Pages in category "20th-century avalanches"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1970 Ancash earthquake – The 1970 Ancash earthquake occurred on 31 May off the coast of Peru in the Pacific Ocean at 15,23,29 local time. Combined with a resultant landslide, it was the worst catastrophic natural disaster in the history of Peru. Due to the amounts of snow and ice included in the landslide and its estimated 66,794 to 70,000 casualties. The undersea earthquake struck on a Sunday afternoon and lasted about 45 seconds, the shock affected the Peruvian regions of Ancash and La Libertad. The epicenter was located 35 km off the coast of Casma and Chimbote in the Pacific Ocean and it had a moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII. Reports of damage and casualties from Tumbes to Pisco and Iquitos in the east, damage and panic scenes were reported in some parts of Ecuador. Tremors were felt too in western and central Brazil and it was a system-wide disaster, impacting such a widespread area that the regional infrastructure of communications, commerce, and transportation was destroyed. Economic losses surpassed half a billion US dollars, cities, towns, villages as well as the homes, industries, public buildings, schools, electrical, water, sanitary and communications facilities on them were seriously damaged or destroyed. Trujillo, the third largest city, and Huarmey suffered minor damage. In Chimbote, Carhuaz and Recuay, about 80% to 90% of buildings were destroyed, the Pan-American highway was also damaged, which made the arrival of humanitarian aid difficult. The Cañón del Pato hydroelectricity generator was damaged by the Santa River, the Peruvian government has forbidden excavation in the area where the town of Yungay is buried, declaring it a national cemetery. The children who survived in the oca stadium were resettled around the world, in 2000, the tragedy inspired the government to declare 31 May as Natural Disaster Education and Reflection Day. Every 31 May, many schools of Peru practice an earthquake drill to commemorate this disaster, the northern wall of Mount Huascarán was destabilized, causing a rock, ice and snow avalanche and burying the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The avalanche started as a mass of glacial ice and rock about 910 metres wide and 1.6 km long. It advanced about 18 kilometres to the village of Yungay at an speed of 280 to 335 km per hour. The fast-moving mass picked up glacial deposits and by the time it reached Yungay, it is estimated to have consisted of about 80 million m³ of water, mud and rocks. List of earthquakes in Peru Peru–Chile Trench Sources IRIS SeismoArchive for 1970 Peru earthquake – IRIS Consortium Yungay 1970-2009, remembering the tragedy of The Earthquake – Peruvian Times
2. 1972 Manaslu Nepal avalanche – The following events occurred in April 1972, For the first time in history, all scheduled National League and American League games were called off by a strike. The MLBPAs representatives voted 47–0 to call a walkout in a dispute over player pensions, the remaining four days of exhibitions were cancelled, and the April 5 season openers were postponed. The strike was resolved by April 15, New Zealand law created the Accident Compensation Corporation, which eliminated personal injury lawsuits in favor of an insurance system that compensates injured persons regardless of fault. If he was captured, he would be a propaganda and intelligence bonanza for the North Vietnamese, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, the second radio station in the Republic of Ireland began broadcasting. The Little Tramp, now 82, had invited back for the Academy Awards. Died, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.63, first black U. S, representative from New York Hodding Carter,65, progressive U. S. journalist A tornado killed six people in Vancouver, Washington, an area generally immune from twisters. Striking at 12,51 p. m. the storm injured 70 children at Vancouvers Ogden Elementary School, in response to the invasion of South Vietnam by troops from the north, more than 400 American airplanes bombed North Vietnam in the heaviest attacks there since 1968. United Airlines Flight 855 was hijacked en route from Newark to Los Angeles, and diverted to San Francisco, where the 85 passengers were released in exchange for $500,000 ransom and parachutes. After the 727 returned to the air, the skyjacker, Richard McCoy, Jr. then bailed out a few south of Provo, Utah. McCoy landed safely and hitchhiked home, and was not caught until two days later, the Federal Election Campaign Act went into effect,60 days after it had been signed into law by President Nixon.5 meters. The mark was set at the Texas Relays in Austin, Texas, United