Category:19th-century history books
Pages in category "19th-century history books"
The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. History – History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge. It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
2. Book – A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation. Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See also stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
3. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver, also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is also known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
4. 19th century – The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
5. Anacalypsis – Anacalypsis is a lengthy two-volume treatise written by religious historian Godfrey Higgins, and published after his death in 1836. The book was published in two quarto volumes numbering 1,436 pages, and contains references to hundreds of references. Initially printed as an edition of 200 copies, it was partially reprinted in 1878. In 1965, University Books, Inc. published 500 sets for the United States and 500 sets for the British Commonwealth with Publishers Note and a Postface. A problem that the reader may find in the work of Higgins is that there is not an explanation of the meaning of the word gives the title to his work. In the original edition of 1836 from London, the word Anacalypsis only appears, in addition to the title, the word appears on page 447, in the Recapitulation section, where Higgins reviews and sorts the ideas covered thus far in his work. The original term anacalypsis comes from the Greek ανακάλυψης, which can be translated as discovery or find, the word anacalypsis is the antonym of apocalypse. In fact, the title of the book speaks precisely about this unveiling from the Egyptian goddess Isis, the idea of anacalypsis as unveiling, was discussed in depth by the Russian-born writer and theosophist Helena Blavatsky, in her book Isis Unveiled. The work is the product of more than twenty years of research, during which Higgins tried to uncover a most ancient and universal religion from all later creeds. It includes several maps and lithographic plates of Druidical Monuments, the book itself details many of Higgins beliefs and observations about the development of religion. Higgins used the term Pandeism to describe the society that he purported had existed from ancient times. Higgins believed this continued in secret until the time of his writing. His usage appears related to pantheism, but is distinctly different, while pantheism normally refers to one universal god, the Pandeism described by Higgins, refers to the worship of a family, a union, or a pantheon of gods which are collectively universal. For this opinion I cannot see a shadow of foundation, Higgins was also aware of the similarity between his Pandeism and deism, and demonstrated familiarity with deism, as he mentions deism or deists at several other points in the same work. Higgins noted for example that the Rev. R. Taylor, while more contemporary pandeism evokes both pantheism and deism and suggests their combination, Higgins usage is removed from both. I am induced to think that this Pandeism was a doctrine, thus where Tolands term referred to pan- and -theism, Higgins refers to Pande- and -ism, a wholly English construction indicating allegiance to an ideology. The term related by Higgins refers to a sect of worshipers of these Pans. Higgins concludes that his observations. confirm the very close connexion which there must have been in some former time, between Siam, Afghanistan, Western Syria, and Ireland
6. Burke's Landed Gentry – The gentry of England and Wales played a pivotal role in regional administration for several centuries while a largely un-centralised system of national government prevailed. Such families generally inter-married strictly within their own counties, thus creating a class in each county closely bonded by familial ties. Tenants-in-chief proved to be the monarchs most reliable administrators in the shires because they owed the king personal allegiance and military service as his feudal tenants. They thus derived their status no longer from personal qualities, but purely from the land they held, with the demise of dynastic ambition as a worthy motive, ownership of large estates is generally a temporary situation, with owners becoming bored and moving on elsewhere. The Return of Owners of Land,1873 is significant for being only the second attempt since the Domesday Book at listing the largest landowners by county of England. Burkes Landed Gentry, first published in 1826 and developed by John Burke, remains used by historians and genealogical researchers. The Rashleighs coincidentally provide an example of a gentry family, who were created baronets in 1831. Throughout English history the landed gentry played an important role, particularly during the English Civil War in the 17th century and these landowners had estates of varying sizes and were mostly untitled, save from the knighthoods or baronetcies. Baronets are those not belonging to the peerage, but holding the title of Sir, are usually considered among equals of the lesser aristocracy in Europe. This prompted former PM Harold Macmillans famous reference to more Estonians than Etonians in the Cabinet, hugh Montgomery-Massingberd 2001-6, Burkes Landed Gentry,4 Volumes Burkes Peerage College of Arms www. burkespeerage. com
