This category has only the following subcategory.
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. 1804 dollar – The 1804 dollar or Bowed Liberty Dollar was a dollar coin struck by the Mint of the United States, of which fifteen specimens are currently known to exist. Though dated 1804, none were struck in that year, all were minted in the 1830s or later and they were first created for use in special proof coin sets used as diplomatic gifts during Edmund Roberts trips to Siam and Muscat. Some silver dollars were struck in 1804, though all were dated 1803, in 1806, production was suspended by order of James Madison, then Secretary of State, and the denomination was not struck again until the 1804-dated pieces were minted. Edmund Roberts distributed the coins in 1834 and 1835, two additional sets were ordered for government officials in Japan and Cochinchina, but Roberts died in Macau before they could be delivered. Besides those 1804 dollars produced for inclusion in the diplomatic sets, numismatists first became aware of the 1804 dollar in 1842, when an illustration of one example appeared in a publication authored by two Mint employees. A collector subsequently acquired one example from the Mint in 1843, in response to numismatic demand, several examples were surreptitiously produced by Mint officials. Unlike the original coins, these later restrikes lacked the correct edge lettering, from their discovery by numismatists,1804 dollars have commanded high prices. Auction prices reached $1,000 by 1885, and in the mid-twentieth century, in 1999, a Class I example sold for $4.14 million, then the highest price paid for any coin. Their high value has caused 1804 dollars to be a frequent target of counterfeiting, the Coinage Act of 1792, the legislation which provided for the establishment of the Mint of the United States, authorized coinage of multiple denominations of gold, silver and copper coins. The act went on to state that the coin would be struck in an alloy consisting of 89.2 percent silver and 10.8 percent copper, the purity and weight standards outlined in the Act were based on the mean of several assays conducted on Spanish milled dollars. At that time, silver bullion was supplied to the Mint exclusively by private depositors, the first dollar coins, known as Flowing Hair dollars, were issued by the Mint beginning in 1794. By 1800, a majority of depositors requested their bullion be struck as silver dollars and this contributed to a shortage of small change in circulation, and as a result, the public became increasingly critical of the Mint. Mint Director Elias Boudinot began encouraging depositors to accept coins. Dollar coin production ceased in March 1804, although those pieces bore the date of 1803, in 1832, commercial shipper Edmund Roberts began acting as an envoy to Asia on behalf of the United States government, with the intent of negotiating trade deals in the region. During his mission, he reached deals both with Said bin Sultan, the Sultan of Muscat and Oman, and the Phra Khlang of Siam, an important financial minister of that nation. Roberts was given items which were to be presented as gifts to the officials with whom he was negotiating, but described them as being of very mean quality, and of inconsiderable value. After the treaties were ratified in the United States, Roberts had to return to Siam, in a letter to the Department of State dated October 8,1834, Roberts decried the gifts of his previous journey as inadequate and insulting to his hosts in the Orient. S. Neatly arranged in a morocco case & then to have an outward covering would be proper to send not only to the sultan, but to other Asiatics
2. Relay – A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, the first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers, they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations, a type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a device to perform switching. Magnetic latching relays require one pulse of power to move their contacts in one direction. Repeated pulses from the same input have no effect, magnetic latching relays are useful in applications where interrupted power should not be able to transition the contacts. Magnetic latching relays can have single or dual coils. On a single device, the relay will operate in one direction when power is applied with one polarity. On a dual coil device, when polarized voltage is applied to the coil the contacts will transition. AC controlled magnetic latch relays have single coils that employ steering diodes to differentiate between operate and reset commands, american scientist Joseph Henry is often claimed to have invented a relay in 1835 in order to improve his version of the electrical telegraph, developed earlier in 1831. However, there is little in the way of documentation to suggest he had made the discovery prior to 1837. It is claimed that English inventor Edward Davy certainly invented the electric relay in his electric telegraph c.1835, a simple device, which is now called a relay, was included in the original 1840 telegraph patent of Samuel Morse. The mechanism described acted as an amplifier, repeating the telegraph signal. This overcame the problem of limited range of earlier telegraphy schemes, the word relay appears in the context of electromagnetic operations from 1860. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts, the armature is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function, the relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke
3. Gaj's Latin alphabet – Gajs Latin alphabet is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian. It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Huss Czech alphabet, a slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a modified version is used for romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, today Gajs alphabet is used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. The alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters, Gajs original alphabet contained the digraph ⟨dj⟩, the letters do not have names, and consonants are normally pronounced as such when spelling is necessary. These rules for pronunciation of letters are common as far as the 22 letters that match the ISO basic Latin alphabet are concerned. The use of others is limited to the context of linguistics, while in mathematics, ⟨j⟩ is commonly pronounced jot. The missing four letters are pronounced as follows, ⟨q⟩ as ku or kju, ⟨w⟩ as dublve or duplo ve, ⟨x⟩ as iks, in vertical writing, ⟨ǆ⟩, ⟨ǉ⟩, ⟨ǌ⟩ are written horizontally, as a unit. For instance, if mjeǌačnica is written vertically, ⟨ǌ⟩ appears on the fourth line, in crossword puzzles, ⟨ǆ⟩, ⟨ǉ⟩, ⟨ǌ⟩ each occupy a single square. If words are written with a space between each letter, each digraphs is written as a unit, for instance, M J E Ǌ A Č N I C A. If only the letter of a word is capitalized, only the first of the two component letters is capitalized, ǋemačka, not Ǌemačka. In Unicode, the form ⟨ǋ⟩ is referred to as titlecase, as opposed to the uppercase form ⟨Ǌ⟩, uppercase would be used if the entire word was capitalized, NJEMAČKA. The Croatian Latin was mostly designed by Ljudevit Gaj, who modelled it after Czech and Polish, in 1830, he published in Buda the book Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja, which was the first common Croatian orthography book. It was not the first ever Croatian orthography work, as it was preceded by works of Rajmund Đamanjić, Ignjat Đurđević, croats had previously used the Latin script, but some of the specific sounds were not uniformly represented. Versions of the Hungarian alphabet were most commonly used, but others were too, in an often confused, Gaj followed the example of Pavao Ritter Vitezović and the Czech orthography, making one letter of the Latin script for each sound in the language. His alphabet mapped completely on Serbian Cyrillic which had been standardized by Vuk Karadžić a few years before, the original Gaj alphabet was eventually revised, but only the digraph ⟨dj⟩ has been replaced with Daničićs ⟨đ⟩, while ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ have been kept. In the 1990s, there was a confusion about the proper character encoding to use to write text in Latin Croatian on computers. An attempt was made to apply the 7-bit YUSCII, later CROSCII, which included the five letters with diacritics at the expense of five non-letter characters, because the ASCII character @ sorts before A, this led to jokes calling it žabeceda. Other short-lived vendor-specific efforts were also undertaken, the 8-bit ISO 8859-2 standard was developed by ISO