Category:2nd-century BC rulers in Africa
Pages in category "2nd-century BC rulers in Africa"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Adikhalamani – Adikhalamani was a Kushite King of Meroe dating to the 2nd century BCE. Adikhalamani was the successor of King Arqamani and was succeeded by a king whose name has only partially survived. He is said to be contemporary with an Egyptian revolt dated to ca, during this revolt a ruler, Horwennefer took control of Thebes and revolted against Ptolemy IV Philopator. The revolt ended ca.186 BCE when Ankhwennefer was captured and executed, adikhalamani was buried at Meroe in Beg. Laszlo Török, in, Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 511-520, ISBN 82-91626-01-4
2. Berenice III of Egypt – Berenice III, sometimes called Cleopatra Berenice, ruled as queen of Egypt from 81 to 80 BC, and possibly from 101 to 88 BC jointly with her uncle/husband Ptolemy X Alexander I. She was born in 120 BC, the daughter of Ptolemy IX Lathyros and she married Ptolemy X Alexander I in 101 BC, after he took the throne from Lathyros and had his mother Cleopatra III killed. When Lathyros reclaimed the throne, Berenice lost her own rule, however, when Lathyros died at the end of 81 BC, Berenice took over the throne and ruled for six months, during which time she gained the love of the people. She was forced to marry Ptolemy XI Alexander II in 80 BC and he had her killed 19 days later, which moved the people to revolt and kill him a few days later. Berenice is the subject of Berenice, an opera by Handel
3. Cleopatra III of Egypt – Cleopatra III was a queen of Egypt 142–101 BC. Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X and she is attested as Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. But he was forced to abdicate. Cleopatra III’s parents retook the throne and remained in power for almost 20 years until 145 BC and it was during this time that Cleopatra III was born, a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and possibly Berenice. Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra III’s mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, Cleopatra II rebelled against Ptolemy VIII in c.132 BC and Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband, but was able to return to Alexandria in 127 BC. Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children, Ptolemy IX born c.143 BC Tryphaena born c.141 BC, married Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria in 124 BC Ptolemy X born c.140 or 139 BC. Married his niece Berenice Cleopatra IV born between 138 and 135 BC, married first her brother Ptolemy IX and second Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria Cleopatra Selene I born between 135 and 130 BC. Married first to her brother Ptolemy IX, and later to her brother Ptolemy X, after the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX. Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X, after 6 years of joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC
4. Jugurtha – Jugurtha or Jugurthen was a King of Numidia, born in Cirta. Until the reign of Jugurthas grandfather Masinissa, the Numidians were semi-nomadic, Masinissa established a kingdom and became a Roman ally in 206 BC. After a long reign he was succeeded in 148 BC by his son Micipsa, Jugurtha, Micipsas adopted son, was so popular among the Numidians that Micipsa was obliged to send him away to Spain. Unfortunately for Micipsa, instead of keeping out of the way. He served at the siege of Numantia alongside Gaius Marius and learned of Romes weakness for bribes and he famously described Rome as urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit. When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded jointly by Jugurtha, Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarrelled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. After Jugurtha defeated him in battle, Adherbal fled to Rome for help. The Roman officials settled the fight by dividing Numidia into two parts, probably in 116, but this settlement was tainted by accusations that the Roman officials accepted bribes to favor Jugurtha, among the officials found guilty was Lucius Opimius. Jugurtha was assigned the western half, later Roman propaganda claimed that this half was also richer, by 112 Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal, penning the latter up in his capital of Cirta. Adherbal was encouraged to hold out by a corps of Italian residents, however, Roman troops were engaged in the Cimbrian War and the Senate merely sent two successive embassies to remonstrate with Jugurtha who delayed until he had captured