Pages in category "1868 operas"
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Opera – Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing, recitative, a style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of theatre, such as acting, scenery. The performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his operas in the 1760s. The first third of the 19th century saw the point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti. It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer, the mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera, led and dominated by Richard Wagner in Germany and Giuseppe Verdi in Italy. The popularity of opera continued through the era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini. During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe, the 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism, Neoclassicism, and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso, since the invention of radio and television, operas were also performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. In 2009, an opera company offered a download of a complete performance. The words of an opera are known as the libretto, some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti, others have worked in close collaboration with their librettists, e. g. Mozart with Lorenzo Da Ponte. Vocal duets, trios and other ensembles often occur, and choruses are used to comment on the action, in some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique, operetta, and semi-opera, the recitative is mostly replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagners example, though some, the changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below
2. 1868 – As of the start of 1868, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia, Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials, January 5 – Paraguayan War, Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguays capital. Some days later he declares the war is over, nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguays president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside. January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock, January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees, January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperors declaration illegal and prepares to attack Kyoto. February – Foreign ministers meeting in Hyōgo are persuaded to recognise the restored Emperor Meiji of Japan with promises that harbours will be open in accordance with international treaties, february 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps. February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent, february 19 – in the Passage of Humaitá a Brazilian naval force succeeds in dashing past a Paraguayan fortress on the River Paraguay, considered by some the turning point in the Paraguayan War. February 24 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Three days after his action to dismiss United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Johnson is later acquitted by the United States Senate, the first parade to have floats takes place at Mardi Gras in New Orleans. March – French geologist Louis Lartet discovers the first identified skeletons of Cro-Magnon, the first early modern humans, at Abri de Crô-Magnon, a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. March 12 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, is shot in the back in Sydney, Australia, the prince survives and quickly recovers, OFarrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him. March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, march 24 – The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed. March 27 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, march – The first transnational womens organization, Association internationale des femmes, is founded. April 1 – The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is established in Hampton, April 7 – The Charter Oath, drawn up by his councilors, is promulgated at the enthronement of the Emperor Meiji of Japan, promising deliberative assemblies and an end to feudalism. April 9 – Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia massacres at least 197 of his own people at Magdala and these are prisoners incarcerated, for the most part, for very trivial offenses, and are killed for requesting bread and water. Tewodros commits suicide and Magdala is captured, ending the British Expedition to Abyssinia, April 11–July – Fall of Edo, the Japanese city is surrendered to the Emperor Meiji. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu submits to the Emperor, April 29 – General William Tecumseh Sherman brokers the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the federal government of the United States and the Plains Indians. May 10–14 – Battle of Utsunomiya Castle in Japan, forces of the Emperor Meiji resist the troops of the Tokugawa shogunate. May 16, May 26 – President Andrew Johnson is twice acquitted during his impeachment trial, may 26 – Fenian bomber Michael Barrett becomes the last person publicly hanged in the United Kingdom
3. Arshak II (opera) – Arshak II is the first Armenian classical opera, written by Dikran Tchouhadjian and T. Terzian in 1868. Its libretto, a tragedy in Armenian and Italian, is based on historical reports about King Arsaces II, written by Movses Khorenatsi. Arshak II is the first “Armenian grand opera” with choruses and ballets and it was partially staged in 1873, assembled on November 29,1945 at the Armenian Opera Theater in Yerevan and was awarded by the USSR State Prize in 1946. Arshak II is a gem of Armenian musical culture, in 2001, it was staged at the San Francisco Opera. Pavel Lisitsian, Mihran Yerkat, Tigran Levonyan were among the performers of Arshaks role
