This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Battle of Fleurus (1794) – Both sides had forces in the area of around 80,000 men but the French were able to concentrate their troops and defeat the First Coalition. The Allied defeat led to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands, the battle marked a turning point for the French army, which remained ascendant for the rest of the War of the First Coalition. The French use of the reconnaissance balloon lEntreprenant was the first military use of an aircraft that influenced the result of a battle. After the Battle of Tourcoing on 17–18 May 1794, Jourdan was given the command of the Army of the Ardennes and four divisions of the Army of the North and this new group was then named the Army of the Sambre-et-Meuse. The new army was given the task of capturing Charleroi. On 12 June, the French army, accompanied and supervised by a member of the Committee of Public Safety, on 16 June at Lambusart, an Austrian-Dutch force of about 43,000 men counterattacked in heavy mist. The Allies managed to inflict some 3,000 casualties on the French, on 18 June, however, Jourdan attacked again and managed to retake Charleroi. The city surrendered on 26 June, just as a force under the Prince of Coburg arrived to raise the siege. See Fleurus 1794 Order of Battle, on 26 June, Feldmarschall Coburg manœuvred around Charleroi with a force of 52,000 Austrian and Dutch soldiers. Too late to save the city, which had surrendered, the Austrian commander split his army into five columns, a French reconnaissance balloon, lEntreprenant, operated by the Aerostatic Corps, continuously informed General of Division Jean-Baptiste Jourdan about Austrian movements. The Austrians managed to break through both French wings, pushing back MG François Marceau on the wing and MG Montaigu on the left wing. The French center under MG François Lefebvre held and then counterattacked, colonel Nicolas Soult, then serving as Lefebvres Chief of staff, wrote that it was, fifteen hours of the most desperate fighting I ever saw in my life. Coburg neglected to press on and uncertain of the outcome, the Austrian commander lost his nerve and fell back to Braine-lAlleud and Waterloo and this was the final straw that caused the allies to retire over the Rhine, leaving the French free rein in Belgium and the Netherlands. It is generally agreed that the battle was a one for the French. The Allied losses have always been in dispute, the French claimed significantly higher losses than their own, traditional estimates attribute considerable casualties to Coburgs army, and hover near five thousand Allied killed and wounded. However, according to historian Digby Smith, Austrian-Dutch losses numbered 208 killed,1,017 wounded, in addition, the French captured one mortar, three caissons, and one standard, while the Austrians captured one cannon and one standard. Despite any tactical imbalance, the value of Fleurus was immense for the French. The victory precipitated a full Allied withdrawal from Belgium and allowed French forces to push north into the Netherlands, by the end of 1795, the Dutch Republic was extinguished
2. Montgolfier brothers – Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first piloted ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky, later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France. Both of them were freemasons in Les Neuf Soeurs lodge in Paris, the brothers were born into a family of paper manufacturers in Annonay, in Ardèche, France. Their parents were Pierre Montgolfier and his wife, Anne Duret, Pierre established his eldest son, Raymond Montgolfier, later Raymond de Montgolfier, as his successor. Joseph, the 12th child, possessed a typical inventors temperament—a maverick and dreamer, Étienne had a much more even and businesslike temperament. As the 15th child, and particularly troublesome to his elder siblings, however, after the sudden and unexpected death of Raymond in 1772, he was recalled to Annonay to run the family business. In the subsequent 10 years, Étienne applied his talent for technical innovation to the family business and he succeeded in incorporating the latest Dutch innovations of the day into the family mills. Of the two brothers, it was Joseph who first contemplated building machines as early as 1782 when he observed laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards, Joseph made his first definitive experiments in November 1782 while living in the city of Avignon. Joseph mused on the possibility of an air assault using troops lifted by the force that was lifting the embers from the fire. He believed that contained within the smoke was a special gas, as a result of these musings, Joseph set about building a box-like chamber 1×1×1.3 m out of very thin wood, and covering the sides and top with lightweight taffeta cloth. He crumpled and lit some paper under the bottom of the box, the contraption quickly lifted off its stand and collided with the ceiling. Joseph then recruited his brother to balloon building by writing, Get in a supply of taffeta and of cordage, quickly, the two brothers then set about building a similar device, scaled up by three. The lifting force was so great that they lost control of their craft on its very first test flight on 14 December 1782, the device floated nearly two kilometers. It was destroyed after landing by the indiscretion of passersby, the brothers decided to make a public demonstration of a balloon to establish their claim to its invention. They constructed a balloon of sackcloth with three thin layers of paper inside. The envelope could contain nearly 790 m³ of air and weighed 225 kg and it was constructed of four pieces and held together by 1,800 buttons. A reinforcing fish net of cord covered the outside of the envelope, on 4 June 1783, they flew this craft as their first public demonstration at Annonay in front of a group of dignitaries from the États particuliers. Its flight covered 2 km, lasted 10 minutes, and had an altitude of 1
3. Swedenborg 1714 Flying Machine – Swedenborgs Flying Machine was first sketched by the Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1714, when he was 26 years old. It was later published in his periodical, Daedalus Hyperboreus, in 1716, while Leonardo da Vinci’s designs predate those of Swedenborg, da Vinci’s manuscripts remained unknown due to a variety of circumstances until the late 19th century. So, in terms of influence, Swedenborg predated da Vinci and it dates from 1714 and is referred to as The Manuscript, the published description is referred to as The Published Account. When Swedenborg returned to Sweden in 1714, he met with inventor Christopher Polhem, when Swedenborg mentioned publishing the Flying Machine, Polhem was skeptical as to whether it was possible to ever build a machine that could fly. He compared it to building a perpetuum mobile, but Swedenborg replied with a quote by French author Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, The art of flying is hardly yet born. It will be perfected and some day people will fly up to the moon, do we pretend to have discovered everything, or to have brought our knowledge to a point where nothing can be added to it. Oh, for sake, let us agree that there is still something left for the ages to come. Swedenborg published it anonymously with the title Machine to Fly in the Air and it did not contain an image. Swedenborg knew that the machine would not fly, but suggested it as a start and was confident that the problem would be solved. He said, It seems easier to talk of such a machine than to put it into actuality, for it requires greater force, the science of mechanics might perhaps suggest a means, namely, a strong spiral spring. This greater force would not become possible until the motor was invented, the image shows the flying machine from above looking down. It consists of one large wing, in the middle of it is a hole with a basket, where the pilot stands. There are two paddles on the wings and these are used by the pilot like oars in a boat, except in this case they only move up and down. Underneath the ship is the gear, it consists of four long poles. In between them is a weight, which is used to keep the ship balanced, the wing is a light frame covered with strong canvas. The large wing would work as a glider, and by working the paddles up and down the pilot would keep the plane in the air, swedenborgs machine was evaluated by the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1910. ”Aviation history section on Heavier Than Air, Supporting the Aircraft