Category:20th century in Tel Aviv
Pages in category "20th century in Tel Aviv"
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Israeli Declaration of Independence – It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Yom Haatzmaut on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar, the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, in the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the recently established United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States, the Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, the result was 33 to 13 in favour of the resolution, with 10 abstentions. Resolution 181, PART I, Future constitution and government of Palestine, TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE, Clause 3 provides, Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the forces of the mandatory Power has been completed. The first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, a revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett, a second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Sharett and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence, three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States. The meeting started at 1,45 in the afternoon and ended after midnight, the decision was between accepting the American proposal for a truce, or declaring independence. The latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it, For, David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett, Peretz Bernstein, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Mordechai Bentov, against, Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. Chaim Weizmann, chairman of the World Zionist Organization and soon to be the first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after reportedly asking What are they waiting for, the idiots. The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13,50 and ended at 15,00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, during the process, there were two major debates, centering on the issues of borders and religion. On the border issue, the draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, it was opposed by Ben-Gurion and Zisling, with Ben-Gurion stating, We accepted the UN Resolution and they are preparing to make war on us. If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road to Jerusalem, these areas become part of the state
2. Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin – The assassination of Yitzhak Rabin took place on 4 November 1995 at 21,30, at the end of a rally in support of the Oslo Accords at the Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv. The assassin, an Israeli ultranationalist named Yigal Amir, radically opposed Rabins peace initiative, the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister and Defence Minister Yitzhak Rabin was the culmination of an anti-violence rally in support of the Oslo peace process. National religious conservatives and Likud party leaders believed that withdrawing from any Jewish land was heresy, rallies, organized partially by Likud, became increasingly extreme in tone. Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu accused Rabins government of being removed from Jewish tradition, Netanyahu addressed protesters of the Oslo movement at rallies where posters portrayed Rabin in a Nazi SS uniform or being the target in the cross-hairs of a sniper. Rabin accused Netanyahu of provoking violence, a charge which Netanyahu strenuously denied, netanyahus advisor Zalman Shoval replied that Netanyahu had in fact tried to silence the anti-Rabin chants and had not seen the SS poster. The assassin was Yigal Amir, a former Hesder student and far-right law student at Bar-Ilan University, Amir had come to believe that Rabin was a rodef, meaning a pursuer who endangered Jewish lives. The concept of din rodef is a part of traditional Jewish law, Amir believed he would be justified under din rodef in removing Rabin as a threat to Jews in the territories. Secondly, the law of the pursuer is only intended to save a victim from imminent death. There is absolutely no proof that withdrawing from certain territories will directly lead to the death of any Jews. On the contrary, Prime Minister Rabin, over half the members of the Knesset, in other words, even according to the law of the pursuer, this act was totally futile and senseless since the peace process will continue. Another incident describing Amirs comments to a student about stating the vidui prior to an earlier. The source refused to name Amir by name but instead described him as a short Yemeni guy with curly hair. After the rally, Rabin walked down the city hall steps towards the door of his car. He was immediately subdued by Rabins bodyguards and arrested with the murder weapon, the third shot missed Rabin and slightly wounded security guard Yoram Rubin. Rabin was rushed to nearby Ichilov Hospital at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, where he died on the table from blood loss. The government shall convene in one hour for a session in Tel Aviv. The assassination of Rabin was a shock to the Israeli public, rallies and memorials took place near Kings of Israel Square—later renamed Rabin Square in his honor—as well as near Rabins home, the Knesset building, and the home of the assassin. Many other streets and public buildings around the country were named for Rabin as well, the funeral of Rabin took place on November 6, the day after the assassination, at the Mount Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem, where Rabin was buried