Cirta. His troops then massacred many residents including the Italians and this brought Jugurtha into direct conflict with Rome, who sent troops under the Consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia. Although the Romans made significant inroads into Numidia, their infantry was unable to inflict any significant casualties on Jugurthas army which included large numbers of light cavalry. Bestia then accepted an offer of negotiations from Jugurtha, who surrendered and received a favourable peace treaty. However once Jugurtha had reached Rome, another tribune used his veto to prevent evidence being given, Jugurtha also severely damaged his reputation and weakened his position by using his time in Rome to set gangs onto a cousin, named Massiva, a potential rival for the Numidian throne. War again broke out between Numidia and the Roman Republic, and several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the consul, the war dragged out into a long and seemingly endless campaign, as the Romans tried to inflict a decisive defeat on Jugurtha. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metelluss lieutenant, Gaius Marius, after winning the election, Marius returned to Numidia to take control of the war. He sent his quaestor, Sulla, to neighbouring Mauretania to eliminate their support for Jugurtha, with the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla was able to capture Jugurtha and bring the war to a conclusive end
5. Masinissa – Masinissa, or Masensen, — also spelled Massinissa and Massena — was the first King of Numidia. During his younger years he fought in the Second Punic War, first against the Romans as an ally of Carthage, with Roman support, he united the eastern and western Numidian tribes and founded the Kingdom of Numidia. His name was found in his tomb of Cirta, modern-day Constantine in Algeria under the form of MSNSN, Masinissa is largely viewed as an icon and an important forefather among modern Berbers. Masinissas story is told in Livys Ab Urbe Condita and he is also featured in Ciceros Scipios Dream. Masinissa was the son of the chieftain Gala of a Numidian tribal group and he was brought up in Carthage, an ally of his father. At the start of the Second Punic War, Masinissa fought for Carthage against Syphax, the king of the Masaesyli of western Numidia, Masinissa, then 17 years old, led an army of Numidian troops and Carthaginian auxiliaries against Syphaxs army and won a decisive victory. After his victory over Syphax, Masinissa commanded his skilled Numidian cavalry against the Romans in Spain, meanwhile, with the Carthaginians having been driven from Hispania, Masinissa concluded that Rome was winning the war against Carthage and therefore decided to defect to Rome. He promised to assist Scipio in the invasion of Carthaginian territory in Africa and this decision was aided by the move by Scipio Africanus to free Masinissas nephew, Massiva, whom the Romans had captured when he had disobeyed his uncle and ridden into battle. The Romans supported Masinissas claim to the Numidian throne against Syphax, Masinissa joined the Roman forces and participated in the victorious Battle of the Great Plains, after which Syphax was captured. After the defeat of Syphax, Masinissa married Syphaxs wife Sophonisba, to save her from such humiliation, Masinissa sent her poison, with which she killed herself. Masinissa was now accepted as an ally of Rome, and was confirmed by Scipio as the king of the Massylii. At the Battle of Zama Masinissa commanded the cavalry on Scipios right wing, with the battle hanging in the balance, Masinissas cavalry, having driven the fleeing Carthaginian horsemen away, returned and immediately fell onto the rear of the Carthaginian lines. This decided the battle and at once Hannibals army began to collapse, the Second Punic War was over and for his services Masinissa received the kingdom of Syphax, and became king of Numidia. Masinissa was now king of both the Massylii and the Masaesyli and this enabled Masinissa to encroach on the remaining Carthaginian territory as long as he judged that Rome wished to see Carthage further weakened. With Roman backing, Masinissa established his own kingdom of Numidia, west of Carthage, all of this happened in accordance with Roman interest, as they wanted to give Carthage more problems with its neighbours. Masinissa’s chief aim was to build a strong and unified state from the semi-nomadic Numidian tribes, to that end, he introduced Carthaginian agricultural techniques and forced many Numidians to settle as peasant farmers. Masinissa and his sons possessed large estates throughout Numidia, to the extent that Roman authors attributed to him, quite falsely, major towns included Capsa, Thugga, Bulla Regia and Hippo Regius. All through his reign, Masinissa extended his territory, and he was cooperating with Rome when, towards the end of his life, he provoked Carthage to go to war against him