States President Richard Nixon and Soviet President Nikolai Podgorny signed the Biological Weapons Convention, in their respective capitals of Washington and Moscow. Representatives from 74 other nations signed the treaty at the Washington ceremony, thousands of persons were killed by an earthquake that struck in the Fars province of Iran. The body of Oberdan Sallustro, the manager of FIAT operations in Argentina, was found near Buenos Aires,20 days after he had been kidnapped by the Peoples Revolutionary Army. On the same day, the terrorist organization assassinated General Juan Carlos Sanchez as he was being driven to his office in Rosario, fifteen mountain climbers were killed by an avalanche while attempting to climb Manaslu, the worlds eighth tallest mountain. The South Korean financed expedition consisted of four Koreans, a Japanese cameraman, the city of Fujimi was founded in Japan. For the first time, the deliberations of the United States bishops of the Roman Catholic Church were opened to the press, seventy-five reporters were invited to the meeting, held in Atlanta. Cardinal John Krol then delivered his speech in Latin, cardinal Krol told reporters, We told you wed let you in. We didnt tell you what language wed talk, the United States Senate voted 68–16 to approve the War Powers Act, which would limit the power of the President to commit American forces to hostilities without Congressional approval
3. 1910 Rogers Pass avalanche – The 1910 Rogers Pass Avalanche killed 62 men clearing a railroad line near the summit of Rogers Pass through the Selkirk Mountains in British Columbia on March 4,1910. It is Canadas worst avalanche disaster, the Canadian Pacific Railways line through Rogers Pass completed its transcontinental railroad through to Canadas west coast, and at the time was the only such link. It was therefore of importance to keep it open through the winter months. Although completed in November 1885 it was abandoned as throughout that winter, up to 12 metres of snow buried the line. A costly system of 31 snow sheds was constructed to protect the most vulnerable sections of line, however, most of the route through the pass was still unprotected, meaning that men and equipment were often called upon to clear the track. The winter of 1909–1910 provided conditions particularly conducive to avalanches, many slides being experienced during January and February, on March 1,96 people had been killed further south in the Wellington avalanche in Washington State. Three days later on the evening of March 4 work crews were dispatched to clear a big slide which had fallen from Cheops Mountain, the crew consisted of a locomotive-driven rotary snowplow and 63 men. Time was critical as westbound CPR Train Number 97 was just entering the Rocky Mountains, half an hour before midnight as the track was nearly clear, an unexpected avalanche swept down the opposite side of the track to the first fall. Around 400 metres of track were buried, the 91-ton locomotive and plow were hurled 15 metres to land upside-down. The wooden cars behind the locomotive were crushed and all but one of the workmen were instantly buried in the deep snow, the only survivor was Billy Lachance the locomotive fireman who had been knocked over by the wind accompanying the fall but otherwise remained unscathed. When news of the disaster reached nearby Revelstoke a relief consisting of 200 railmen, physicians. They found no casualties to treat, it became a mission to clear the tracks, many of the dead were found standing upright, frozen in position, reminiscent of Pompeii. Among the dead were 32 Japanese workers, the disaster was not the first to befall the pass, in all over 200 people had been killed by avalanches there since the line was opened 26 years previously. The CPR finally accepted defeat and in 1913 began boring the five mile long Connaught Tunnel through Mount Macdonald, at the time Canadas longest tunnel and it was opened on December 13,1916, and the railway abandoned the pass. Transcripts of contemporary newspapers - GenDisasters
