Category:19th-century history books
Pages in category "19th-century history books"
The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. History – History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge. It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
2. Book – A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation. Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See also stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
3. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver, also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is also known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
4. 19th century – The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
5. Anacalypsis – Anacalypsis is a lengthy two-volume treatise written by religious historian Godfrey Higgins, and published after his death in 1836. The book was published in two quarto volumes numbering 1,436 pages, and contains references to hundreds of references. Initially printed as an edition of 200 copies, it was partially reprinted in 1878. In 1965, University Books, Inc. published 500 sets for the United States and 500 sets for the British Commonwealth with Publishers Note and a Postface. A problem that the reader may find in the work of Higgins is that there is not an explanation of the meaning of the word gives the title to his work. In the original edition of 1836 from London, the word Anacalypsis only appears, in addition to the title, the word appears on page 447, in the Recapitulation section, where Higgins reviews and sorts the ideas covered thus far in his work. The original term anacalypsis comes from the Greek ανακάλυψης, which can be translated as discovery or find, the word anacalypsis is the antonym of apocalypse. In fact, the title of the book speaks precisely about this unveiling from the Egyptian goddess Isis, the idea of anacalypsis as unveiling, was discussed in depth by the Russian-born writer and theosophist Helena Blavatsky, in her book Isis Unveiled. The work is the product of more than twenty years of research, during which Higgins tried to uncover a most ancient and universal religion from all later creeds. It includes several maps and lithographic plates of Druidical Monuments, the book itself details many of Higgins beliefs and observations about the development of religion. Higgins used the term Pandeism to describe the society that he purported had existed from ancient times. Higgins believed this continued in secret until the time of his writing. His usage appears related to pantheism, but is distinctly different, while pantheism normally refers to one universal god, the Pandeism described by Higgins, refers to the worship of a family, a union, or a pantheon of gods which are collectively universal. For this opinion I cannot see a shadow of foundation, Higgins was also aware of the similarity between his Pandeism and deism, and demonstrated familiarity with deism, as he mentions deism or deists at several other points in the same work. Higgins noted for example that the Rev. R. Taylor, while more contemporary pandeism evokes both pantheism and deism and suggests their combination, Higgins usage is removed from both. I am induced to think that this Pandeism was a doctrine, thus where Tolands term referred to pan- and -theism, Higgins refers to Pande- and -ism, a wholly English construction indicating allegiance to an ideology. The term related by Higgins refers to a sect of worshipers of these Pans. Higgins concludes that his observations. confirm the very close connexion which there must have been in some former time, between Siam, Afghanistan, Western Syria, and Ireland
6. Burke's Landed Gentry – The gentry of England and Wales played a pivotal role in regional administration for several centuries while a largely un-centralised system of national government prevailed. Such families generally inter-married strictly within their own counties, thus creating a class in each county closely bonded by familial ties. Tenants-in-chief proved to be the monarchs most reliable administrators in the shires because they owed the king personal allegiance and military service as his feudal tenants. They thus derived their status no longer from personal qualities, but purely from the land they held, with the demise of dynastic ambition as a worthy motive, ownership of large estates is generally a temporary situation, with owners becoming bored and moving on elsewhere. The Return of Owners of Land,1873 is significant for being only the second attempt since the Domesday Book at listing the largest landowners by county of England. Burkes Landed Gentry, first published in 1826 and developed by John Burke, remains used by historians and genealogical researchers. The Rashleighs coincidentally provide an example of a gentry family, who were created baronets in 1831. Throughout English history the landed gentry played an important role, particularly during the English Civil War in the 17th century and these landowners had estates of varying sizes and were mostly untitled, save from the knighthoods or baronetcies. Baronets are those not belonging to the peerage, but holding the title of Sir, are usually considered among equals of the lesser aristocracy in Europe. This prompted former PM Harold Macmillans famous reference to more Estonians than Etonians in the Cabinet, hugh Montgomery-Massingberd 2001-6, Burkes Landed Gentry,4 Volumes Burkes Peerage College of Arms www. burkespeerage. com
7. Burke's Peerage – Burke’s Peerage has expanded to provide broader genealogical publications maintaining its premium brand name. Burke’s Peerage has provided authoritative genealogical records of historical families for more than 191 years and its records were originally compiled by members of the Burke family and added to by others to build a unique collection of books of genealogical and heraldic interest. He was also the progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds and his son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms. After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people, including Burke’s Peerage to Sir Henry Mallaby-Deeley, 1st Baronet, the titles and copyright were all reunited by Shaw’s Reference Series, later incorporated in Mercury House Publications, which sold those in 1973 to the Holdway Group. The new board of directors included Jeremy Norman, Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield, entirely new volumes on royal families, country houses of the British Isles and Irish genealogy were published under the Burke’s Peerage name. Since 1826, there have many editions of the periodical, each offering different perspectives on genealogy and history. The holders of titles became, over time, a specialized area for the publications editors. It eventually became the practice for the Crown, on the advice of the Home Secretary, in 1930 King George V decided that no more licences for the use of foreign titles in the UK should be granted. In 1932 a Royal Warrant was issued revoking all licences then in force, with the exception of those issued for the life of the holder, at that time there were 31 dignities which were allowed under the exception clause. Although later editions of Burkes Peerage were concerned with titles only of British origin, Burke’s Peerage was then bought by Joseph Goldberg, who reprinted the immediate previous edition. In 1989, ownership was acquired by Brian Morris, who published the 106th edition in 1999, in 2000, the Wills family licensed the right to publish Burke’s Landed Gentry. After a gap of over 30 years, in 2001, a 19th edition of Burke’s Landed Gentry was published. In 2002 they bought the rights to Burke’s Peerage from Morris Genealogical Books and they produced a fully updated Burkes Peerage 107th edition which was published in 2003. Burkes Peerage Foundation was registered as a UK charity on 5 February 2014 with the object of advancing the education of the public about genealogy, oscar Wilde famously penned in A Woman of No Importance, You should study the Peerage, Gerald. It is the one book a man about town should know thoroughly
8. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae – Each volume contains a critical edition of a Byzantine Greek historical text, accompanied by a parallel Latin translation. Byzantine Literature Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae Irmscher, Johannes, das Bonner Corpus und die Berliner Akademie, Kretika Chronika 7, pp. 360–383. The History of Editing Byzantine Historiographical Texts, pp. 435–445, digitized CSHB on the Documenta Omnia Catholica Fordham Guide to Byzantine Sources in Translation