Category:19th century in Edinburgh
Pages in category "19th century in Edinburgh"
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Burke and Hare murders – The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland. The killings were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Doctor Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures. Edinburgh was a leading European centre of study in the early 19th century. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings, the shortage of corpses led to an increase in grave robbing by what were known as resurrection men. Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage, when a lodger in Hares house died, he turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox. They received what was, for them, the sum of £7 10s. A little over two months later, when Hare was concerned that a lodger suffering from fever would deter others from staying in the house, he and Burke murdered her, the men continued their murder spree, probably with the knowledge of their wives. Burke and Hares actions were uncovered after other lodgers discovered their last victim, Margaret Docherty, a forensic examination of Dochertys body indicated she had probably been suffocated, but it could not be proven. Although the police suspected the men of other murders, there was no evidence on which they could take action, an offer was put to Hare granting immunity from prosecution if he turned kings evidence. He provided the details of Dochertys murder and confessed to all 16 deaths, formal charges were made against Burke, at the subsequent trial Burke was found guilty of one murder and sentenced to death. The case against his wife was found not proven—a Scottish legal verdict to acquit an individual, Burke was hanged shortly afterwards, his corpse was dissected and his skeleton displayed at the Anatomical Museum of Edinburgh Medical School where, as of 2017, it remains. The murders raised public awareness of the need for bodies for medical research, the events have made appearances in literature, and been portrayed on screen, either in heavily fictionalised accounts or as the inspiration for fictional works. Because of their efforts, Edinburgh became one of the leading European centres of study, alongside Leiden in the Netherlands. The teaching of anatomy—crucial in the study of surgery—required a sufficient supply of cadavers, Scottish law determined that suitable corpses on which to undertake the dissections were those who died in prison, suicide victims, and the bodies of foundlings and orphans. The situation was confused by the legal position, disturbing a grave was a criminal offence, as was the taking of property from the deceased. Stealing the body was not an offence, as it did not legally belong to anyone, the price per corpse changed depending on the season. By the 1820s the residents of Edinburgh had taken to the streets to protest at the increase in grave robbing, other families used a mortsafe, an iron cage that surrounded the coffin. Knox was an anatomist who had qualified as a doctor in 1814, after contracting smallpox as a child, he was blind in one eye and badly disfigured
2. First International Forestry Exhibition – The First International Forestry Exhibition was a worlds fair held in 1884 was the first international gathering focusing on forestry. It was opened by the Marquess of Lothian and held in the grounds of Donaldsons College, Edinburgh, in the late 19th century with Scotland, now established as the British centre for forestry and successful forestry education in established in Dehradun this fair was held. Countries and colonies were being invited to produce papers and exhibit products for judgment by British, participants included Cape Colony, India and Poland. Chile was invited but did not attend due to an unforeseen accident, exhibits included trugs, maps and publications from participating countries, a fallen fir with heath growing on it and a fountain. R. A. Cross, Secretary of State for India presented wood from Malabar to the exhibition
3. Great Fire of Edinburgh – The Great Fire of Edinburgh was one of the most destructive fires in the history of Edinburgh. It started on Monday, November 15,1824, and lasted for five days, the fire broke out around 10pm on November 15,1824, in Kirkwoods engraving workshop on the second floor of the Old Assembly Close, a narrow alleyway just off the High Street. The city of Edinburgh had formed a permanent fire brigade only two months earlier under its new firemaster James Braidwood, by midnight, four tenements were ablaze as the fire advanced towards the Cowgate. The Old Assembly Hall at the centre of the fire was destroyed during the night, around midday on Tuesday, November 16, the spire on the Tron Kirk caught fire and molten lead began to pour from its roof. Although firemen succeeded in reaching the roof of the church, the fierceness of the blaze forced them back, at 10pm on Tuesday evening a secondary outbreak occurred in buildings on the corner of High Street and Parliament Close. This blaze started on the top floor of a building overlooking the Cowgate. This led to claims of divine intervention and punishment from God and it was more likely the result of a still smouldering ember. This second phase of the fire began to consume the buildings on the east side of Parliament Close, efforts focused on saving the adjacent Parliament Hall and Law Courts, and stopping the fire leaping to St Giles Cathedral. A young David Octavius Hill made watercolour sketches during this second phase, by 5am on Wednesday 19 November, the fire was described as grand and terrific. The building housing the Edinburgh Courant collapsed and the continued to spread down Conns Close towards the Cowgate. Due mainly to a downpour of rain, the conflagration was brought under control by Wednesday evening, although small outbreaks continued, over the following days, engineers from the castle and navy were employed to pull down the highly unsafe remnants of buildings left precariously balanced along the closes. Several printworks destroyed An estimated 400 homes were destroyed, with 400-500 families left homeless, thirteen lives were lost including those of two firemen and many people were injured. Amidst mounting public criticism of the new brigade and its young firemaster. Braidwood and his pioneers were exonerated from all blame, the inquiry found that there had been confusion as to who had been in charge of the firefighting operation. Public officials, assuming authority under older municipal regulations, were found to have issued orders to the harassed firemen. The inquiry also criticised the number of firecocks that had been available to the firefighters. Within a year the number for the town was increased from 45 to 97. The brigade was also fully re-equipped, the fire opened the way for a more formal completion of the Scottish Law Courts in Parliament Square