4. Dalibor (opera) – Dalibor is a Czech opera in three acts by Bedřich Smetana. The libretto was written in German by Josef Wenzig, and translated into Czech by Ervin Špindler and it was first performed at the New Town Theatre in Prague on 16 May 1868. The opera received criticism at the time for being influenced by German opera. The plot bears a resemblance to that of Ludwig van Beethovens opera Fidelio, Smetana had great affection for the opera, but because of the lukewarm reception, died thinking that he had failed with this opera. The revival in 1886, however, two years after the death, was a success. In the 1890s, the opera received productions in Zagreb, Munich, gustav Mahler conducted an 1892 production in Vienna. Time, Fifteenth century Place, Prague Dalibor, a Czech Knight is on trial before the king for having murdered the burgrave of Ploskovice in revenge for execution of his friend Zdenek. At the trial, the king calls upon the sister, Milada. As Dalibor is brought in, the rises in support of him. When Dalibor tells of his friend’s capture and murder the court reduces his sentence from death to lifetime imprisonment, Milada painfully realized that she is falling in love with Dalibor, and in collusion with Jitka, an orphan befriended by the knight, she resolves to set him free. Milada enters the prison disguised as a boy and finds employment with Dalibor’s jailer and she charms Benes into allowing her into dungeon where Dalibor is being held. The knight greets her with jubilation and, in a passionate duet and they plot to bribe Benes, but the jailer informs the king of their attempted escape. Taking the advice of his council, the king orders Dalibor’s death, Milada, waiting outside the prison, hears the tolling of the bell that signals Dalibor’s execution. Accompanied by her followers, she storms the castle, where, after rescuing Dalibor, she is wounded, Dalibor stabs himself and is united in death with his beloved. An alternative ending has Dalibor executed before Milada can rescue him, in Italian 1973, Luigi Toffolo, Orchestra Sinfonica e coro di Milano della RAI, Radmila Bakočević, Ludovic Spiess, Nikola Mitić, Dora Carral, Piero De Palma, Giannicola Pigliucci
5. Fiesque – Fiesque is an opera by the French composer Édouard Lalo. The libretto, by Charles Beauquier, is based on Schillers 1784 play, Die Verschwörung des Fiesco zu Genua and it had its first staged performance at the Nationaltheater, Mannheim on 16 June 2007. The concert premiere took place on 27 July 2006 at the Festival de Radio France et Montpellier with Roberto Alagna in the title role, the UK premiere took place on 10 March 2008, in a production by University College Opera. Fiesque’s palace, an evening party Leonore, Fiesque’s wife, confides that her marriage is in ruins, Fiesque’s enemy, instructs the assassin Hassan to murder Fiesque. Fiesque declares his love for the princess Julie Doria, Gianettino’s sister, Verrina, Fiesque’s old friend and ally, worries that Fiesque has gone off the rails and now prizes pleasure above his country’s honour. Hassan accosts Fiesque but Fiesque easily overpowers him, Hassan, fearful for his life, offers to do anything Fiesque asks, and Fiesque instructs him to mix with the townspeople and report what they are saying about the Dorias. Scene 1, A crowded market place Hassan plies the townspeople with drink and incites gossip. Verrina enters, Leonore arrives, worn down by the tension in her marriage. Fiesque reassures her that two days she will have proof of his enduring love for her. Hassan enters and recounts to the audience the events of the market place and he reports that Julie has engaged him to poison Leonore, he will betray her intentions to Fiesque and have twice the money. Verrina visits Fiesque at home with the painter Romano and the activists Borgonino, by the end of the scene Verrina’s confidence in Fiesque is restored, and the building blocks for the revolution set in place. Scene 1, A vault in Fiesque’s palace Borgonino organises an underground gathering of Fiesque’s supporters to plan the revolution, Leonore tries to soothe her own anxiety and sense of foreboding. She hears a woman approaching and hides, Julie enters and sings about the pleasures of being a coquette, but eventually confesses her genuine love for Fiesque. Fiesque arrives and begins a love scene with Julie. At its climax, however, Fiesque reveals his fidelity to Leonore, Fiesque and Leonore are reunited, Julie swears vengeance, but Fiesque has her captured. Scene 2, The port of Genoa The sacking of Genoa, and victory for the Fieschi, Fiesque is made ruler of Genoa and Leonore begs Fiesque’s forgiveness for mistrusting him. Fiesque invites Verrina to join in the celebrations, but Verrina is reluctant, troubled by Fiesques display of ambition, Verrina pleads with Fiesque to renounce his regal trappings in favour of leading a true republic, but Fiesque makes light of Verrina’s concerns. Eventually, disillusioned by the change in his friend and fearful for the future of the country, Roberto Alagna, Michelle Canniccioni, Béatrice Uria-Monzon, Franck Ferrari. Radio Latvia Choir, Orchestra of Montpellier, dir, a recording of the 27 July 2006 concert performance
