Category:20th century in Manila
Pages in category "20th century in Manila"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Battle of Manila (1945) – The one-month battle, which culminated in the massacre of over 100,000 civilians and complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater. Along with the loss of lives, the battle also destroyed architectural and cultural heritage dating back since the citys foundation. The battle ended the almost three years of Japanese military occupation in the Philippines, the citys capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthurs key to victory in the campaign of reconquest. On 9 January 1945, the Sixth U. S. Army under Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger waded ashore on Lingayen Gulf, MacArthur ordered Krueger to advance rapidly to Manila. The 37th Infantry Division, under the command of Major Gen. Robert S. Beightler, headed south. After landing at San Fabian on 27 Jan. the 1st Cavalry Division, free the internees at Santo Tomas. Take Malacanang Palace and the Legislative Building, meanwhile, the 11th A/B Divisions 511th Regimental Combat Team of Col. Orin D. Hard Rock Haugen parachuted onto Tagaytay Ridge on 4 February, Yamashita had withdrawn his main forces to Baguio City, where he planned to hold back the Filipino and U. S. forces in northern Luzon, poised for the invasion of Japan. In 1941, General Douglas MacArthur had declared Manila an open city before its capture, however, Rear Admiral Iwabuchi Sanji, commander of the 31st Naval Special Base Force, was committed to following the naval program, rather than the army program of abandoning the city. Prior to being promoted to Admiral, Sanji had commanded the battleship Kirishima in 1942 when she was sunk by a US Navy task force off Guadalcanal, Iwabuchi had 12,500 men under his command, designated the Manila Naval defence Force. Iwabuchi was joined by 4500 army personnel under the command of Col. Katsuzo Noguchi and they built defensive positions in the city, including Intramuros, cut down the palm trees on Dewey Blvd. to form a runway, and set up barricades across major streets. Iwabuchi formed the Northern Force under Noguchi, and the Southern Force under Capt. Takusue Furuse. Before the battle began, he issued an address to his men went, We are very glad. Now, with what remains, we will daringly engage the enemy. We are determined to fight to the last man, on 3 February, elements of the U. S. A squadron of Brig. Gen. William C, since 4 January 1942, a total of thirty-seven months, the university’s main building had been used to hold civilians. Out of 4,255 prisoners,466 died in captivity, colayco died seven days later in Legarda Elementary School, which became a field hospital. At 9 PM, five tanks of the 44th Tank Battalion, headed by Battlin Basic, the Japanese, commanded by Lt. Col. Toshio Hayashi, gathered the remaining internees together in the Education Building as hostages, and exchanged pot shots with the Americans and Filipinos
2. 1954 Asian Games – The 1954 Asian Games or II Juegos Asiáticos in Spanish was a multi-sport event held in Manila, Philippines from May 1 to May 9,1954. A total of 970 athletes from 19 Asian National Olympic Committees competed in 76 events from eight sports, the number of participating NOCs and athletes were larger than the previous Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1951. This edition of the games has a different twist where it did not implement a medal tally system to determine the overall champion, the pointing system is a complex system where each athlete were given points according to their achievement like position in athletics or in swimming. In the end the system showed to be worthless as it simply ranked the nations the same way in the medal tally system. The pointing system was not implemented in future games ever since, jorge B. Vargas was the head of the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation and the Manila Asian Games Organizing Committee. With the second-place finish of the Philippines, only around 9,000 spectators attended the ceremony at the Rizal Memorial Stadium. The events were broadcast on live at DZRH and DZAQ-TV ABS-3 on delayed telecast. The Games were formally opened by President Ramon Magsaysay on May 1,1954, around 20,000 spectators fill the Rizal Memorial Stadium in Malate, Manila for the opening ceremony. As requested by the IOC, the relay and lighting of the couldron were excluded from the Opening Ceremony to preserve the tradition of the Olympic Games. The torch ceremony were returned at the 1958 Asian Games, the host however gave a solution by giving a special citation to the last athlete to enter the parade. The Philippines, as host, was the last country to enter the stadium, the 1954 Asian Games featured eight sports divided into 10 events, aquatics included three events namely diving, swimming and water polo. This version of the Asian Games comprised more sports and events than the last one, as six sports, three sports—boxing, shooting and wrestling—made their debut, while cycling was dropped out. Non-Competing nations Only one country just sent officials, iran In the following calendar for the 1954 Asian Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held, the numeral indicates the number of event finals for each sport held that day. On the left, the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, there is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader. Japan led the table, athletes from Japan won most medals, including most gold, silver. Host nation, Philippines finished second with 45 total medals, the top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below. The host nation, Philippines, is highlighted
3. 1991 Southeast Asian Games – This was the second time the country hosted the games and its first since 1981. It was officially opened by President Corazon Aquino at the Rizal Memorial Stadium in Manila through an opening ceremony. It was the only SEA Games at that time where the championship was heavily contested. The deciding medal came from the last sporting event - womens marathon where Indonesia got the gold medal, the games is the 16th Southeast Asian Games in the 20th century and the 16th in the 2nd millennium. Philippines is the nation to host the Southeast Asian Games after Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore. Key * Host nation Reduction of gold medals The Philippines should have tallied a total of 91 gold medals, the said gold medal should have been fought by a Filipino boxer against a Thai boxer but the latter was found positive in the doping tests. They had forgiven the Thai boxer, SEA Games Athletics Partial Results History of the SEA Games 1991 Southeast Asian Games medal table
