1800 in Scotland
Events from the year 1800 in Scotland. 15 February – Meal mob riot over bread prices in Glasgow,30 June – Glasgow Police Act authorises creation of the City of Glasgow Police, which first musters on 15 November. Royal Cornhill Hospital established as Aberdeen Lunatic Asylum, Legbrannock Waggonway opened by William Dixon to move coal from Legbrannock colliery on the Woodhall Estate to the Monkland Canal at Calderbank, an early example of a railway in Scotland. Approximate date Planned village and pier at Inchyra in the Carse of Gowrie built,27 November – Walter Scotts first original poems and The Eve of St. John, are published. The Works of Robert Burns is published posthumously
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of schools in the Lowlands. Among the fields that rapidly advanced were philosophy, political economy, architecture, geology, law, chemistry, the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was a natural development of this earlier engagement and advancement of knowledge. Union with England in 1707 meant the end of the Scottish Parliament, the parliamentarians, politicians and placemen moved to London. Scottish law, was separate from English law, so the civil law courts, lawyers. The headquarters and leadership of the Church of Scotland remained, as did the universities, at the union of 1707, England had about five times the population of Scotland and about 36 times as much wealth. Scotland experienced the beginnings of economic expansion that allowed it to close this gap, contacts with England led to a conscious attempt to improve agriculture among the gentry and nobility.
Although some estate holders improved the quality of life of their workers, enclosures led to unemployment. The major change in trade was the rapid expansion of the Americas as a market. Glasgow particularly benefited from this new trade, initially supplying the colonies with manufactured goods, it emerged as the focus of the tobacco trade, the merchants dealing in this lucrative business became the wealthy tobacco lords, who dominated the city for most of the eighteenth century. Banking developed in this period, the Bank of Scotland, founded in 1695 was suspected of Jacobite sympathies, and so a rival Royal Bank of Scotland was founded in 1727. Local banks began to be established in burghs like Glasgow and Ayr and these made capital available for business, and the improvement of roads and trade. By the late 17th century there was a complete network of parish schools in the Lowlands. By the 17th century, Scotland had five universities, compared with Englands two, all saw the establishment or re-establishment of chairs of mathematics.
Observatories were built at St. Andrews and at Kings and Marischal colleges in Aberdeen, Robert Sibbald was appointed as the first Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh, and he co-founded the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1681. These developments helped the universities to major centres of medical education. By the 18th century, access to Scottish universities was probably more open than in contemporary England, attendance was less expensive and the student body more socially representative. In the eighteenth century Scotland reaped the benefits of this system