3. Dizengoff Center suicide bombing – The Dizengoff Center suicide bombing was a Palestinian terrorist attack on March 4,1996 on the eve of the Jewish holiday of Purim. The suicide bomber blew himself up outside Dizengoff Center in downtown Tel Aviv, killing 13 Israelis, the attack was the fourth suicide bombing in Israel in nine days, bringing the death toll during that span to over 60. The suicide bomber detonated just before 4 pm outside the Dizengoff Center and that day the center was particularly crowded for the eve of Purim. Many in the crowd were children dressed in costume for the holiday, the bomber sought to enter the mall but turned back because of the police presence. Instead, he went into the intersection where a large number of pedestrians were crossing the street and set off his 20-kilogram nail bomb. Following the attack, a call to an Israeli radio station apparently from a Hamas representative identified the attacker as Abdel-Rahim Ishaq. The suicide bomber killed 13 Israelis, Additionally, a pregnant woman was injured in the blast and lost her unborn child, the Bat-Chen Diaries Patches, a memorial film The Dizengoff Memorial Quilt Project at the Wayback Machine
4. 1968 Summer Paralympics – The 1968 Summer Paralympics were the third Paralympic Games to be held. Organised under the guidance of the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation, the games were originally planned to be held alongside the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, but in 1966, the Mexican government decided against it due to difficulties. The Israeli government offered to host the games in Tel Aviv, the closing ceremony took place in the Tel Aviv Trade Center. Therefore, these games were the first in Paralympic history to not be held concurrently with the Olympic Games, Lawn bowls was included in the program for the first time. In wheelchair basketball, a team event was added, as was a 100 m wheelchair race for men in athletics. Archery Dart archery Athletics Lawn bowls Snooker Swimming Table tennis Weightlifting Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below, the host nation, Israel, is highlighted. Twenty-eight delegations took part in the Tel Aviv Paralympics, having made its Paralympic Games début four years earlier, South Africa continued to compete at the Paralympics, by sending a delegation to the Tel Aviv Games. It was, at the time, banned from the Olympic Games due to its policy of apartheid, but it was not banned from the Paralympics until 1980
5. 16th Chess Olympiad – A total of 50 teams entered the competition and were divided into seven preliminary groups of seven or eight teams each. The top two from each advanced to Final A, the teams placed 3rd-4th to Final B. 5-6 to Final C, and the rest to Final D, all preliminary groups and finals were played as round-robin tournaments. The preliminary results were as follows, Group 1,1, with Australia making its debut, this was the first Olympiad where all six continents were represented. 16th Chess Olympiad, Tel Aviv 1964 OlimpBase
6. Dizengoff Street bus bombing – The Dizengoff Street bus bombing was a Hamas suicide attack on a passenger bus driving down Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv in 1994. At that time, it was the deadliest suicide bombing in Israeli history, twenty-two civilians were killed and 50 were injured. The attack was planned by Hamas chief Yahya Ayyash, on the eve of the signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, Yahya Ayyash was disappointed that the previous attack he orchestrated, the Hadera central station suicide bombing, had killed six Israelis. The bomb used in that attack had been small and made of acetone peroxide, for the attack on bus five, Ayyash constructed a bomb using an Egyptian land mine packed with twenty kilograms of military-strength TNT, surrounded by nails and screws. TNT is not readily available in the Palestinian territories, but Hamas had managed to some by smuggling it in or purchasing it from Israeli organized crime. The device was one of the best ever built by Ayyash, qalqilya resident Saleh Abdel Rahim al-Souwi was selected for the attack. Al-Souwi joined Hamas after his older brother Hasin was killed in 1989, al-Souwi was wanted by the Israeli Shabak, but was not considered a high priority. The day before the attack, al-Souwi taped a statement saying It is good to die as a martyr for Allah, muatab Mukadi, a member of Ayyashs Samaria battalion, drove al-Souwi to one of the buss first stops. Al-Souwi chose a seat on the left side of the bus. At approximately 9,00 AM, as the bus was slowing down for a stop 100 metres north of Dizengoff Square, al-Souwi detonated the bomb killing 21 Israelis, the powerful explosion lifted the bus off its chassis and the heat melted the fiberglass bus frame. Limbs were projected like missiles into the area of nearby restaurants. Following the explosion, a crowd of demonstrators descended on the bomb site chanting Death to the Arabs, police arrested scores of Arab suspects in and around the blast area, though most of them were detained to save them from the crowds anger. At the time of the attack, it was the deadliest in Israeli history, however, subsequent bombings have been even more devastating, among them the Jaffa Road bus bombings, the Passover suicide bombing, and the Shmuel Hanavi bus bombing. Yitzhak Rabin, then Israels Prime Minister, who was in the United Kingdom on a state visit, Ayyashs name and pictures of the demolished bus were featured in newspapers around the world. Israeli police quickly identified al-Souwi as the perpetrator, the day after the bombing, with his identify confirmed using DNA, al-Souwis family threw a neighborhood party celebrating his martyrdom. That afternoon, the Israel Security Agency destroyed the house, after giving the one hour to remove their possessions