7. Burke's Peerage – Burke’s Peerage has expanded to provide broader genealogical publications maintaining its premium brand name. Burke’s Peerage has provided authoritative genealogical records of historical families for more than 191 years and its records were originally compiled by members of the Burke family and added to by others to build a unique collection of books of genealogical and heraldic interest. He was also the progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds and his son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms. After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people, including Burke’s Peerage to Sir Henry Mallaby-Deeley, 1st Baronet, the titles and copyright were all reunited by Shaw’s Reference Series, later incorporated in Mercury House Publications, which sold those in 1973 to the Holdway Group. The new board of directors included Jeremy Norman, Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield, entirely new volumes on royal families, country houses of the British Isles and Irish genealogy were published under the Burke’s Peerage name. Since 1826, there have many editions of the periodical, each offering different perspectives on genealogy and history. The holders of titles became, over time, a specialized area for the publications editors. It eventually became the practice for the Crown, on the advice of the Home Secretary, in 1930 King George V decided that no more licences for the use of foreign titles in the UK should be granted. In 1932 a Royal Warrant was issued revoking all licences then in force, with the exception of those issued for the life of the holder, at that time there were 31 dignities which were allowed under the exception clause. Although later editions of Burkes Peerage were concerned with titles only of British origin, Burke’s Peerage was then bought by Joseph Goldberg, who reprinted the immediate previous edition. In 1989, ownership was acquired by Brian Morris, who published the 106th edition in 1999, in 2000, the Wills family licensed the right to publish Burke’s Landed Gentry. After a gap of over 30 years, in 2001, a 19th edition of Burke’s Landed Gentry was published. In 2002 they bought the rights to Burke’s Peerage from Morris Genealogical Books and they produced a fully updated Burkes Peerage 107th edition which was published in 2003. Burkes Peerage Foundation was registered as a UK charity on 5 February 2014 with the object of advancing the education of the public about genealogy, oscar Wilde famously penned in A Woman of No Importance, You should study the Peerage, Gerald. It is the one book a man about town should know thoroughly
8. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae – Each volume contains a critical edition of a Byzantine Greek historical text, accompanied by a parallel Latin translation. Byzantine Literature Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae Irmscher, Johannes, das Bonner Corpus und die Berliner Akademie, Kretika Chronika 7, pp. 360–383. The History of Editing Byzantine Historiographical Texts, pp. 435–445, digitized CSHB on the Documenta Omnia Catholica Fordham Guide to Byzantine Sources in Translation
9. Critical and Historical Essays (Macaulay) – Critical and Historical Essays, Contributed to the Edinburgh Review is a collection of articles by Thomas Babington Macaulay, later Lord Macaulay. They have been acclaimed for their readability, but criticized for their attachment to the attitudes of the Whig school of history. The essays first appeared in the issues of the Edinburgh Review, Milton, August 1825 Machiavelli, March 1827 Hallam, September 1828 Southeys Colloquies. Over the next twenty years he became one of their most regular and most popular reviewers, in 1843 he was persuaded to collect his reviews in book form, and the Critical and Historical Essays were duly published by Longman in three volumes. Critical and Historical Essays was from the first a successful undertaking, reaching a seventh reprinting by 1849, one 19th century traveller in Australia reported that the books he found there were for the most part copies of the Bible, Shakespeare, and Macaulays Essays. Volume 1, Britain and the Commonwealth, full text at the Internet Archive
10. Cronica Walliae – Cronica Walliae is a manuscript of chronological history by Humphrey Llwyd written in 1559. Llwyd translated versions of a text about Wales history, Brut y Tywysogion, from Welsh. He also added material from Matthew Paris and Nicholas Trivet. It is the first history of Wales written in English and contains material about ancient rulers, Llwyds work gives a history description of Wales that was originally written in the early part of the sixteenth century by Sir John Prise of Brecknockshire, Wales. This manuscript is Llwyds earliest and largest work and it is his only surviving work, and describes in detail the lives of Welsh nobility from Cadwaladr Fendigaid to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and covers from the mid 7th century to the 14th century. Llwyd says his main source was the Welsh Cronicle implicating Caradoc of Llancarfan of the 12th century and his work is based on three different versions of the Chronicle of Caradoc that generally became known as Brut y Tywysogion or The Brut of the Princes. Llwyd relied heavily on material from the writings of Matthew Paris as he is talked about more than any other historian that he used for reference, lywyd used much historical material from Matthew Pariss Chronica Majora and Historia Anglorum. Lewis, Llwyds aim was to show the Welsh had their own history and were an ancient people descended from the Trojans. He summed up his work as the perfecte discription of the Countrey as his was in olde tyme, in 1573, David Powel took over the task of preparing Llwyds manuscript for publication, upon which John Dee had been working before leaving England. Powel expanded Llwyds work in its scope and detail, with the help of Lord Burghley providing access to further documents. The resulting publication in 1584, The Historie of Cambria, now called Wales, was the first printed history of Wales, the work remained an important source for medieval Welsh history for several centuries thereafter. It is the earliest extant written version of the history and it popularised the legend that Prince Madoc had discovered America in about 1170, a tale used to justify English encroachments on the territory of Spanish America. Dee, in particular, was influenced by Llwyds claims and advised Queen Elizabeth I to make this new land a British Empire, Llwyds work was again edited and published by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt and later again by William Maurice of Cefn-y-braich. These later copies were the basis for the 1697 publication of History of Wales that was augmented and improved by William Wynne the historian, a reprint of Powels book of Llwyds work was published in 1811. For centuries, Llwyds original work had been known to scholars only from five surviving manuscripts, in 2002, University of Wales Press published a version of the original manuscript with the title Cronica Walliae. It was prepared mainly by Professor Ieuan M. Williams, the book Cronica Walliae by the University of Wales was published by their History and Law Committee consisting of several scholars. It says there are five known copies of Llwyds work. MS1 BL, Cotton Caligula MS Avi To historians that wrote on Llwyd this was the best known text
11. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon – Later English editions, such as an 1869 Hamburg edition, were entitled The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. The essay discusses the French coup of 1851 in which Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte assumed dictatorial powers and it shows Marx in his form as a social and political historian, treating actual historical events from the viewpoint of his materialist conception of history. Along with Marxs contemporary writings on English politics, the Eighteenth Brumaire is a source for understanding Marxs theory of the capitalist state. The title refers to the Coup of 18 Brumaire in which Napoleon Bonaparte seized power in revolutionary France, the traditions of all the dead generations burden, like a nightmare, the minds of the living. Marxs interpretation of Louis Bonapartes rise and rule is of interest to scholars studying the nature. Many Marxist scholars regard the coup as a forerunner of the phenomenon of 20th-century fascism and he forgot to add, the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce. Caussidière for Danton, Louis Blanc for Robespierre, the Montagne of 1848 to 1851 for the Montagne of 1793 to 1795, and the same caricature occurs in the circumstances of the second edition of the Eighteenth Brumaire. Marxs sentiment echoed an observation made by Friedrich Engels at exactly the same time Marx began work on this book, in a letter to Marx of 3 December 1851, Engels wrote from Manchester. Thus the 18th Brumaire would already be upon us, yet this motif appeared even earlier, in Marxs 1837 unpublished novel Scorpion and Felix, this time with a comparison between the first Napoleon and King Louis Philippe, Every giant. Presupposes a dwarf, every genius a hidebound philistine, the first are too great for this world, and so they are thrown out. But the latter strike root in it and remain, caesar the hero leaves behind him the play-acting Octavianus, Emperor Napoleon the bourgeois king Louis Philippe. Marxist philosophy Historical materialism The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon Preface to the Second Edition The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Charles H. Kerr, the Eighteenth Brumaire Of Louis Bonaparte, International Publishers, New York City,1963
12. The French Revolution: A History – The French Revolution, A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle. The three-volume work, first published in 1837, charts the course of the French Revolution from 1789 to the height of the Reign of Terror and culminates in 1795. John Stuart Mill, a friend of Carlyles, found himself caught up in other projects, when he had completed the first volume, Carlyle sent his only complete manuscript to Mill. While in Mills care the manuscript was destroyed, according to Mill by a household maid who mistook it for trash. Carlyle then rewrote the manuscript, achieving what he described as a book that came direct. The book immediately established Carlyles reputation as an important 19th century intellectual and it also served as a major influence on a number of his contemporaries, most notably, perhaps, Charles Dickens, who compulsively