Category:190s BC conflicts
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Aetolian War – The Aetolian War was fought between the Romans and their Achaean and Macedonian allies and the Aetolian League and their allies, the kingdom of Athamania. The Aetolians had invited Antiochus III the Great to Greece, who after his defeat by the Romans had returned to Asia and this left the Aetolians and the Athamanians without any allies. With Antiochus out of Europe the Romans and their allies attacked the Aetolians, after a year of fighting the Aetolians were defeated and forced to pay 1,000 talents of silver to the Romans. After the Macedonian defeat in the Second Macedonian War a dispute broke out between the Romans and the Aetolians over the terms of the treaty, the Romans had the backing of the other allies, the Pergamese and the Rhodians and the Aetolians lost the dispute. The Aetolians wanted revenge and in 192 BC they sent out envoys to the King of Sparta, Nabis, King Philip V of Macedon and the Seleucid emperor, Antiochus III the Great. Nabis who had forced to comply to humiliating terms in 195 BC after he was defeated by Rome. Philip who was still paying reparations to Rome after his defeat in the Second Macedonian War and had his son as hostage in Rome refused the offer, Antiochus saw this as an opportunity to expand his European territory and accepted the alliance, and set out to Greece. Antiochus landed at Demetrias with 10,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, the Romans, alarmed by Antiochus arrival in Greece, sent the consul Manius Acilius Glabrio with an army to defeat him. The two armies met at Thermopylae, and only 500 of the Seleucids survived, after this defeat, Antiochus and the surviving part of his army returned to Asia. Rome and her allies continued to fight Antiochus in Asia Minor in the Roman–Seleucid War and this left the Aetolians and the Athamanians with no allies and the victorious Roman army marching unopposed in Thessaly. Acilius went with his army to Heraclea, Acilius sent an envoy to the Aetolian garrison in the city telling them to surrender the city and to think about seeking a pardon for their misjudgment from the Senate. The Aetolians didnt reply and the Romans began preparing to take the city by force, the Romans started the siege by battering the city wall with battering rams. To counter this the Aetolians made frequent sallies, after twenty-four days of fighting, the consul knew the Aetolians were exhausted from the length of the siege and from the reports that deserters had given him, thought of a plan. At midnight he gave the signal for all the soldiers to back to camp. When they returned to camp he kept them inactive until 3,00 am when he ordered that the siege operations begin again, the siege operations stopped at midnight. The Aetolians, thinking that the Romans were also exhausted, left their posts, the consul knowing that his plan had succeeded order an all out assault from three different directions. Acilius ordered Tiberius Sempronius who was in charge of a third of the men to stay alert, when the sleeping Aetolians heard the Roman army approaching they hurried prepared for battle and tried to make their way to the fighting in the darkness. The Romans started scaling the walls with ladders and climbing over the ruins of some the walls, as all the Aetolians rushed to where the Romans has scaled Acilius signaled for Sempronius to attack the section of the wall that was left undefended
2. Second Macedonian War – The Second Macedonian War was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace, in 204 BC King Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt died, leaving the throne to his six-year-old son Ptolemy V. Philip first turned his attention to the independent Greek city states in Thrace and his success at taking cities such as Kios worried the states of Rhodes and Pergamon who also had interests in the area. In 201 BC, Philip launched a campaign in Asia Minor, besieging the Ptolemaic city of Samos, again, this disconcerted Rhodes and Pergamon and Philip responded by ravaging the territory of the latter. Philip then invaded Caria but the Rhodians and Pergamenes successfully blockaded his fleet in Bargylia, forcing him to spend the winter with his army in a country which offered very few provisions. At this point, although they appeared to have the hand, Rhodes and Pergamon still feared Philip so much that they sent an appeal to the fast rising powerful state of the Mediterranean. Rome had just emerged victorious from the Second Punic War against Carthage, up to this point Rome had taken very little interest in the affairs of the eastern Mediterranean. The First Macedonian War against Philip V had been over the issue