Alta California Territory
Alta California Territory was a 19th-century federal territory formed under the Mexican Constitution of 1824. Its boundaries corresponded with those of the preceding Spanish colonial Alta California Province and it included the territory of the present day U. S. states of California, Nevada and Utah and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of outposts from todays Baja California. The missions were part of the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, the El Camino Real road connected the missions from San Diego to Mission San Francisco Solano, in Sonoma, a length of 529 miles. Settlers to the region introduced European fruits, vegetables, cattle, horses, ranching, Mexico declared independence from Spain in 1822, upon conclusion of the decade-long Mexican War of Independence. With the establishment of a government in 1823, Alta California, was not recognized as one o
The Californio era was from the first Spanish presence established by the Portolá expedition in 1769 until the regions cession to the United States of America in 1848. Non-Spanish-speaking immigrants who 1) became naturalized Mexican citizens, 2) married Californios, such residents, by these actions, became eligible to own land and receive rancho grants from the Mexican government. Most such grants occurred after mission secularization in the 1830s, an even looser definition may include descendants of Californios, especially those who married other Californio descendants. The much larger population of non-Spanish-speaking indigenous peoples of California who lived in the prior to. Many Californios, however, were the California-born children of non-Spanish speakers who married Spanish speakers, such spouses usually also converted to the Catholic faith and, after Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, often became naturalized Mexican citizens. The military, religious and civil compo
John Marsh (pioneer)
John Marsh was born in 1799 in South Danvers, Massachusetts and died in Pacheco, California in 1856. He was a pioneer and settler in Alta California, the first Harvard graduate. He knew Hebrew, Latin and Greek, and was the first to compile a dictionary of the Sioux language and he became one of the wealthiest ranchers in California, and was one of the most influential men in the establishment of California statehood. Marsh graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover in 1819 and he attended Harvard University from 1819 to 1823 and received a bachelors degree. Colbruno writes that Marsh was dismissed from Harvard for participating in a student uprising and he was readmitted in 1821, after promising not to engage in any further disturbances. He originally planned to study for the ministry, but changed his major to medicine after his readmission and he then studied medicine with a Boston doctor. Marsh migrated west, living in the Michigan Territory, where he opened a school, Marsh then beca
John Marsh in 1852
John Marsh house (ca 1870). The house still exists, and has been stabilized, but awaits restoration (pending fundraising). See External Links below.
Plaque marking the site of his murder