4. 1871 Scotland versus England rugby union match – The 1871 rugby union match between Scotland and England was a single international rugby union match played between the Scotland and England national rugby union teams on 27 March 1871. This was the very first international rugby union match, and was played at Raeburn Place. The match was won by Scotland which scored two tries and a goal to Englands single try, the game was played at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh, the home ground of Edinburgh Academicals, on 27 March 1871. The English team wore all white, with a red rose on its shirts, three international matches played according to Association Football rules had already taken place at the Oval, London, in 1870 and 1871. The game, played two halves, each of 50 minutes, was won by Scotland, who scored a goal with a successful conversion kick after grounding the ball over the goal line. Both sides achieved a further try each, but failed to convert them to goals, angus Buchanan was the first man to score a try in international rugby. In a return match at the Kennington Oval, London, in 1872, the matches for this season were decided on goals scored. A goal was awarded for a conversion after a try. If a game was drawn, any unconverted tries were tallied to give a winner, if there was still no clear winner, the match was declared a draw. The weather was fine, and there was a large turnout of spectators. The competitors were dressed in costume, the English wearing a white jersey, ornamented by a red rose. Although the good wishes of the spectators went with the Scotch team, the difference between the two teams was very marked, the English being of a much heavier and stronger build compared to their opponents. The game commenced shortly after three oclock, the Scotch getting the kick off, and for some time neither side had any advantage and this finished the first 50 minutes, and the teams changed sides. For a considerable time after the change the ball was sent from side to side, by some lucky runs, however, the Scotch got on to the borders of the English land, and tried to force the ball past the goal. The English strenuously opposed this attempt, and for a time the struggle was terrible, ending in the Scotch touching down in their opponents ground and becoming entitled to a try. This result was received with cheers, which were more heartily renewed when Cross, to whom the kick off was entrusted, made a beautiful goal. After this the Scotch became more cautious, and playing well together secured after several attempts a try, but good luck did not attend the kick off. Time being then declared up the game ceased, the Scotch winning by a goal, the Phoenix Book of International Rugby Records
5. Tron riot – The Tron riot was a riot which occurred in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1811–12. It took place in the citys Old Town, in the vicinity of the Tron Kirk, on the night of New Years Eve and during the early hours of the next day, a group of young men, including the Keellie Gang, attacked and robbed wealthier passers-by. One police officer was killed in the riot, sixty-eight youths were arrested, and five were sentenced to death. The early nineteenth century in Edinburgh was a time of tension between residents of the citys crowded Old Town, and the inhabitants of New Town. Class divisions had become apparent with this architectural separation. Furthermore, conflicts, riots and social disorder were common throughout Scotland at that time, the Old Town was inhabited by a number of gangs of young men, one group was the Keellie Gang, led by Hugh MacDonald and Hugh McIntosh. Police officers had given more powers, and this was resented. The petty crimes perpetrated by gangs like the Keellies were increasingly being quashed by authorities and it was the tradition for New Town residents to come to the Old Town to celebrate Hogmanay in the streets around the Tron Kirk, which was the parish church at the time. After midnight, crowds would move around the area, travelling to friends homes as part of the custom of First-Footing. According to later testimony, the Keellie Gang had been planning during the last weeks of 1811 to take advantage of the rich New Town Hogmanay crowds. On 31 December, the Keellie Gang members began attacking passers-by in the streets of the Old Town, victims were surrounded by youths with wooden sticks, threatened, in some cases knocked to the ground, and robbed. A member of the town watch named Dugald Campbell was attacked by a group of the youths in Stamp Office Close and he was beaten with sticks and left to die. Evidently Campbell was known to the gang, and disliked by them, Campbell was taken to the Royal Infirmary, and died from his injuries on 3 January. Monetary rewards of 300 guineas were offered by the Town Council for information leading to the arrest of his attackers, victims and witnesses described many of the rioters as boys and young lads. By the end of the month,68 youths had been arrested and they were described as a band of idle apprentices. Key perpetrators were seen to be John Skelton, Hugh McIntosh, Hugh MacDonald, all four were sentenced to death along with James Johnstone, who was never apprehended. Skeltons sentence was commuted to transportation for life on account of his previous good character. On 22 April, McIntosh, Sutherland and MacDonald were hanged in Stamp Office Close, mcIntoshs body was sent for anatomical dissection, while Sutherland and MacDonald were buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard