The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
Huliaipole is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. It serves as the center of Huliaipole Raion. The name of the city translates as walk-about field and it is known as the birthplace of Nestor Makhno. Prior to the annexation of the Crimean Khanate by the Russian Empire the area was settled by Cossacks. Between 1917 and 1921, reflective of the turbulence in the region brought about by the Russian Civil War, vilen Kalyuta Nestor Makhno Simon Karetnik The murder of the Jews of Huliaipole during World War II, at Yad Vashem website
Medal "For Distinguished Labour"
In just over fifty years of existence, it was bestowed to over two million deserving citizens. It was established on December 27,1938 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the medal ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Medal For Distinguished Labour was worn on the side of the chest and in the presence of other medals of the USSR. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the Medal For Distinguished Labour was a 32 mm in diameter circular medal struck from.925 silver with a raised rim on both sides. In the upper 3/4 of the obverse, a 21 mm high by 20 mm wide ruby-red enamelled image of the hammer and sickle over the relief inscription USSR in 3.5 mm high letters. In the lower quarter of the obverse below the hammer and sickle, on the otherwise plain reverse, the relief inscription on two rows of 2.5 mm high letters LABOUR IN THE USSR - A MATTER OF HONOUR. The medal was numbered until 1945, early awards hung from a small triangular mount covered with a red ribbon with a threaded stub and screw for attachment to clothing. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For Distinguished Labour
Medal "For Labour Valour"
It was established on December 27,1938 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. During its existence of just over fifty years, it was bestowed to almost two million deserving citizens, the medal ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Medal For Labour Valour was worn on the side of the chest and in the presence of other medals of the USSR. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the Medal For Labour Valour was a 34 mm in diameter circular medal struck from.925 silver with a raised rim on both sides. In the upper obverse, a ruby-red enamelled 19.2 mm wide five pointed star with a silver hammer and sickle at its center. Below the star, the inscription in two rows of sunken and red enamelled 2.8 mm high letters FOR VALOUR LABOUR, at the very bottom, the relief inscription in 3.3 mm high letters USSR. On the otherwise plain reverse, the inscription on two rows of 2.5 mm high letters LABOUR IN THE USSR - A MATTER OF HONOUR. Early awards hung from a small triangular mount covered with a red ribbon with a threaded stub, the individuals below were recipients of the Medal For Labour Valour
Primorsky Krai, informally known as Primorye, is the Russian name for a province of Russia. Primorsky means maritime in Russian, so in English translation it is known as the Maritime Province or Maritime Territory and its administrative center is in the city of Vladivostok. Today, Primorsky Krai has the largest economy in the Russian Far East, borders length — over 3,000 kilometers, including 1,350 kilometers of the sea borders. Highest peak — Anik Mountain,1,933 meters Railroads length —1,628 kilometers and it is stretched in the meridianal direction, the distance from its extreme northern point to its most southerly point being about 900 kilometers. Highlands dominate the territory of the krai, most of the territory is mountainous, and almost 80% of it is forested. The average elevation is about 500 meters, Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation, extending for the most part of the Krai. It consists of a number of ranges, the Partizansky, the Siny, the Kholodny. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye, the relatively accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa cave in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists. There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area, most rivers in the Krai have rocky bottoms and limpid water. The largest among them is the Ussuri, with a length of 903 kilometers, the head of the Ussuri River originates 20 kilometers to the East of Oblachnaya Mountain. The vast Khanka Lowlands extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, a part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far East, Khanka Lake, is occupied by a forest-steppe. The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora, the fauna of Primorye is also diverse. Among 690 species of birds inhabiting the territory of the former USSR,350 are found in Primorye, rich fisheries of salmon, Hucho taimen, lenok and marine fisheries of crab, pollock and other species make the aquatic and maritime environment a valuable resource for the region. However, the diversity of wildlife in Primorye is threatened by poaching. Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund, Wild Salmon Center, average annual temperature — near +1 °C in the north of the krai, +5.5 °C on the southern coast. Average annual precipitation — 600–850 mm, the acquisition of Siberia by the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East brought the Russians into direct contact with China. The Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689 demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountains, including Primorye, to the Qing Empire. However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire in the half of the 19th century
Khabarovsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Russian Far East. It lies mostly in the basin of the lower Amur River, but also occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, the administrative center of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk. The indigenous people of the area are various Tungusic peoples and Amur Nivkhs, in terms of area, it is the fourth-largest federal subject within Russia. Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, Khabarovsk Krai has a severely continental climate with its northern areas being subarctic with stronger maritime summer moderation in the north. This is because of the influence of the East Asian monsoon in summer, in 1643, Vassili Poyarkovs boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan River, and in 1649–1650 Yerofey Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur. The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, although the Russians were thus deprived of the right to navigate the Amur River, the territorial claim over the lower courses of the river was not settled in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. The area between Uda River and Greater Khingan mountain range was left undemarcated and the Sino-Russian border was allowed to fluctuate, later in the nineteenth century, Nikolay Muravyov would conduct an aggressive policy with China by claiming that the lower reaches of the Amur River belonged to Russia. In 1852, a Russian military expedition under Muravyov explored the Amur, the Sino-Russian border was later further delineated in the Treaty of Peking of 1860 when the Ussuri Territory, which was previously a joint possession, became Russian. Modern Khabarovsk Krai was established on October 20,1938, when the Far Eastern Krai was split into the Khabarovsk, since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Khabarovsk Krai is the law of the krai. The Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai is the regional standing legislative body, the Legislative Duma exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The Krai Administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official, Khabarovsk Krai is the most industrialized territory of the Far East of Russia, producing 30% of the total industrial products in the Far Eastern Economic Region. The machine construction industry consists primarily of a highly developed military-industrial complex of large-scale aircraft-, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association is currently one of among the krais most successful enterprises, and for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory. In the Amur basin, there is some cultivation of wheat. The administrative center, Khabarovsk, is at the junction of the Amur River, the regions own mineral resources are underdeveloped. According to the 2010 Census,91. 8% of the population are Russians,2. 1% Ukrainians,0. 8% Nanais,0. 6% Tatars,0. 6% Koreans,55,038 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group, in addition to the Nanai, other indigenous groups include the Evenks and Evens in the northern part of the province, and Ulchs in the lower Amur river. Some Nivkhs, a fishing people speaking an isolate language
Medal "For Courage" (Russia)
The Medal for Courage or Medal for Valour is a state decoration of the Russian Federation that was retained from the Soviet awards system following the dissolution of the USSR. The Medal for Courage was created by the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on October 17,1938, the first three Medals for Courage were awarded only three days later to three border guards for acts of bravery during the Battle of Lake Khasan. More than 4,2 million were awarded during the Great Patriotic War, from its creation in 1938 to the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991,4,569,893 medals were awarded, many posthumously. Its award criteria were amended on three occasions by three separate Presidential Decrees, №19 of January 6,1999, №444 of April 17,2003 and №1099 of September 7,2010. The Medal for Courage is a 34mm in diameter circular medal with a raised rim on both the obverse and reverse. On the obverse, in the part are three aircraft flying from right to left. Below the aircraft is the impressed and red enamelled inscription in two lines FOR COURAGE and below the inscription is a tank with its forward left corner closest to the front. The medals reverse is plain except for an embossed letter N followed by a line in the lower half reserved for the award serial number. The medal is secured to a standard Russian pentagonal mount by a ring through the suspension loop. The mount is covered in a silk moiré 24mm wide grey ribbon with a blue 2mm edge stripe on each side, the original Soviet award hung from a small square mount covered with a red ribbon. The individuals listed below were all awarded the current Russian Federation Medal for Courage, orders and medals of the USSR, Moscow, Mil. lib. The Commission on State Awards to the President of the Russian Federation