6. Hamlet (opera) – On 11 September 1827 the Irish actress Harriet Smithson played the part of Ophelia in Hamlet. Her mad scene appeared to owe little to tradition and seemed almost like an improvisation and her performances produced an extraordinary reaction, men wept openly in the theater, and when they left were convulsed by uncontrollable emotion. I recognized the meaning of dramatic grandeur, beauty, truth, even the wife of the English ambassador, Lady Granville, felt compelled to report that the Parisians roar over Miss Smithsons Ophelia, and strange to say so did I. It wasnt long before new clothing and hair styles, à la mode dOphélie and modeled on those of the actress, not everything about the performance or the play was considered convincing. The supporting players were conceded to be weak, the large number of corpses on the stage in the final scene was found by many to be laughable. The moment in the Play Scene when Claudius rises up and interrupts the proceedings, then rushes from the stage, provoked a long and enthusiastic ovation. The journal Pandore wrote about that English candour which allows everything to be expressed and everything to be depicted, the composer Berlioz was soon totally infatuated with Miss Smithson. His love for her, initially unrequited, became an obsession and his Tristia, Op. Berlioz married Smithson in 1833, although their relationship ultimately fell apart. Although Harriet Smithsons stardom faded within a year and a half of her debut there, besides in music, it also manifested itself in art. Auguste Préaults relief Ophélie depicted a young woman wading into water with her hair let down, by the early 1840s Alexandre Dumas, who had become a personal friend of Berlioz and Smithson, had achieved international fame with his historical novels and dramas. An earlier verse translation of Hamlet into French by Jean-François Ducis, first performed in 1769, was still being given at the Comédie-Française, the Ducis play bore very little resemblance to the Shakespeare original. There were far fewer characters, no ghost, no Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, no players, there was no duel, and Hamlet did not die at the end. Modifications such as these were necessary to gain performances in the French theaters of his time, Ducis had told the English actor-impresario David Garrick that a ghost which speaks, itinerant players, and a fencing duel were absolutely inadmissible on the French stage. Dumas realized that Ducis play was not the same as the original, Pierre Le Tourneur had published a relatively faithful prose translation, not intended for performance, nevertheless, moral propriety and politesse dictated that only such highly sanitized versions as that of Ducis could be performed on stage. The French referred to these performing editions as imitations, and most knew that they were modified versions of the original. All the same, Ducis was at first accused of polluting French theaters with Shakespeare, Dumas could not speak or read English well. He needed help, so he selected a younger writer by the name of Paul Meurice from among his coterie of protégés and assistants. Meurice had earlier collaborated with Auguste Vacquerie on Falstaff, a combination of Parts I and II of Shakespeares Henry IV, the Dumas-Meurice Hamlet was performed at Dumas Théâtre Historique in 1847 and had an enormous success
7. Mefistofele – Mefistofele is an opera in a prologue, four acts and an epilogue, the only completed opera with music by the Italian composer-librettist Arrigo Boito. The opera was given its premiere on 5 March 1868 at La Scala, Milan under the baton of the composer, despite his lack of experience, however, it was not a success and was immediately withdrawn after only two performances. Revisions in 1875 resulted in success in Bologna and, with adjustments in 1876 for Venice. Boito began consideration of an opera on the Faustian theme after completing his studies at the Milan Conservatory in 1861, Mefistofele is one of many pieces of classical music based on the Faust legend and, like many other composers, Boito used Goethes version as his starting point. He was an admirer of Richard Wagner and, like him, chose to write his own libretto, much of the text is actually a literal translation from Goethes German to Boitos Italian. The most popular earlier work based on the legend was Charles Gounods opera Faust and he hoped that it would be a wake-up call and an inspiration to other young Italian composers. The piano-vocal score was completed in 1867 while Boito was visiting relatives in Poland, furthermore, the work was far too long and the cast inadequate for the complexities of the music. When the curtain came down well after midnight, it was clear that the premiere had been a failure. After just two performances, with the one being divided into two sections and presented on successive evenings, the opera was withdrawn. Boito immediately set to work revising his opera, greatly reduced its length by about one-third by making many scenes smaller in scale, Faust was changed from a baritone to a tenor. The revised version was premiered in Bologna on 4 October 1875, this time sung by what is regarded to be a very fine cast. Boito made further minor revisions during 1876, and this version was first performed in Venice on 13 May 1876, the first British performance took place at Her Majestys Theatre, London on 6 July 1880 and the American premiere was on 16 November 1880 in Boston. Thereafter, Boito continued to make small changes until the definitive production in Milan on 25 May 1881. Chaliapin made his first appearance at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden on 25 May 1926, parts of a subsequent performance on 31 May were recorded by His Masters Voice. In 1969, the New York City Opera presented a new production by Tito Capobianco, the Metropolitan Opera has given the work a total of 67 times since it first appeared there on 5 December 1883, most recently in February 2000. The Royal Opera in London has only one performance of the opera. As Mefistofele, Ramey made the role a signature one, appearing in productions in the 1980s and early 1990s. The opera was performed as part of the 2013/14 season at the Croatian National Theatre, directed by Michał Znaniecki, in 2014 the opera was performed in Kraków as a co-production with Trondheim Symphony Orchestra, the premiere in Trondheim, Norway took place in June 2015
