a Dutch cartographer, copperplate engraver, publisher and bookseller. He was the son of Abraham Goos, also a cartographer, from 1666, Pieter Goos published a number of well produced atlases. He was the first to map Christmas Island, which he labelled Mony in his map of the East Indies and his Atlas ofte Water-Weereld has been cited as one of the best maritime atlases of its time. Another of his works was the Oost Indien map published in 1680. Goos was born in 1616 into a family in Amsterdam. His father, Abraham, was an established cartographer having published globes as well as land and his mother was Stijntgen Theunisdr de Ram. In Antwerp, his father had associated with Jodocus Hondius and Johannes Janssonius, Goos followed in his footsteps, first creating pilot books and then moving into global sea atlases to assist navigation. His son, Henrik, followed in the tradition of cartography. Goos operated from Amsterdam, which was the point of cartography. The Dutch maps were very detailed, colourful and attractive, pilot books, which contained a large number of navigation charts, were published by many authors, including Goos. These were called the Dutch pilot books and remained valid for the period from 1643 to 1680, Goos was also instrumental in publishing the first pilot book for coastlines outside Europe. A further improvement over the books in Dutch cartography was the publication of sea atlases covering the whole world. Initiated in 1659 by Doncker, the approach was adopted by Goos from 1666. One of his works is named le grand & nouveau miroir ou flambeau de la mer. In the same year, Goos published The Lighting Colomne or Sea-Mirrour, which not only contained nautical charts, the maps of Goos and Gerard van Kuelen were used exclusively during the eighteenth century until 1740. Goos famous world map titled Atlas ofte Water-Weereld was in two parts, one for each hemisphere, the colourful presentation included the two poles. His maritime maps encompassed not only Europe, Great Britain and Ireland but also the North Sea, the Zee Atlas covered the English Channel, the Mediterranean and the Arctic Ocean as well as the Indian and Pacific Oceans. He also published regional maps covering the areas of all the continents, facilitating navigation by including details of sandbars, sea depths
4. Jan Janssonius – Johannes Janssonius was a Dutch cartographer and publisher who lived and worked in Amsterdam in the 17th century. Janssonius was born in Arnhem, the son of Jan Janszoon the Elder, in 1612 he married Elisabeth de Hondt, the daughter of Jodocus Hondius. He produced his first maps in 1616 of France and Italy, in 1623 Janssonius owned a bookstore in Frankfurt am Main, later also in Danzig, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Berlin, Königsberg, Geneva and Lyon. Elisabeth Hondius died in 1627 and he remarried one Elisabeth Carlier in 1629, in the 1630s he formed a partnership with his brother in law Henricus Hondius, and together they published atlases as Mercator/Hondius/Janssonius. Under the leadership of Janssonius the Hondius Atlas was steadily enlarged, renamed Atlas Novus, it had three volumes in 1638, one fully dedicated to Italy. 1646 a fourth volume came out with English County Maps, a year after an issue by Willem Blaeu. Janssonius maps are similar to those of Blaeu, and he is accused of copying from his rival. By 1660, at point the atlas bore the appropriate name Atlas Major, there were 11 volumes. It included a description of most of the cities of the world, of the waterworld, the eleventh volume was the Atlas of the Heavens by Andreas Cellarius. Editions were printed in Dutch, Latin, French, and a few times in German, after Janssoniuss death, the publishing company was continued by his son-in law, Johannes van Waesbergen. The London bookseller Moses Pitt attempted publication of the Atlas Major in English, Sueciæ, Norvegiæ et Daniæ Nova Tabula, Amsterdam c. Tabula exactissima Regnorum Sueciæ et Norvegiæ, which replaced Hondius II1613 Episcopatum Stavangriensis, Bergensis et Asloiensis Amsterdam 1636–1642, the first map to show the Oslo Fjord by name. This map shows Southern Norway with the Stavanger bishopric and the area of the Bergen. Peter van der Krogt, Koemans atlantes Neerlandici, Vol
5. Petrus Plancius – Petrus Plancius was a Flemish/Dutch/Netherlandish astronomer, cartographer and clergyman. He was born as Pieter Platevoet in Dranouter, now in Heuvelland and he studied theology in Germany and England. At the age of 24 he became a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church, because of fear of religious prosecution by the Inquisition Plancius fled from Brussels to Amsterdam after the city fell into Spanish hands in 1585. He strongly believed in the idea of a North East passage through North America until the failure of Willem Barentszs third voyage in 1597 seemed to preclude the possibility of such a route. In 1592 Plancius published his best known world map titled Nova et exacta Terrarum Tabula geographica et hydrographica, apart from maps, he published journals and navigational guides and developed a new method for determining longitude. He also introduced the Mercator projection for navigational maps, Plancius was one of the founders of the Dutch East India Company for which he drew over 100 maps. Plancius was closely acquainted with Henry Hudson, an explorer of the New World, in 1589 Plancius collaborated with the Amsterdam cartographer Jacob Floris van Langren on a 32. In 1595 Plancius asked Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, the pilot on the Hollandia. Also notable is the inclusion of Achernar as Alpha Eridani, in 1612 Plancius introduced the following eight constellations on a 26. Of the latter constellations, only Camelopardalis and Monoceros are still found on modern star charts, the minor planet 10648 Plancius commemorates his contributions in celestial and terrestrial cartography