7. Sabena Flight 571 – Sabena Flight 571 was a scheduled passenger flight from Vienna to Tel Aviv operated by the Belgian national airline, Sabena. Following their instructions, Captain Levy landed the plane at Lod Airport and they were armed with two handguns, two hand grenades and two belts of explosives. Twenty minutes out of Vienna, the hijackers entered the cockpit, as you can see, Captain Levy told the 90 passengers, we have friends aboard. He concealed from the hijackers that his wife was a passenger on the plane, soon after taking command, the hijackers separated the Jewish hostages from the others and sent them to the back of the aircraft. When the plane had landed, the demanded the release of 315 convicted Palestinian terrorists imprisoned in Israel. Captain Levy managed to send the Israelis a coded message requesting help, Captain Levy said he talked to the hijackers about everything from navigation to sex” while the passengers and crew waited to be rescued. On 9 May 1972 at 4,00 p. m, having immobilized it during the preceding night, they convinced the hijackers that its hydraulic system needed repair. They then stormed the aircraft, killing both male hijackers within two minutes and they also captured the two women hijackers and rescued all 90 remaining passengers. Three passengers were wounded in the exchange of fire, one of whom, 22-year-old Miriam Anderson, netanyahu was also wounded during the rescue when another commando, Marko Ashkenazi, accidentally discharged his gun as he used it to hit Theresa Halsa. The bullet passed through her and penetrated Netanyahu’s bicep, Halsa and Rima Tannous were eventually sentenced to life imprisonment—Halsa for 220 years. They were freed in November 1983, in an exchange after the 1982 Lebanon War. Sabena continued to operate the aircraft for five years, until it was purchased by Israel Aircraft Industries. It was eventually sold to the Israeli Air Force, and served as a spy plane for many years, participating in most of the Air Forces long-range operations. Captain Levy, a Royal Air Force veteran who took part in bombing missions over Germany during World War II. He retired in 1982 and died of an attack, at a hospital near his home in Dover on 1 August 2010. The hijacking took place on his 50th birthday, from Night Flak to Hijack, Its A Small World, autobiography by Captain Reginald Levy DFC. Sabena Hijacking, My Version, Israeli docudrama depicting the hijacking and rescue, Israeli Special Forces History Dennis Heves. Reginald Levy Is Dead at 88, Hailed as a Hero in a 72 Hijacking
8. Savoy Hotel attack – The Savoy Hotel attack was a terrorist attack by members of the Palestine Liberation Organization against the Savoy Hotel in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 4–5 March 1975. The operation was planned by Abu Jihad, the operations objectives were then changed to the Manshiya Neighborhood Youth Club and the Tel Aviv Opera Building. The contingency plan in case the original targets could not be located was to any nearby buildings that were populated as targets. The attackers were told to take hostages, then demand the release of Palestinian prisoners, if the negotiations failed, they were told to kill their hostages and commit suicide. At 11,00 p. m. on the night of 4 March 1975 and they had departed from the Lebanese port of Sarafenda, near Tyre on an Egyptian merchant ship. When the ship was about 60 miles off Tel Aviv, the teams were lowered in a boat, as they landed on the shore, they were spotted by police officers in a patrol vehicle that was passing by. The officers in the car opened fire at them, and one of the boats which was stocked with weapons was hit, the militants escaped the beach onto a street corner, leaving much of their weaponry behind in the boats. They then crossed onto Herbert Samuel Street, where they shot, unable to locate their original targets, they tried but failed to break into a cinema. Afterwards, they continued down the street and took over the Savoy Hotel, at the corner of HaYarkon and Geula streets, the Savoy Hotel was picked due to it being the only illuminated building on the street. During the takeover of the hotel, three people were killed, three people managed to escape in the confusion, but most guests and staff were taken hostage and taken to the top floor of the building. Private Moshe Deutschmann, a soldier from the Israeli armys Golani Brigade who was on leave at the time, grabbed his weapon. Meanwhile, some attempted to leave the hotel. Deutschmann saw them at the entrance to the hotel, and engaged them, in the exchange of fire, Deutschmann was hit. He managed to crawl away, and was evacuated to Hadassah Medical Center. Deutschmann was posthumously awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service, according to an eyewitness account, When I went into the street, I saw a nightmarish spectacle. Red tracer bullets streaked through the night air, the four-story Savoy Hotel, illuminated by floodlights, was surrounded by troops, local police and border police in full battle regalia. Military vehicles, armored cars and personnel carriers clogged the surrounding streets, red Magen David ambulance crews were administering first aid to wounded civilians on the sidewalks and gutters. Looking out to sea, the light of magnesium flares revealed naval patrol boats cruising just off the beach