of Illyria and was resolved by the Peace of Phoenice in 205 BC, very little in Philips recent actions in Thrace and Asia Minor could be said to concern the Roman Republic directly. Nevertheless, the Romans listened to the appeal from Rhodes and Pergamon, the ambassadors found very little enthusiasm for a war against Philip until they reached Athens. Here they met King Attalus I of Pergamon and diplomats from Rhodes, at the same time, Athens declared war on Macedon and Philip sent a force to invade Attica. The Macedonian general evacuated Athenian territory and handed the Roman ultimatum to his master Philip, Philip, who had managed to slip past the blockade and arrive back home, rejected the Roman ultimatum out of hand. He renewed his attack on Athens and began another campaign in the Dardanelles and it was obvious that Rome was now intent on making war on Philip and at the very same time the ambassador was delivering the second ultimatum, a Roman force was disembarking in Illyria. Philips protests that he was not in violation of any of the terms of the Peace of Phoenice he had signed with Rome were in vain. The citizens promptly killed all the women and children of the city, threw their valuables into the sea and this story illustrates the reputation for atrocities that Philip had earned by this time during his efforts at expanding Macedonian power and influence through the conquest of other Greek cities. Most states adopted a policy of waiting to see which way the war went, for the first two years, the Roman campaign was lacklustre. Publius Sulpicius Galba made little headway against Philip and his successor, in 198 BC, Villius handed command over to Titus Quinctius Flamininus, who would prove a very different kind of general. Flamininus was not yet thirty and was a self-proclaimed ardent Philhellene and he introduced a new Roman policy for winning the war. Up to this point, the Romans had merely ordered Philip to stop attacking the southern Greek cities, now Flamininus demanded that he should withdraw all his garrisons from the southern Greek cities he already held and confine himself to Macedon
3. War against Nabis – The War against Nabis, or the Laconian War, of 195 BC was fought between the Greek city-state of Sparta and a coalition composed of Rome, the Achaean League, Pergamum, Rhodes, and Macedon. During the Second Macedonian War, Macedon had given Sparta control over Argos, Spartas continued occupation of Argos at the end of war was used as a pretext for Rome and its allies to declare war. The anti-Spartan coalition laid siege to Argos, captured the Spartan naval base at Gythium, Argos joined the Achaean League, and the Laconian towns were placed under Achaean protection. As a result of the war, Sparta lost its position as a power in Greece. Subsequent Spartan attempts to recover the losses failed and Nabis, the last sovereign ruler, was eventually murdered, soon after, Sparta was forcibly made a member of its former rival, the Achaean League, ending several centuries of fierce political independence. By then, the constitution of Lycurgus had already lost its meaning. Polybius described Nabis force as a crowd of murderers, burglars, cutpurses and highwaymen. In 205 BC, Nabis signed a treaty with Rome. The Spartans captured Messene but were forced to abandon it when the army of Megalopolis arrived under the command of Philopoemen. Later, they were defeated at the Tegea and Nabis was forced to check his expansionist ambitions for the time. During the Second Macedonian War, Nabis had another possibility for expansion, philip of Macedon offered him the polis of Argos in exchange for Sparta defecting from the Roman coalition and joining the Macedonian alliance. Nabis accepted and received control over Argos, however, when the war turned against Macedon, he rejoined the Roman coalition and sent 600 Cretan mercenaries to support the Roman army. Philip was later defeated by the Romans at the battle of Cynoscephalae. After the war, the Roman army did not withdraw from Greece, in return for his assistance in the war, Rome accepted Nabis possession of the polis of Argos. While Nabis was already King of Sparta, he made his wife Apia ruler of her hometown Argos, after increasing his territory and wealth by the aforementioned method, Nabis started to turn the port of Gythium into a major naval arsenal and fortified the city of Sparta. His Cretan allies were allowed to have naval bases on Spartan territory. His naval buildup offered a chance even for the poor to participate, as rowers. However, the extension of the naval capacities at Gythium greatly displeased the abutting states of the Aegean Sea, Nabis rule was largely based on his social reforms and the rebuilding of Spartas armed forces