8. Le premier jour de bonheur – Le premier jour de bonheur is an opera or opéra comique in 3 acts by composer Daniel Auber. The French language libretto by Adolphe dEnnery and Eugène Cormon is based on Joseph François Souques Le chevalier de Canolle, the works premiere was staged by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle Favart theatre on 15 February 1868. The scenario was proposed to Auber around 1865 by Victorien Sardou, in view of this cast change, the role of Hélène was modified. A highpoint of the work is the song of the Djinns for Djelma which became immediately popular and it was hoped to premiere the piece on 27 January but as there was some orchestration outstanding, it was delayed. Le premier jour de bonheur was at first a financial success for the Salle Favart. Johann Strauss II wrote a quadrille on themes from the opera as his opus 327, time, Late 18th century Place, Madras A French post in India Gaston de Maillepré, a French officer in India, tells the Indian priestess Djelma of his love for an unknown Englishwoman. She turns up in the company of her fiancé, Sir John Littlepool, Gaston learns that the woman, is the niece of the governor of Madras, and releases her, keeping Littlepool as a hostage. Madras Although protected by a flag of truce, Gaston is arrested by the English when he comes to Madras seeking Hélène, in the meantime, Littlepool has been condemned to death by the French as a spy, and Gaston is sentenced to be shot at dawn in revenge. However, he is gratified when Hélène declares her love for him, Madras, Dawn of the next day Littlepool suddenly appears, he has been released by the French, with the condition that Gaston be returned alive. However, Gaston refuses to leave Hélène, preferring execution, Littlepool, fearing French revenge, renounces his claims on Hélène, allowing her to marry Gaston, which results in Mailleprés premier jour de bonheur. Notes Sources Letellier, Robert, Le Premier Jour de Bonheur, Newcastle-on-Tyne, soubies, Albert and Malherbe, Charles, Histoire de LOpéra-Comique, La Seconde Salle Favart, 1860-1887, Paris, Flammarion,1893
9. Zhenitba – Zhenitba is an unfinished opera begun in 1868 by Modest Mussorgsky to his own libretto based on Nikolai Gogols comedy Marriage. This 1842 play is a satire of courtship and cowardice, which centres on a woman, Agafya. Mussorgskys aim was to create individual musical signatures for each character using the natural rhythms of the text, the first act was completed in 1868 in a vocal score and the composer noted, I have completed the first act. It rained without stopping for three days running and I worked without stopping in keeping with the weather, the Marriage gave me not a minute of calm – so I wrote it. The score is inscribed with the details, The work began on Tuesday, June 11,1868 in Petrograd. The Marriage was one of Mussorgskys first musical masterpieces and it was an experiment in Russian opera, using grotesque and satirical musical language. One citic commented, With all its jolting contrasts and exaggerations,1868, Saint Petersburg – Private performance An early performance with Mussorgskys participation took place in 1868 in the home of César Cui. Nadezhda Purgold accompanied on the piano, the cast included Modest Mussorgsky, Alexander Dargomyzhsky, Aleksandra Purgold, and Konstantin Velyaminov. Aleksandra Purgold was the sister of Nadezhda Purgold,1906, Saint Petersburg – Private performance A later private performance took place in the home of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Nadezhda Purgold was now Nadezhda Rimskaya-Korsakova, through marriage to the composer, the cast included Sigizmund Blumenfeld, A. P. Sandulenko, Sonya Rimskaya-Korsakova, and Gury Stravinsky. 1908, Moscow – World premiere The first professional performance took place on 12 December 1908 in the Great Hall of the Nobility in Moscow. D. Veyss accompanied on the piano, the cast included Vladimir Lossky, Fyodor Ernst, Serafima Selyuk-Roznatovskaya, and Khristofor Tolkachev. Alexander Tcherepnine subsequently asked Lehrman to translate into his English his completion of the opera, the work is still in progress. 1908, vocal score edition by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, V. Bessel, st. Petersburg 1933, vocal score, original composers version in the second issue of Volume IV of the Complete Works by M. P. He currently leads a life, with his poor servant, Stepan, constantly at his beck. Scene 2 A marriage broker, Fyokla Ivanovna, arrives to give Podkolyosin details of a girl she has chosen for him, however, he is more interested in her dowry, And what kind of dowry will I receive. Lets start from the beginning and discuss the dowry. ”He also worries that she is not sufficiently highly bred for him, so, is this really the best bargain. Fyokla suggests that he cant afford be fussy with his poor looks, scene 3 Unexpectedly Kochkaryov, Podkolyosins best friend, turns up and is angry to see the marriage broker