4. Wellington, Washington – Wellington was a small unincorporated community and railroad community on the Great Northern Railway in northeastern King County, Washington. Founded in 1893, it was located at the west portal of the original Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass and it is infamous for being the site of the March 1,1910 Wellington avalanche, the worst avalanche in United States history, in which 96 people died. After the disaster, the name was changed to Tye, after the nearby Tye River. Tye was abandoned in 1929 when the second Cascade Tunnel came into use and this ghost town went on to have an elementary school built and named after it. Wellington Elementary is a school in the Northshore School District. The Wellington avalanche was the worst avalanche, measured in terms of lives lost, for nine days at the end of February 1910, the little town of Wellington, Washington was assailed by a terrible blizzard. Wellington was a Great Northern Railway stop high in the Cascades, on the west side of the old Cascade Tunnel, as much as a foot of snow fell every hour, and, on the worst day,11 feet of snow fell. Two trains, a train and a mail train, both bound from Spokane to Seattle, were trapped in the depot. Late on February 28, the stopped and was replaced by rain. Just after 1 a. m. on March 1, as a result of a lightning strike, a ten-foot high mass of snow, half a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, fell toward the town. A forest fire had ravaged the slopes above the town. The avalanche missed the Bailets Hotel, but hit the railroad depot, most of the passengers and crew were asleep aboard their trains. The impact threw the trains 150 feet downhill and into the Tye River valley, ninety six people were killed, including 35 passengers,58 Great Northern employees on the trains, and three railroad employees in the depot. Twenty-three passengers survived, they were pulled from the wreckage by railroad employees who immediately rushed from the hotel, the work was soon abandoned, it was not until 21 weeks later, during late July, that it was possible for the last of the bodies to be retrieved. This was not the only avalanche in the region that winter, three days later,63 railroad workers were killed in an avalanche nearby in British Columbia. Wellington was quietly renamed Tye during October 1910 because of the unpleasant associations of the old name, in the same month, the Great Northern Railway began construction of concrete snow sheds to shelter the nearby tracks. The Wellington depot was closed when the second Cascade Tunnel was completed during 1929, the town was then abandoned and it eventually burned. Gary Sherman, Conquest and Catastrophe, The Triumph and Tragedy of the Great Northern Railway Through Stevens Pass, train disaster at Wellington kills 96 on March 1,1910
5. Winter of Terror – The Winter of Terror was the three-month period during the winter of 1950–1951 when an unprecedented number of avalanches took place in the Alps. The series of 649 avalanches killed over 256 people and caused large amounts of damage to residential, Austria suffered most damage and loss of human life with 135 killed and many villages destroyed. Thousands of acres of valuable forest were also damaged during the period. The Valais canton of Switzerland suffered 92 human deaths, approximately 500 cattle deaths, as in Austria, economically important forests were also damaged during the period. The Swiss town of Andermatt in the Adula Alps was hit by six avalanches within a 60-minute period, more than 600 buildings were destroyed and over 40,000 people were buried under snow
6. Yungay, Peru – Yungay is a town in the Ancash Region in north central Peru, South America. Yungay is located in the Callejón de Huaylas on Río Santa at an elevation of approximately 2,500 meters,450 km north of Lima, the countrys capital. East of the town are the mountain ridges of snow-covered Cordillera Blanca, with Huascarán, Perus highest mountain. Yungay is the capital of Yungay Province, as well as the town in the Yungay District. While the town counts approximately 10,000 inhabitants Yungay Province has a population of 60,000, the Province of Yungay occupies part of the Callejón de Huaylas, the Conchucos Valley, the coast of Ancash and the Huascarán National Park. This caused an avalanche, burying the town of Yungay. More than 50 million cubic meters of debris slid approximately 15 kilometers downhill at an angle of about 14 degrees, speeds between 340 mph to 620 mph were achieved. Only 92 people survived, most of whom were in the cemetery and stadium at the time of the earthquake, the Peruvian government has forbidden excavation in the area where the old town of Yungay is buried, declaring it a national cemetery. The current town was rebuilt 1 mile north of the destroyed city, according to Sawyer, when this was reported in the Espreso newspaper, the government ordered them to retract or face prison, and they fled the country. Citizens were forcibly prevented from speaking of an impending disaster, eight years later the prediction came true. Ancash Region Yungay Province Oliver-Smith, Anthony, The Martyred City, albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8263-0864-3 Murphy, Alan, Peru Handbook. Bath, Footprint ISBN 0-8442-2187-2 Caves Guitarrero caves near Yungay, first agriculture evidence of Peru 10,000 years ago Earthquake of 31 May 1970 Earthquake 31 May 1970 Earthquake 31 May 1970