6. Claes Jansz. Visscher – Claes Janszoon Visscher was a Dutch Golden Age draughtsman, engraver, mapmaker and publisher. Visscher, who was born and died in Amsterdam, was known as Nicolas Joannes Piscator or Nicolas Joannis Visscher II. He learned the art of etching and printing from his father and it was a family business, Nicolaes Visscher I, and Nicolaes Visscher II were also mapmakers in Amsterdam on the Kalverstraat. This became a successful family business, with collaboration with many respected draughtsmen of the day. A new translation of the bible was underway in the Netherlands, and until then, though probably not a relative, his bible translation was accepted by the Dutch Staten-General in 1602, which only lent more publicity and authenticity to the Fisher name. The trademark of the Visschers was a fisherman, after their name, a small fisherman would be strategically placed somewhere near water. If the subject was a landscape without a stream or pond and their map plates were reused for a century by other printers who unknowingly copied the entire plates, including the tell-tale fishermen. Observant scholars are able to trace the provenance of bibles, maps. Aside from bibles, Claes Visscher II primarily etched and published landscapes, portraits and he etched over 200 plates and his maps included elaborate original borders. He was a publisher of prints by Esaias van de Velde, and David Vinckboons, Claes Jansz Visscher with some etchings in the Rijksmuseum Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Claes Jansz. Visscher Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Drawings and Prints, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on Claes Jansz
7. Nicolaes Visscher I – Nicolaes Visscher I was a Dutch engraver, cartographer and publisher. He was the son of Claes Janszoon Visscher and his son, Nicolaes Visscher II, also worked with him and continued the family tradition of mapmaking after his death. Visscher died in Amsterdam in 1679 and was buried in the Nieuwezijds Kapel on 11 September of that year and his engraved double hemisphere map, Orbis Terrarum Nova et Accuratissima Tabula, was created in 1658 in Amsterdam. It also contains smaller northern and southern polar projections, the border is decorated with mythological scenes, one in each corner, drawn by the painter Nicolaes Berchem, showing Zeus, Neptune, Persephone and Demeter. It is an example of highly decorated Dutch world maps
8. Frederik de Wit – Frederick de Wit was a cartographer and artist who drew, printed and sold maps. On maps his name is also written Frederic, Frederik, Frederico and his surname is also written as de Witt and de Widt. He was born in Gouda and died in Amsterdam, Frederick de Wit was born Frederick Hendricksz or Frederick son of Hendrick. He was born to a Protestant family in 1629/30, in Gouda and his father Hendrick Fredericsz was a hechtmaecker from Amsterdam, and his mother Neeltij Joosten was the daughter of a merchant in Gouda. Frederick was married on August 29,1661, to Maria van der Way, from ca.1648 until his death at the end of July 1706, Frederick de Wit lived and worked in Amsterdam. Frederick and Maria had seven children, but only one Franciscus Xaverius survived them, by 1648, during the height of the Dutch Golden Age, De Wit had moved from Gouda to Amsterdam. As early as 1654 he had opened an office and shop under the name “De Drie Crabben” which was also the name of his house on the Kalverstraat. In 1655, De Wit changed the name of his shop to the “Witte Pascaert”, under this name De Wit and his firm became internationally known. The first charts engraved by De Wit were published in 1654 under the “De Drie Crabben” address, the first map that was both engraved and dated by De Wit was that of Denmark, REGNI DANIÆ Accuratissima delineatio Perfeckte Kaerte van ‘t CONJNCKRYCK DENEMARCKEN. in 1659. His first world maps, NOVA TOTIUS TERRARUM ORBIS TABULA AUCTORE F, DE WIT. and Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula appeared around 1660. His Atlas began to appear around 1662 and by 1671 included anywhere from 17 to 151 maps each, in the 1690s he began to use a new title page Atlas Maior but continued to use his old title page. His atlas of the Low Countries first published in 1667, was named Nieuw Kaertboeck van de XVII Nederlandse Provinciën and contained 14 to 25 maps. De Wit quickly expanded upon his first small folio atlas which contained mostly maps printed from plates that he had acquired, by 1671 he was publishing a large folio atlas with as many as 100 maps. Smaller atlases of 17 or 27 or 51 maps could still be purchased and by the mid-1670s an atlas of as many as 151 maps and his atlases cost between 7 and 20 Guilders depending on the number of maps, color and the quality of binding. In ca.1675 De Wit released a new nautical atlas, the charts in this atlas replaced the earlier charts from 1664 that are known today in only four bound examples and a few loose copies. De Wit’s new charts were sold in a book and as part of his atlases. De Wit published no fewer than 158 land maps and 43 charts on separate folio sheets, in 1695 De Wit began to publish a town atlas of the Netherlands after he acquired a large number of city plans at the auction of the famous Blaeu publishing firm’s printing plates. Dating De Wits atlases is considered difficult because usually no dates were recorded on the maps and their dates of publication extended over many years
9. Jodocus Hondius – Jodocus Hondius was a Flemish/Dutch/Netherlandish engraver and cartographer. He is sometimes called Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his son Jodocus Hondius II, Hondius is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. One of the representatives in the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography. Hondius was born in Wakken and grew up in Ghent, in his early years he established himself as an engraver, instrument maker and globe maker. In 1584 he moved to London to escape religious difficulties in Flanders, while in England, Hondius was instrumental in publicizing the work of Francis Drake, who had made a circumnavigation of the world in the late 1570s. In particular, in 1589 Hondius produced a now famous map of the bay of New Albion, Hondius is also thought to be the artist of several well-known portraits of Drake that are now in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1593 he moved to Amsterdam, where he remained until the end of his life, in co-operation with the Amsterdam publisher Cornelis Claesz. in 1604 he purchased the plates of Gerard Mercators Atlas from Mercators grandson. Mercators work had languished in comparison to the rival Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius, Hondius republished Mercators work with 36 additional maps, including several which he himself had produced. Despite the addition of his own contributions, Hondius gave Mercator full credit as the author of the work, hondiuss new edition of Mercators work was a great success, selling out after a year. Hondius later published an edition, as well as a pocket version Atlas Minor. The maps have become known as the Mercator/Hondius series. In the French edition of the Atlas Minor we find one of the first instances of a map using map symbols. This is a map entitled Designatio orbis christiani showing the dispersion of major religions, between 1605 and 1610 he was employed by John Speed to engrave the plates for Speeds The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. Hondius died, aged 48, in Amsterdam, eventually, starting with the first 1606 edition in Latin, about 50 editions of the Atlas were released in the main European languages. In the Islamic world, the atlas was partially translated by the Turkish scholar Kâtip Çelebi, the series is sometimes called the Mercator/Hondius/Janssonius series because of Janssoniuss later contributions. Hondiuss Mappa Aestivarum Insularum, alias Barmudas dictarum. is a map of Bermuda. Shortly afterwards the Bermudas were granted to the Virginia Company, hence references to the Company on the map including the distance to the Roanoke Colony in Virginia. The miniature map with its own scale, top left, shows the position relative to the Virginian coast
10. Pieter van den Keere – Pieter van den Keere was a Dutch engraver, publisher and globe maker. He was born in Ghent, and in 1584 moved with his family for reasons to London. His sister, Collette, who immigrated with van den Keere married Jodocus Hondius three years later, in London, van den Keere received training as an engraver from Jodocus Hondius, his brother-in-law. In 1593, both Keere and Hondius settled in Amsterdam, after 1630, there are few details of his life. The dating of some plates for John Speeds Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World of 1646 indicates that he was still alive then, from his time in England there is a map of Ireland from 1592, Hyberniae novissima descriptio. It was published by Hondius and served as a model for later editions of the Theatrum of Abraham Ortelius, Keere also contributed to John Nordens Speculum Britanniae of 1593. For Willem Barents Keere engraved plates for Caertboeck Vande Middel-landsche Zee and he also worked with Petrus Bertius, Cornelis Claesz, Petrus Plancius, the House of Visscher, and Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer. In 1595, there appeared a large map of Europe in 10 sheets. From 1603, Keere began creating large urban panoramas, including Utrecht, Cologne, Amsterdam, around 1604, he was preparing the publication of the atlas Germania Inferior id est Provincuarum XVII. This first appeared in 1617, with a foreword by Petrus Montanus, a series of 44 plates for the British Isles, from about 1599, took a long time to publish. They were based on Christopher Saxton, Ortelius, and Giovanni Battista Boazio, respectively for England and Wales, Scotland and they appeared in 1617 in a Latin edition of the Britannia of William Camden, by Willem Blaeu. Later, these came to William Humble or George Humble who issued them in 1627 as a miniature version of the atlas of John Speed. Thereby van den Keeres works came by the name Miniature Speeds, for these he used the descriptive texts of the larger Speed maps and thereafter they were known as Miniature Speeds. Moreland and Bannister also write that of the 63 maps in the Atlas,40 were from the van den Keere plates. Biblioteca Nacional de España, Complete atlas 1622 Scroll to Ver Obra California State Library, Sutro Branch, San Francisco, USA, Nova Toitus Orbis Mappa, Ex Optimus Auctoribus Desmuta, c. nl Hollandia Novus XVII Inferioris Zeeland
