|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 30s deaths.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 30s deaths.|
Julia Drusilla was a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder to survive infancy. She had two sisters, Julia Livilla and the Empress Agrippina the Younger, and three brothers, Emperor Caligula and Drusus. She was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, grand-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, niece of the Emperor Claudius, Drusilla was born in Abitarvium, modern day Koblenz, Germany. After the death of her father, Germanicus and her siblings were brought back to Rome by their mother and raised with the help of their paternal grandmother, in 33 AD, Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, a friend of the Emperor Tiberius. After Caligula became emperor in 37, however, he ordered their divorce and married his sister to his friend, during an illness in 37, Caligula changed his will to name Drusilla his heir, making her the first woman to be named heir in a Roman imperial will. This was probably an attempt to continue the Julian line through any children she might have, Caligula recovered however, and in 38, at the age of about twenty-two, Drusilla died.
Her brother went on to deify her, consecrating her with the title Panthea, Drusilla was her brothers favorite. There are rumors that they were lovers, if true, that role probably gained her great influence over Caligula. Although the activities between the brother and sister might have seen as incestuous by their contemporaries, it is not certain whether they were sexual partners. Drusilla earned a poor reputation because of the close bond she shared with Caligula and even was likened to a prostitute by scholars. This has used to explain why his despotism apparently was more evident to his contemporaries than those of Augustus and Tiberius. The source of many of the rumors surrounding Caligula and Drusilla may be derived from formal Roman dining habits and it was customary in patrician households for the host and hostess of a dinner to hold the positions of honor at banquets in their residence. In the case of a young bachelor being the head of the household, if that were Caligula, it would have been Agrippina the Younger and Julia Livilla taking turns sitting in the place of honor.
Apparently, Caligula broke with tradition in that rather than having his sisters take turns at the place of honor. Furthermore, although he was married to Lollia Paulina, through this deviation from traditional practices Caligula publicly proclaimed that Drusilla was his wife, Drusilla died on 10 June 38 AD, probably of an illness that was rampant in Rome at the time. Caligula was said never to have left her side throughout her illness and, after she had died, Caligula was badly affected by the loss. He buried his sister with the honors of an Augusta and acted as a grieving widower and he had the Roman Senate declare her a Goddess, as Diva Drusilla, deifying her as a representation of the Roman goddess Venus or the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Drusilla was consecrated as Panthea, most likely on the anniversary of the birthday of Augustus, a year later, Caligula named his only known daughter, Julia Drusilla, after his dead sister
Artabanus III of Parthia, flourished second half of 1st century BC – AD 38) was a Prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry. Artabanus III served as a King of Media Atropatene and as King of Parthia, Artabanus III was a son born to an unnamed Arsacid Parthian Princess who was a relation to the King Vonones I of Parthia and her husband, the Median Atropatenian Prince, Darius. His known grandparents which were his paternal ones were the Monarchs Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene and his wife, Artabanus III had a younger brother who served as King of Media Atropatene and Parthia, Vonones II. Artabanus III was the namesake of the previous ruling Parthian monarchs of this name, a daughter of Artabanus III was married to Mithridates, the Parthian general who attacked Asineus and Anileus and the Babylonian Jews on the Sabbath. Although Artabanus III was born and raised in the Parthian Empire, however this may refer to Artabanus III’s exile in a period when Rome dominated the Kingdoms of the Caucasus area.
He served as King from 6 until 10 and little is known about his reign, in AD10, Artabanus III abdicated his throne of Media Atropatene to become King of Parthia. His kingship of Media Atropatene was succeeded by his brother Vonones II, Artabanus III ruled the Parthian Empire from around 10 to 38. He was raised to the throne by the Parthian grandees, who would not acknowledge Vonones I, the war between Vonones I and Artabanus III was long and doubtful. On a coin Vonones I, mentions victory over Artabanus III, at last Artabanus III defeated his rival completely and occupied the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. Vonones I fled to Armenia, where he was acknowledged as King, when Artabanus III invaded Armenia, Vonones I fled to Syria. The Roman emperor Tiberius thought it was prudent to support him no longer, Tiberius nephew and first heir Germanicus, whom he sent to the East, concluded a treaty with Artabanus III, in which he was recognized as King and friend of the Romans. Armenia was given in AD18 to Artaxias III, Artabanus III like all Parthian Princes was much troubled by the opposition of the grandees.
He is said to have been very cruel in consequence of his education among the Dahae nomads, to strengthen his power he killed all the Arsacid princes whom he could reach. Rebellions of the subject nations may have occurred also, in AD35, he tried a new way to conquer Armenia and to establish his son Arsaces I as King there. A war with Rome seemed inevitable and that party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to Artabanus III applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates IV. Tiberius sent Phraates IVs grandson, Tiridates III and ordered Lucius Vitellius the Elder to restore the Roman authority in the East, by very dexterous military and diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely. Artabanus III was deserted by his followers and fled to the East, Tiridates III who was proclaimed King, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans. Artabanus III returned from Hyrcania with an army of Scythian auxiliaries and was again acknowledged by the Parthians
Du Shi was a Chinese governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. Du Shi is credited with being the first to apply power to operate bellows in metallurgy. His invention was used to operate piston-bellows of the blast furnace and cupola furnace in order to forge cast iron and he worked as a censorial officer and administrator of several places during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han. He led a military campaign in which he eliminated a small bandit army under Yang Yi. Although the year of his birth is uncertain, it is known that Du Shi was born in Henei, however, Du soon after swore his allegiance to Emperor Guangwu of Han, who is considered the true founder of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Under Emperor Guangwu, Du Shi was appointed as an officer in the Censorate and was in charge of monitoring affairs and upholding law, Du had Xiao summarily executed without explicit consent from the throne, sending in a report of the event only after the execution.
Guangwu was not displeased with this, as he called him into court to grant him an insignia which justified his actions, shortly after this event, the bandit leader Yang Yi caused a major disturbance in Hedong Commandery, which Du Shi was sent to quell. When word of the arrival of Du Shis forces in the region, however, Du Shi anticipated this, sending a raiding party to burn the boats Yang Yi intended to use for his escape. After conscripting troops from Hedong Commandery, Du Shi led an ambush with a cavalry unit that dispersed Yangs bandits. For three years, Du served as a county magistrate in Henan province where his administration gained wide acclaim from provincial authorities, afterwards, Du distinguished himself as a Commandant in Pei and in Runan. In 31 he was appointed as an administrator over Nanyang, while serving there, he had an array of dykes and canals built for land reclamation and growth of local agriculture. It is here that he developed a water-powered reciprocator for bellows in smelting cast iron.
It is recorded that the locals were so fond of him that they referred to him as Mother Du and compared him to noteworthy figures of history. Du Shi was by all means a local administrator, yet he made recommendations to the imperial court on policy issues. He recommended that the Tiger Tallies system be reinstated and this was a means for imperial authorities to check possible official corruption in the forgery of mobilization of troops for war. Du nominated several minor officials he deemed worthy as candidates for higher posts in the capital, in a memorial of 37, he urged the court to consider Fu as the next Imperial Secretary. Du Shis reputation was somewhat stymied in 38 when he was accused of having one of his retainers sent to kill a man out of vengeance for his brother, in that same year, Du became ill and died. Despite Dus long-standing official career, the Director of Retainers Bao Yong reported that no funeral ceremony could be arranged for Du