read and re-read the book while producing A Tale of Two Cities. The book was studied by Mark Twain during the last year of his life. As a historical account, The French Revolution has been both praised and bitterly criticized for its style of writing, which is highly unorthodox within historiography. Most historians attempt to assume a neutral, detached tone of writing and this, naturally, involves the reader by simulating the history itself instead of solely recounting historical events. Supporters, on the hand, often label it as ingenious. John D. Rosenberg, a Professor of humanities at Columbia University, much of the power of The French Revolution lies in the shock of its transpositions, the explosive interpenetration of modern fact and ancient myth, of journalism and Scripture. The result is a work of history that is entirely unique. Carlyles French Revolution, History, Vol. XLVIII, No, a Disimprisoned Epic, Form and Vision in Carlyles French Revolution. Carlyles General Method in the French Revolution, PMLA, Vol.43, contemporary Criticism of Carlyles French Revolution, The Sewanee Review, Vol.20, No. Carlyle and Taine on the French Revolution, The Gentlemans Magazine, Vol. CCLXXVII, the French Revolution, A History, annotated HTML text, based on the Project Gutenberg version. The French Revolution, A History available at Internet Archive, scanned books, original editions, the French Revolution, A History, with illustrations by E. J. Sullivan. The French Revolution, A History,1934 edition, the French Revolution at Classic Reader, HTML The French Revolution public domain audiobook at LibriVox
13. History of Rome (Mommsen) – The History of Rome is a multi-volume history of ancient Rome written by Theodor Mommsen. Originally published by Reimer & Hirsel, Leipzig, as three volumes during 1854–1856, the work dealt with the Roman Republic, a subsequent book was issued which concerned the provinces of the Roman Empire. Recently published was a book on the Empire, reconstructed from lecture notes. The initial three volumes won widespread acclaim upon publication, indeed, The Roman History made Mommsen famous in a day, still read and qualifiedly cited, it is the prolific Mommsens most well-known work. The work was cited when Mommsen was awarded the Nobel Prize. Writing the History followed Mommsens earlier achievements in the study of ancient Rome and he had not himself designed to write a history, but the opportunity presented itself in 1850 while at the University of Leipzig where Mommsen was a thirty-two-year-old special Professor of Law. Invited to give a public lecture while at Leipzig, I delivered an address on the Gracchi, Reimer and Hirzel, the publishers, were present, and two days later they asked me to write a Roman History for their series. Having been dismissed from the University for revolutionary activities, Mommsen would accept the publishing proposal partly for my livelihood, the publishers specified that the work focus on events and circumstances, and avoid discussing the scholarly process. As a scholar Mommsen was a party in recent advances made in ancient Roman studies. Yet Mommsen also had experience as a journalist. He might well manage to become an academic author. It is high time for such a work, Mommsen wrote to an associate in Roman studies, originally the History was conceived as a five volume work, spanning Roman history from its inception to the emperor Diocletian. These three volumes did indeed become popular, very popular, here was scientific learning with the stylistic vigor of a novel. These first three volumes of the Römische Geschichte retained their popularity in Germany, with eight editions being published in Mommsens lifetime, following his death in 1903, an additional eight German editions have issued. After repeated delays the projected fourth volume was eventually abandoned, or at least not completed, in 1885, however, Mommsen had ready another work on ancient Rome, later translated into English as The Provinces of the Roman Empire. In Germany it was published as the volume of his Römische Geschichte. In thirteen chapters it describes the different imperial provinces, each as a stand-alone subject, here there was no running narration of major Roman political events, often dramatic, as was the case in Mommsens popular chronological telling of his earlier volumes. In 1992, a reconstruction of Mommsens missing fourth volume on the Empire was issued, the contemporary English translations were the work of William Purdie Dickson, then the Professor of Divinity at the University of Glasgow