4. 30th Chess Olympiad – Following the fall of the Iron Curtain, the field of competitors was quite different from previous Olympiads. Twelve of the 15 former Soviet republics now competed as independent nations -, meanwhile, an all-German team was present for the first time since World War II. Of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia, Bosnia, and Slovenia appeared independently, Serbia-Montenegro and this Olympiad also marked the final appearance of Czechoslovakia and the re-appearance of South Africa. With the Soviet team a thing of the past, all three ranks were now occupied by different ex-Soviet teams. Russia, captained by world champion Kasparov, took up the legacy of their predecessor. Uzbekistans silver was a surprise, the Armenian bronze less so. One-hundred-two teams from 100 different nations played a 14-round Swiss system tournament, one-hundred-four teams were signed up, but Yemen and Kenya never showed up, both forfeited their first two matches and were subsequently eliminated. Once again, the host nation had the right to two additional teams. In the event of a draw, the tie-break was decided by 1, sixty-two teams from 61 different nations played a 14-round Swiss system tournament. Morocco and Zimbabwe were signed up, but didnt show up for their first round matches and were disqualified and their first three matches were listed as forfeit, after which they were officially withdrawn. In the event of a draw, the tie-break was decided by 1, like the open event, the first womens tournament after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was dominated by the former Soviet republics. The Georgian team with two world champions, Chiburdanidze and Gaprindashvili, took the gold, ahead of Ukraine and China. Defending champions Hungary, once again without any of the famous Polgar sisters, had to settle for fourth place
5. 1981 Southeast Asian Games – The 11th Southeast Asian Games were held in Manila, Philippines from 6 December 1981 to 15 December 1981. This was the first time that the Philippines hosted the Games since its first participation in 1977, the event was officially opened by President Ferdinand Marcos and the cauldron was lit by Benjamin Silva-Netto. The colourful opening ceremony was held in the Rizal Memorial Stadium in Manila, a new football stadium and indoor arena was built in Pasig named the University of Life Track & Field and Arena or the ULTRA, now called the PhilSports Arena. The adjacent apartments were used as the quarters and was converted into a BLISS housing project of First Lady Imelda Marcos. 1Brunei was a British colony at that time, more than 2,200 athletes and officials participated in the Manila Games. Key * Host nation Percy Seneviratne Golden Moments, the S. E. A Games 1959-1991 Dominie Press, Singapore ISBN 981-00-4597-2 History of the SEA Games 1981 SEA Games Athletics Results
6. 1992 Men's Softball World Championship – The 1992 ISF Mens World Championship was an international softball tournament. The tournament was held in Manila and Pasig, Philippines from 20–28 March 1992 and it was the 8th time the World Championship took place. Eighteen nations competed, including defending champions United States, in the grand final held at the Rosario Sports Complex in March 28 and attended by 13,000 people, Canada won over runner-up New Zealand. New Zealand, the Philippines and the United States made bids to host the games, the tow of Midland, previous 1984 hosts, was the candidate town of the United States for the 1992 bid. The Philippines bidding delegation was led by then Pasig Mayor, Mario Raymundo, the Philippines previously hosted the championships in Marikina in 1972. At an International Softball Federation convention in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1989, the Rosario Sports Complex in Pasig and the Rizal Memorial Ball Park in Manila. Note, The Netherlands is not included at the final standing table by the ISF despite the team playing at least a match at the tournament, no sources has been retrieved for the reason for the Netherlands omission at the ISF table. The Netherlands standing after the round was retrieved from Manila Standard
7. World Youth Day 1995 – World Youth Day 1995 was a Catholic youth festival that took place from January 10–15,1995 in Manila, Philippines. It was the first time for an Asian country to host the event, Pope John Paul II presided over the event, marking his second trip to the country as Pope after his visit in 1981. A week before the celebration of the World Youth Day proper, the Philippines sent eight representatives, while others were from the different Catholic religious youth organizations and campuses. These were the youth leaders and coordinators. During their five-day stay in UST, representatives were grouped and discussed issues and concerns laid out by the Episcopal Commission on Youth, the IYF was also a venue wherein few from these selected youth representative had able to have a short talk with the Pope. There was also a Mass where some youths directly received Communion from the Pope, Youth pilgrims gathered from different parts of the world to worship and talk together. Different activities were held, including a traditional Barrio Fiesta, while Masses were celebrated every day in most parishes throughout the Philippines. The closing Mass, held at Luneta Park, was estimated to have attended by more than 5 million people. This was Pope John Paul IIs last visit to the Philippines, ramzi Yousef attempted to assassinate the Pope in the Bojinka Plot, but the plan was discovered four days earlier and Yousef fled to Pakistan. The official song for World Youth Day 1995 was released in 1994, pilgrims at World Youth Day 1995 represented the following countries, Guinness Book of World Records - Largest Papal Crowd