France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
As of the start of 1868, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia, Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials, January 5 – Paraguayan War, Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguays capital. Some days later he declares the war is over, nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguays president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside. January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock, January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees, January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperors declaration illegal and prepares to attack Kyoto. February – Foreign ministers meeting in Hyōgo are persuaded to recognise the restored Emperor Meiji of Japan with promises that harbours will be open in accordance with international treaties, february 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps. February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent, february 19 – in the Passage of Humaitá a Brazilian naval force succeeds in dashing past a Paraguayan fortress on the River Paraguay, considered by some the turning point in the Paraguayan War. February 24 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Three days after his action to dismiss United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Johnson is later acquitted by the United States Senate, the first parade to have floats takes place at Mardi Gras in New Orleans. March – French geologist Louis Lartet discovers the first identified skeletons of Cro-Magnon, the first early modern humans, at Abri de Crô-Magnon, a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. March 12 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, is shot in the back in Sydney, Australia, the prince survives and quickly recovers, OFarrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him. March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, march 24 – The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed. March 27 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, march – The first transnational womens organization, Association internationale des femmes, is founded. April 1 – The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is established in Hampton, April 7 – The Charter Oath, drawn up by his councilors, is promulgated at the enthronement of the Emperor Meiji of Japan, promising deliberative assemblies and an end to feudalism. April 9 – Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia massacres at least 197 of his own people at Magdala and these are prisoners incarcerated, for the most part, for very trivial offenses, and are killed for requesting bread and water. Tewodros commits suicide and Magdala is captured, ending the British Expedition to Abyssinia, April 11–July – Fall of Edo, the Japanese city is surrendered to the Emperor Meiji. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu submits to the Emperor, April 29 – General William Tecumseh Sherman brokers the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the federal government of the United States and the Plains Indians. May 10–14 – Battle of Utsunomiya Castle in Japan, forces of the Emperor Meiji resist the troops of the Tokugawa shogunate. May 16, May 26 – President Andrew Johnson is twice acquitted during his impeachment trial, may 26 – Fenian bomber Michael Barrett becomes the last person publicly hanged in the United Kingdom
Le Gaulois was a French daily newspaper, founded in 1868 by Edmond Tarbé and Henri de Pène. After a printing stoppage, it was revived by Arthur Meyer in 1882 with notable collaborators Paul Bourget, Alfred Grévin, Abel Hermant, among its many famous contributing editors was Guy de Maupassant. Gaston Lerouxs novel The Phantom of the Opera was first published as a serialization in its pages between September 1909 and January 1910, the paper was taken over by Le Figaro in 1929. Digitized Issues of Le Gaulois from 5 july 1868 to 30 march 1929 from Gallica, the digital library of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France
The Levallois-Perret Cemetery is a cemetery in the commune of Levallois-Perret in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. Strictly speaking it is just outside Paris in the arrondissement of Nanterre, in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the cemetery was subject of the Michele Bernard song Au Cimetière de Levallois. The cemetery was opened in 1868, in the newly formed suburb of Levallois-Perret. According to the CWGC the cemetery was used by The Hertford British Hospital Charity, the cemetery was enlarged in 1884 and in 1910. The entrance and offices were constructed around 1935, There are two other cemeteries nearby, Cimetière Nord and Cimetière Sud. It is estimated that the cemetery more than 27000 tombs. Many of the local dignitaries are buried here, the commune maintains some of the tombs. Amongst others, this cemetery is the last resting place of Gustave Eiffel, Maurice Ravel and Léon Zitrone as well as communards Théophile Ferré, in division 25 there is a Carré Militaire, dedicated to those fallen for France. In division 34 there are 29 graves from World War I, There is also a large War Memorial erected in 1923 and a monument to taxi drivers erected in 1948. Nicolas Levallois, the first mayor of the suburb, is buried here, the entrance of the cemetery is located on Rue Baudin near the junction with Rue Raspail. It is located next to the railway, the cemetery is divided into 43 divisions. There are good views of Paris in the distance, the cemetery is a short walk from Anatole France and Pont de Levallois – Bécon metro stations and are serviced by line 3. The nearest railway station is Gare de Clichy-Levallois, which is serviced by the Transilien Cergy line. The cemetery is served by bus lines 54,93,94,163,164,165,167,174,238,274 and 275 There is a Vélib station at Rue du Professeur René Leriche. Levallois-Perret Cemetery on the Levallois-Perret website Levallois-Perret Cemetery on the Cimetières de France et dailleurs website Levallois-Perret Cemetery in the Base Mérimée
Morgan, Harjes & Co.
Morgan, Harjes & Co. was a Paris-based investment bank founded in 1868 by John H. Harjes, Eugene Winthrop and Anthony J. Drexel as Drexel, Harjes & Co. Just three years after its formation, Drexel Harjes played a significant role in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, following the war, the firm was a major lender to the new French government as it repaid its massive war reparations. In 1895, after Drexels death, J. Pierpont Morgan assumed control of Drexel, Morgan & Co. similarly, Drexel, Harjes & Co. was renamed Morgan, Harjes & Co. In 1909, John H. Harjes retired from Morgan Harjes and his son Henry Herman Harjes, again in World War I, Morgan Harjes was actively involved, helping the Allied nations secure loans in order to purchase military supplies from manufacturers in the United States. Although critically important to the war effort, in the following the war. In August 1926, Henry Herman Harjes died in a polo accident and that fall, the firm was renamed Morgan & Cie. During World War II, Morgan & Cie Incorporated was the bank with ties to Allied nations that remained open during the occupation of Paris. Interestingly, the joint venture between the two wings of the House of Morgan was one of the few survivors of the Glass–Steagall Act, in 1975, Morgan Stanley established Morgan Stanley International Incorporated in London, integrating its various international operations including Morgan et Compagnie International. The Morgans, Private International Bankers, 1854-1913,888 pp. ISBN 978-0-674-58729-8 Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan, An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance, ISBN 0-8021-3829-2 Morris, the Tycoons, How Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J. P. Morgan Invented the American Supereconomy ISBN 978-0-8050-8134-3 Strouse, Jean
Palais de Justice, Paris
The Palais de Justice, formerly the Palais de la Cité, is located on the Boulevard du Palais in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France. The justice of the state has been dispensed at this site since medieval times, from the sixteenth century to the French Revolution this was the seat of the Parlement de Paris. The building was reconstructed between 1857 and 1868 by architects Joseph-Louis Duc and Honoré Daumet, the exterior includes sculptural work by Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. It was opened in October 1868 with little fanfare, save from a visit by Baron Haussmann and it was awarded the Grand Prix de lEmpereur as the greatest work of art produced in France in the decade. Tribunal de grande instance de Paris Court of Appeal Ayers, Andrew, a visit of the Hall of Justice Palais de Justice at lartnouveau. com