14. History of Woman Suffrage – History of Woman Suffrage is a book that was produced by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Ida Husted Harper, published in six volumes from 1881 to 1922, it is a history of the womens suffrage movement, primarily in the United States. Written from the viewpoint of the wing of the movement led by Stanton and Anthony, its coverage of rival groups, as sole owner, she published the books herself and donated many copies to libraries and people of influence. In her will, Anthony bequeathed the plates for all the volumes together with the inventory to the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, leaders of National Woman Suffrage Association, the project dominated their lives for much of the next decade, although Anthony in particular also maintained a busy schedule of lecturing and other womens suffrage activities. Originally envisioned as a modest publication that would take four months to write. It was completed in 1922, long after the deaths of Stanton, the first volume is dedicated to the memory of pioneering women in the movement, with Mary Wollstonecraft, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, prominently listed first. The first three volumes, which cover the history of the movement from its beginnings to 1885, were written and edited by Stanton, Anthony, Volume 1 appeared in 1881, Volume 2 in 1882 and Volume 3 in 1886. Some early chapters first appeared in Gages newspaper, The National Citizen, Anthony had for years saved letters, newspapers clippings, and similar materials of historical value to the womens suffrage movement. In 1876 she shipped several trunks and boxes of materials to the Stanton house in New Jersey. Anthony hated this type of work, in her letters, she said the project makes me feel growly all the time. No warhorse ever panted for the rush of battle more than I for outside work, I love to make history but hate to write it. The work inevitably led to disagreements, when Stanton was ill for several months in 1881, her daughter Harriet completed her editorial work for volume 2. Stanton wrote much of the text, providing it with her distinct historical interpretation, Gage wrote several historical essays, including a long one that critically assesses Christianitys attitude toward women throughout history. Gage also provided a significant number of documents to the project and was adept at tracking down additional documentation in libraries. In addition to chronicling the movements activities, the volumes include reminiscences of movement leaders. They also contain a variety of materials, including letters, newspaper clippings, speeches, court transcripts and decisions. Volume three includes essays by local womens rights activists who provided details about the history of the movement at the state level, at Anthonys insistence, the volumes were indexed by a professional indexer and include many expensive steel engravings of womens rights leaders
15. In the Kingdom of Ice – In The Kingdom of Ice, The Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage of the USS Jeannette,2014, is a non-fiction book written by the author and historian Hampton Sides. The book tells the story of the 1879–1881 arctic voyage of the USS Jeannette. Sports enthusiast, owner of the New York Herald newspaper and financier, august Heinrich Petermann, German cartographer whose theory helped spawn the polar expedition. George W. De Long, Commander of the expedition and officer in the United States Navy, charles W. Chipp, Lieutenant in the United States Navy and De Longs second-in-command. George W. Melville, Engineer, explorer, and officer in the United States Navy, chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. John Wilson Danenhower, Explorer and officer in the United States Navy, Time, In The Kingdom of Ice brings cold comfort. The New York Times, Abandon Ship, the Miami Herald, In the Kingdom of Ice recreates a disastrous Arctic voyage. USA Today, Crack into this harrowing Ice survival tale, the Christian Science Monitor, In the Kingdom of Ice follows a disaster-ridden journey to the North Pole. The Washington Post, Book review, “In the Kingdom of Ice”, the Los Angeles Times, Kingdom of Ice uncovers a polar adventure frozen in time. The Wall Street Journal, Book Review, In the Kingdom of Ice by Hampton Sides, daily Mail, Russian bid to raise wreck of US Navy ship. The Huffington Post, What Can a 19th Century Arctic Shipwreck Tell Us About the 21st Centurys Most Wicked Problem, the Diane Rehm Show, Hampton Sides, “In the Kingdom of Ice”. Weekend Edition, In 1879, Explorers Set Sail To Solve Arctic Mystery, the Wall Street Journal, Why an 1879 Voyage Is a Time Machine for Climate Change. Imus in the Morning, A survival story of polar exploration in the Gilded Age, Jeannette Expedition USS Jeannette Lena Delta De Long Islands
16. Monumenta Germaniae Historica – The editor from 1826 until 1874 was Georg Heinrich Pertz, in 1875 he was succeeded by Georg Waitz. The MGH was founded in Hanover as a text publication society by the Prussian reformer Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr vom Stein in 1819. The first volume appeared in 1826, the editor from 1826 until 1874 was Georg Heinrich Pertz, who was succeeded by Georg Waitz. Many eminent medievalists from Germany and, eventually, other countries, joined in the project of searching out and comparing manuscripts, the motto chosen, Sanctus amor patriae dat animum is explained as linking Romantic nationalism with professional scholarship. In 1875 the MGH was established as a formal institution with headquarters in Berlin. It was taken over by the state in 1935 and renamed the Reichsinstitut für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde and it moved into its current premises in the building of the Bavarian State Library in 1967. The project, an effort of historical scholarship, continues in the 21st century. The series falls into five divisions, Antiquitates, Diplomata, Epistolae, Leges and Scriptores. Many subsidiary series have also established, including a series of more compact volumes for school use. Historiography of Germany Wilhelm Levison Knowles, M. D, presidential Address, Great Historical Enterprises III. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Great Historical Enterprises, problems in monastic history. 2015 list of publications The MGH homepage Digital MGH homepage Monumenta Germaniae Historica on Archive. org