11. Johan Sems – Johan Sems, sometimes known as Johan Semp, was a Dutch cartographer, engineer and land surveyor. He specialized in land reclamation and the building of dikes and fortifications, Sems was born in Franeker in 1572 to Sem IJsbrandts and Claesgen Adriaens. Sem IJsbrandts registered himself as a student at Leiden University, the family lived on the Marendorp Landzijde on the corner of the Lange Hooglandse Kerksteeg in Leiden. IJsbrandts committed suicide in 1584 due to alcoholism, Johan Sems did not go to university himself. He had probably learned his skills in practice, little is known about his children. Timeline In 1599, Sems became a merchant in Leeuwarden. 1600, The book Practijck des lantmetens, a written by Sems. The book was used at the school started by Simon Stevin. 1602, Sems was appointed surveyor of Friesland. 1603, Sems made a map of Leeuwarden, which was engraved by Pieter Bast. 1604-1608, Sems had the supervision over the building of the fortifications at Bourtange, Delfzijl, Sems bought several buildings in the city center of Leeuwarden. Around 1610 Sems moved to Bunde in Germany and he bought land in the Bunder Neuland,1615, Sems and Johan de la Haye determined the exact location of the border between Groningen and Drenthe, the Semslinie. They took the Martini tower as a point, but later measurements have shown that it would miss the Martini tower by 532 meters. 1616, From April 30 Sems was involved in land reclamation at Bredstedt, later that year he designed the Christianshavn on Amager. 1618, On January 6, while he was in Denmark,1621, Sems was back in Bunder Neuland. There were disputes between the Staten Generaal and Enno III, Count of East Frisia, about who had the rights in the polder, ca 1623, Sems was appointed dijkgraaf in the Bunder Neuland. In 1623 Jacob Matham produced an engraving of him, based on a portrait by Martin Faber,1623, Sems lived in Groningen and his book De arithmetische fundamenten was published in Emden. 1625, The polder at Bredstedt was swept away by the sea during a storm,1626, Sems was given the task to map the area north of Pieterburen
12. Nicolaes Witsen – Nicolaes Witsen was a Dutch statesman who was mayor of Amsterdam thirteen times, between 1682-1706. In 1693 he became administrator of the VOC, in 1689 he was extraordinary-ambassador to the English court, and became Fellow of the Royal Society. In his free time he was cartographer, maritime writer, and his books on the subject are important sources on Dutch shipbuilding in the 17th century. Furthermore, he was an expert on Russian affairs and he was the first to describe Siberia, Far East and Central Asia in his study Noord en Oost Tartarye. Nicolaes Witsen was born in Amsterdam, the son of Cornelis Jan Witsen, burgomaster, head bailiff, in 1656 Nicolaes went with his father to England, where he was introduced to Oliver Cromwells children. In 1664 and 1665 Nicolaes made an embassy to Moscovia with the envoy Jacob Boreel, by boat they went to Riga, then Swedish, and over land to Novgorod and Moscow. There he met with Andrew Vinius, who became his life long friend, sending him maps, the talks with czar Alexis of Russia about a monopoly on tar were no success. Witsen wrote in his diary that there was occupied with art or science. Witsen visited the Patriarch Nikon and made notes on the worship of icons and he studied law at Leiden University, but became more interested in languages and maps. In the 1666-1667 Witsen traveled to Rome and met with Cosimo III de Medici in Pisa, in Paris he met the scientist Melchisédech Thévenot. In 1668 he travelled to Oxford, in 1674 he married Catherina Hochepied. Four children were born, not surviving childhood, Witsen wrote Aeloude and hedendaegsche Scheepsbouw en Bestier in 1671, which quickly became seen as the standard work on the subject. Even an anatomist like Steno read the book, the technique Witsen describes is shell-first, and not frame-first. The book is not easy to read, because of misty wording and the chaotic structure and it can be compared with Doctrine for Naval Architecture by fellow-shipbuilder Anthony Dean, a mayor of Harwich and also a mentor of Peter the Great. It led to a correspondence between him and Peter the Great on modernising the Imperial Russian Navy, then backward by Western European standards. This led to an order for warships from Amsterdam shipyards in return for an ukase on Dutch-Russian trade, guaranteeing to supply the Republic with grain, wood, talc, tar, after 20 years study, Witsen published the first map of Siberia in 1690. This map represented the world from Nova Zembla to as far away as China, Witsen had discussed with the tsar the trade routes to Persia via the Caspian Sea and to China via Siberia. In 1692 he published a compendium titled Noord en Oost Tartarye, describing Siberia and he consulted classical authors and Arabic medieval writers as well as his learned contemporaries in Europe