3rd century BC
The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period and this balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first, following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire, the Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula, the Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. Ptolemy finally brings the region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas, after failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy. Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia,273 BC –232 BC, Ashoka
Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century BC.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. It was centered on the north of present-day Afghanistan, the expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan from 180 BC established the Indo-Greek Kingdom, which was to last until around 10 AD. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC, the preserved ancient sources are somewhat contradictory, and the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a chronology and a low chronology for Diodotos’ secession. The high chronology has the advantage of explaining why the Seleucid king Antiochus II issued very few coins in Bactria, as Diodotos would have become independent there early in Antiochus reign. On the other hand, the low chronology, from the mid-240s
Gold coin of Diodotus
c. 245 BC. The Greek
inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ – "(of) King Diodotus".
Remains of a Hellenistic capital
found in Balkh
, ancient Bactra.