17. Monumenta Slavorum – Publishing of the monuments commenced the following year, primarily of those that confirm the Croatian state law, in the series Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum Meridionalium. The laws of egdotics were used in publishing the sources, in accordance with the principles of contemporary European historiography. After long delays, and only periodic publishing, the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts has revived the issuance of MSHSM after 1990,53 volumes were published in total. Monumenta historico-juridica Slavorum Meridionalium commenced publishing in 1877 with a series Statuta et leges, in this series sources collected by Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski and Radslav Lopašić were printed. Only 13 volumes were published in the series, the last one in 1979
18. The Old Regime and the Revolution – LAncien Régime et la Révolution is a work by the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville translated in English as either The Old Regime and the Revolution or The Old Regime and the French Revolution. The book analyzes French society before the French Revolution—the so-called Ancien Régime—and investigates the forces caused the Revolution. It is one of the early historical works on the French Revolution. It was essentially a movement for political and social reform, contrary to the views expressed by the participants in the Revolution themselves, there was an increase in neither the power nor the jurisdiction of the central authority. Instead, control of these forms was wrested from the monarchy and transferred in quick succession first to the People themselves, the Revolution never intended to change the whole nature of the traditional society. The Revolution set out to them with a new social and political order, based on the concepts of freedom. In France, both before and after the Revolution, people relied on central authority instead of becoming economically or politically active themselves, by contrast, in the United States, political action permeated to even the lower levels of society. There, private individuals formed the basis of economic and political life, but, in France, another theme was the complete dissociation between French social classes, called the Estates, of which there were three – the clergy, the nobility, and the common people. The nobility lost all connection with the common poor, the growing middle class emulated the nobility. By the late 18th Century, the separation of classes was complete, economic sociology LAncien Régime et la Révolution at Gallica The Old Regime and the Revolution at Archive. org
19. Satanism and Witchcraft (book) – Satanism and Witchcraft is a book by Jules Michelet on the history of witchcraft, published, originally in French, in 1862. The first English translation was published in London in 1863, according to Michelet, medieval witchcraft was an act of popular rebellion against the oppression of feudalism and the Roman Catholic Church. This rebellion took the form of a secret religion inspired by paganism and fairy beliefs, the participants in the secret religion met regularly at the witches sabbath and the Black Mass. Michelets account is openly sympathetic to the sufferings of peasants and women in the Middle Ages. My strong point is to start, not from the devil, from an empty conception, but from a reality, the Sorceress. The first part of the book is a reconstruction of the experience of a series of witches who lead the religion from its original form of social protest into decadence. The second part is a series of episodes in the European witch trials, today the book is regarded as being largely inaccurate, but still notable for being one of the first sympathetic histories of witchcraft, and as such it may have had an indirect influence on Wicca. In the early 1970s, La Sorcière became the basis for the anime film, La Sorcière de Jules Michelet, lenvers de lhistoire, ed. Paule Petitier
20. Sekka Zusetu – Sekka Zusetsu is a figure collection written by Doi Toshitsura, the 4th Daimyo of Koga Domain in 1832. Koga Domain was located at the center of the Kanto Plain, unlike other areas, the people in Koga Domain had lots of snow, so the territory of the domain was a good place to observe snowflakes. This figure collection of his is highly valued today in Japan as the first Japanese figure collection of snowflakes and its said that Toshitsura had many difficulties to observe snowflake properly because snowflakes need -10 to -15 Celsius degrees temperature to hold their correct shapes. So Toshitsura had to them under very cold temperatures. This book was written for him and his family, but it had influence on Japanese textile-patterns also. As soon as he wrote the book, snowflake-pattern became popular among people in Edo. This figure collection is now available on the Internet, put a cloth colored black outside at night when it seems to snow to make it cold. If you get snowflake, pick them up carefully and put into a cup colored black, be careful not to breathe on them, and observe them by using microscope