Assembly of Turkmenistan
The Assembly is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan. It has 125 members, elected for terms in single-seat constituencies. Originally, it shared power with the Peoples Council, a 2003 law reduced the power of the Assembly and augmented that of the Peoples Council. The Assembly can now be legally dissolved by the Peoples Council, is led by the President, the Peoples Council was abolished by a new constitution drafted by Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow in 2008, making the Assembly/Mejlis the unicameral parliament again. The current chairperson is Akja Nuberdiyeva from December 21,2006, the Constitution of Turkmenistan stipulates that the assembly shall, Enacts laws, makes amendments and additions to the Constitution and laws, monitors their performance and their interpretation. Considers for approval the programme activities of the Cabinet of Ministers, Examines questions related to approval of the budget of Turkmenistan. Considers the basic directions and programmes of political, economic and social development of the country, determines whether to hold national referendums. Declare the election of the President of Turkmenistan, deputies of the Mejlis, members of the velayat, district, municipal representative bodies, establishes state awards, awards state decorations to the President of Turkmenistan, assigns him the military ranks and distinctions. Determines conformity to or divergence from the Constitution and the normative-legal Acts by the state authorities, considers questions related to change of state borders and administrative and territorial division of Turkmenistan. Examines the issues related to peace and security, decides other questions in the competence of the Mejlis under the Constitution and laws. List of Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Turkmenistan List of Chairmen of the Assembly of Turkmenistan Politics of Turkmenistan List of legislatures by country
Kyzylorda Region is a region of Kazakhstan. Its capital is the city of Kyzylorda, with a population of 157,400, the region itself has a population of 590,000. Other notable settlements include Aral, Kazaly and the Russian-administered Baikonur, the region borders neighboring country Uzbekistan, as well as three other regions, Aktobe Region, Karaganda Region, and South Kazakhstan Region. The Syr Darya River, flowing from the Tian Shan mountains to the Aral Sea, the total area of the province is 226,000 square kilometers. The region is divided into seven districts and the city of Kyzylorda. Three localities in Kyzylorda Region have town status and these are Aral, Kazaly, and Kyzylorda. The city of Baikonur is located within the area of the oblast but is rented and administered by Russian Federation. The region sent a team to the Spartakiade 2009. Barsa-Kelmes Nature Reserve Official regional administration website
Jezkazgan or Zhezkazgan, formerly known as Dzhezkazgan, is a city in Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan, on a reservoir of the Kara-Kengir River. Its urban area includes the mining town of Satpayev, for a total city population of 148,700. 55% of Jezkagan population are Kazakhs, 30% Russians, with minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Chechens and Koreans. Jezkazgan is situated in the heart of the Kazakh upland. It has an extremely continental climate, rain is frequent but never heavy. The average temperature ranges from 24 °C in July to −16 °C in January, the city was created in 1938 in connection with the exploitation of the rich local copper deposits. In 1973 a large mining and metallurgical complex was constructed to the southeast to smelt the copper that until then had been sent elsewhere for processing, other metal ores mined and processed locally are manganese and iron. Today the city is the headquarters of the copper conglomerate Kazakhmys, the company has subsidiaries in China, Russia and the United Kingdom and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. There is a station, Kazakhmys Power Plant with generation capacity of 207 MW. Although Jezkazgan is centrally located in the country, it has limited connections to the regions by rail. There is a line to the regional capital city Karaganda. The city is accessible by air via Zhezkazgan Airport, soyuz spacecraft returning cosmonauts from outer space land in the remote flat countryside surrounding Jezkazgan. The Baikonur Cosmodrome lies 400 kilometres to the southwest and, by tradition, pyotr Klimuk, cosmonaut Kaisar Nurmagambetov, flatwater canoer Vitaliy Savin, former Soviet athlete Oleg Yankovsky, Russian actor City website Photos of the city