1. German East Africa – German East Africa was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included what are now Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of present Tanzania. Its area was 994,996 km2, nearly three times the area of present-day Germany, the colony was organized when the German military was called upon to put down a revolt against the activities of a colonial company during the late 1880s. It ended with Imperial Germanys defeat in World War I, ultimately it was divided between Britain and Belgium and reorganized as a mandate of the League of Nations. Like other powers, the Germans expanded their empire in the Africa Great Lakes region on the basis of fighting slavery, unlike other imperial powers, however, they never actually formally abolished it, preferring instead to curtail the production of new recruits and regulate the extant slaving business. The colony began with Carl Peters, an adventurer who founded the Society for German Colonization, on 3 March 1885, the German government announced it had granted an imperial charter to Peters company and intended to establish a protectorate in the Africa Great Lakes region. Peters then recruited specialists, who began exploring south to the Rufiji River and north to Witu, the British and Germans agreed to divide the mainland between themselves, and the Sultan had no option but to agree. The Abushiri Revolt of 1888 was put down the following year, in 1890, London and Berlin concluded the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, returning Heligoland to Germany and deciding on the borders of German East Africa. Between 1891 and 1894, the Hehe tribe, led by Chief Mkwawa and they were defeated because rival tribes supported the Germans. After years of warfare, Mkwawa himself was cornered and committed suicide in 1898. The Maji Maji Rebellion occurred in 1905 and was put down by the governor, but scandal soon followed, with stories of corruption and brutality, and in 1907 Chancellor Bülow appointed Bernhard Dernburg to reform the colonial administration. It became a model of efficiency and commanded extraordinary loyalty among the natives during the First World War. German colonial administrators relied heavily on native chiefs to keep order, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, was a successful general in German East Africa during World War I. Commerce and growth started in earnest under German direction, early on it was realized that economic development would depend on reliable transportation. Over 100,000 acres were under sisal cultivation – the biggest cash crop, two million coffee trees were planted and rubber trees grew on 200,000 acres, along with large cotton plantations. To bring these agricultural products to market, beginning in 1888, the longest line, the Central Railroad covered 775 miles from Dar es Salaam to Morogoro, Tabora and Kigoma. The final link to the shore of Lake Tanganyika had been completed in July 1914 and was cause for a huge and festive celebration in the capital with an agricultural fair. Harbor facilities were built or improved with electrical cranes, with rail access, wharves were remodeled at Tanga, Bagamoyo and Lindi. In 1912 Dar es Salaam and Tanga received 356 freighters and passenger steamers and over 1,000 coastal ships and local trading vesselsGerman East Africa – WW1 Memorial in Iringa, Tanzania.
2. 1886 – As of the start of 1886, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Upper Burma is formally annexed to British Burma, january 5 – Publication of Robert Louis Stevensons novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. January 18 – Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England, january 29 – Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile, the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. February 14 – The first train load of oranges leaves Los Angeles via the transcontinental railroad, march 3 – The Treaty of Bucharest ends the Serbo-Bulgarian War in the Balkans. March 8 – Anti-Chinese sentiments result in riots in Seattle, USA, march 16 – A law establishing the Kiel Canal is adopted. March 17 – Carrollton Massacre,20 African Americans are killed in Mississippi, march 29 – Wilhelm Steinitz becomes first recognized World Chess Champion. April 4 – William Ewart Gladstone introduces the First Irish Home Rule Bill in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, april 6 – Vancouver in British Columbia is incorporated. April 25 – Easter occurs on the latest possible date, may 4 A general strike begins in the United States, which escalates into the Haymarket Riot and eventually wins the eight-hour day for workers. Emile Berliner starts work that leads to the invention of the gramophone, may 8 – American pharmacist Dr. John Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that will be named Coca-Cola. May 15 – Portugal and France agree to regulate the borders of their colonies in Guinea, may 17 Motherwell Football Club is founded in Scotland. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, The U. S. Supreme Court rules that corporations have the rights as living persons. May 29 – John Pemberton begins to advertise Coca-Cola, June 2 – U. S. President Grover Cleveland marries Frances Folsom in the White House, becoming the only President of the United States to wed in the executive mansion. She is 27 years his junior, June 3 – Uganda Martyrs, Charles Lwanga, twelve other Catholic boys and men and nine Anglicans are burned to death at the orders of Kabaka Mwanga II of Buganda in Namugongo. June 10 – The Mount Tarawera volcano erupts in New Zealand, resulting in the deaths of over 150 people, June 12 – King Ludwig II of Bavaria is detained as part of a deposition, drowning the following day under mysterious circumstances. Six weeks later his unfinished Neuschwanstein Castle is opened to the public, June 13 – The Great Vancouver Fire devastates much of Vancouver, British Columbia. June 30 – The Royal Holloway College for women is opened by Queen Victoria near London in England, july 3 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen. July 9 – Charles Hall files a patent for his process of turning aluminium oxide into molten aluminium, july 23 – Steve Brodie fakes a jump from the Brooklyn Bridge. July 25 – Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury becomes Great Britains 30th Prime Minister, july 31 – Death of Hungarian composer Franz Liszt1886 – January 29 – Karl Benz patent.
3. Kilwa Kisiwani – Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa. Historically, it was the center of the Kilwa Sultanate, a medieval sultanate whose authority at its height in the 13th-15th centuries AD stretched the length of the Swahili Coast. Kilwa Kisiwani has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the nearby stonetown Songo Mnara, Kilwa Kisiwani is an archaeological city-state site located along the Swahili Coast on the Kilwa archipelago. It was occupied from at least the 8th century AD and became one of the most powerful settlements along the coast, the seasonal wind reversals would affect trade circulations. Many of the Swahili settlements showed complex layouts that reflected social relations between groups, however at Kilwa, there are many questions left unanswered about the town layout. The cemeteries were located on the edge of the town, which was common for the region, an important city for trade, around the 13th century there were increased fortifications and a greater flow of goods. For these to take place, there would need to be a form of political administration overseeing the city, much of the trade networks were with the Arabian peninsula. Kilwa Kisiwani reached its highest point in wealth and commerce between 13th and 15th centuries AD, evidence of growth in wealth can be seen with the appearance of stone buildings around the 13th century AD, before which all of the buildings were wattle-and-daub. The socio-economic status of the individuals residing there could be seen in the type of structure they were living in. Among Kilwas exports were spices, tortoise shell, coconut oil, ivory, at around this time, Kilwa had seized control over the trade of gold at Sofala. The wealthy also possessed more commercial goods than the individuals who were of lower class did, luxury cloths and foreign ceramics were among a few of the items they would have owned, though some items, such as luxury cloths, do not preserve in the archaeological record. For approximately 500 years, Kilwa was minting coins and this lasted from about A. D 1100-1600 and the coins have been found across the region, including Great Zimbabwe. Marine resources were abundant and utilized for food, food sources would also come from the surrounding land. But because of the impact the sea, with all of the resources and trade opportunities, had on Kilwa. The soil at Kilwa that was found over the limestone was of poor quality, however, the soil in the Kilwa region would have been suitable for growing cotton, which could be used in sail manufacture. 12th century spindle whorls have been found, indicating that cotton was used and processed in this area, at first, most of the focus was placed on the archaeology of Kilwas ports and harbors, however, more and more emphasis is being placed on Kilwas hinterlands. Ceramic artifacts are plentiful at the site and can be divided into two groups, regional and coastal, all of the ceramics with regional distribution were locally produced, but the area of distribution is limited. These unglazed ceramics were referred to as Kitchen Wares, though their uses were not necessarily just as cooking vessels and it is important to note that all of the varieties of locally produced pottery found in the region were also uncovered at the site of Kilwa itselfKilwa Kisiwani – UNESCO World Heritage Site