6. Ptolemy IX Lathyros – Ptolemy IX Soter II or Lathyros was king of Egypt three times, from 116 BC to 110 BC,109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 81 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. At first he was chosen by his mother Cleopatra III to be her co-regent and he married his sister Cleopatra IV, but his mother pushed her out and replaced her with his younger sister Cleopatra Selene. Later, she claimed that he tried to kill her, and successfully deposed him, however, she later grew tired of the now Ptolemy X and deposed him, putting Ptolemy IX back on the throne. She was soon murdered by Ptolemy X, who took the throne again and he was then killed in battle, and Ptolemy IX reigned until his own death. His daughter Berenice III took the throne after his death, and she was forced to marry her stepson Alexander, who reigned under the name Ptolemy XI Alexander II and had her killed nineteen days later. Ptolemy IXs name recalls that of his great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter, in references and in younger ones by the German historian Huss. Ptolemy Soter II at LacusCurtius — Ptolemy IX Lathyrus entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Ptolemy IX at Thebes by Robert Ritner
7. Ptolemy X Alexander I – Ptolemy X Alexander I was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC. He was the son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III, in 110 BC he became King with his mother as co-regent, after his mother had deposed his brother Ptolemy IX Lathyros. However, in 109 BC he was deposed by Ptolemy IX, in 107 BC he became King again, and again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his niece/wife, when he died, Ptolemy IX regained the throne. When Ptolemy IX died, Ptolemy Xs wife Berenice III took over the throne for six months, Ptolemy X Alexander entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
8. Shanakdakhete – Shanakdakheto or Shanakdakhete was a queen regnant of the Kingdom of Kush, when the polity was centered at Meroë. She is the earliest known ruling African queen of ancient Nubia and she is said to have ruled with full power in the Meroë Empire. She is also said to have ruled without a king and it is also stated that as queen she played a significant role in the Meroitic religion. In the 2nd century BC Shanakdakheto built the Temple F at Naqa, shanakdakhetos name is inscribed as a royal queen in the Egyptian Meroitic hieroglyphs. This inscription is the one seen on the doorjambs of the niche of Temple F in Naqa. Shanakdakheto styled herself as, Son of Re, Lord of the Two Lands, the inscription reads, The royal-waab-priest of the Son of Re, Shanakdakheto given life every day beloved of Maat like. The son of Re. the Lord of the Two Lands, the garment decorating her, similar to that seen in Pharaonic art, like Uraeus, is drawn as a three-part royal costume. The necklace and her earrings have decoration of a goat head, the prince standing next to her, wearing a tunic draped around the left shoulder in Greek style, is shown with an ordinary band as a crown. The two figures are shown with their left foot forward, as an African beauty, the queen is shown with a strong build, and bejeweled, a trait indicating wealth, power and prosperity, and child bearing capacity. In the decorations of her chapel, the architectural features are highly artistic. A double cartouche found in Naqa is dated to a part of the second century BC which is said to be the earliest epigraph in meroitic hieroglyphic. However, the hieroglyphic cursive on the Queens cartouche is called classical in style and her pyramid was identified at Meroë, next to Tanyidamanis but not established as her name is not preserved. In the tomb reliefs of Queen Shanakdakhete the carvings show men holding arrows as a Meoritic burial custom. Scenes of religious offerings, the evaluation in front of Osiris. Ancient Egyptians and Their Neighbors, An Activity Guide, papers in Honour of Tekena N. Tamuno, Professor Emeritus, at 70. Nubian Pharaohs And Meroitic Kings, The Kingdom Of Kush, civilization of the Old Sudan, Kerma, Kush, Christian Nubia. Voogt, Alexander J. de, Finkel, Irving L, the Idea of Writing, Play and Complexity. Studien Zum Antiken Sudan, Akten Der 7, internationalen Tagung Für Meroitische Forschungen Vom 14