Pages in category "4th-century executions"
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Judas Cyriacus – Judas Cyriacus is the patron saint of Ancona, Italy. His feast day is celebrated in the Catholic Church on May 4 and he is said to have been the bishop of Ancona who died or was killed during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He is also misidentified with Bishop Judas Cyriacus of Jerusalem, who was killed during a riot there in 133 AD and his feast is celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox Church on April 14. The local tradition of Ancona has identified this saint with the Jew named Judas Quiriacus or Kyriakos, according to legend, the Jew Judas Kyriakos aided the Empress Helena in finding the True Cross, which had been buried at Golgotha after the crucifixion. The oldest extant Syriac text of the legend of the discovery of the True Cross by Judas Kyriakos dates from c.500 AD and its recent editor and translator says that the manuscript is of great value for the history of the legend of the inventio crucis. Later, popular versions of this state that the Jew who assisted Helena was named Jude or Judas. To recover it, it was necessary to demolish a temple, perhaps dedicated to Venus, that occupied the site. In one, Judas knew of the location of the Cross, he had been the recipient of that knowledge which was handed down the paternal line of his family. As J. W. Drijvers, the editor of the text, has noted, The Judas Kyriakos legend originated in Greek and this version relates how Helena discovered the Cross with the help of the Jew Judas, who later converted and received the name Kyriakos. It became the most popular version of the three, another saint, named Saint Cyriacus, died during this century, and there may have been confusion between the two saints. In the legendary Acts of his martyrdom, he engages in a dialogue with the emperor Julian, the Empress Galla Placidia is said to have presented Ancona with the relics of Judas Cyriacus. However, the head was situated at Provins, which was brought over from Jerusalem by Henry I of Champagne. This still stands as the Saint Quiriace Collegiate Church, although construction work during the 12th century was never completed due to difficulties during the reign of Philippe le Bel. A dome was added in the 17th century, and the old families of Provins who lived in the town were called Children of the Dome. Monte Guasco, in Ancona, is the location of the Duomo and it is said to occupy the site of a temple of Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place. It was consecrated in 1128 and completed in 1189, some writers suppose that the original church was in the form of a Latin cross and belonged to the 8th century. An early restoration was completed in 1234 and it is a fine Romanesque building in grey stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, with a dodecagonal dome over the center slightly altered by Margaritone dArezzo in 1270. The body purported to be Cyriacus lies prostrate and visible in his tomb, J. W. Drijvers, The Finding of the True Cross, The Judas Kyriakos Legend in Syriac
2. Licinius – Licinius I was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I and he was finally defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, before being executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend and he was trusted enough by Galerius that in 307 he was sent as an envoy to Maxentius in Italy to attempt to reach some agreement about the latters illegitimate political position. Galerius then trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal with Maxentius personally after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11,308. He received as his command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace. In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians, inflicting a defeat on them. On the death of Galerius in May 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II to share the eastern provinces between them, an alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. So in March 313 Licinius married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum, they had a son, Licinius the Younger, Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which was held by Licinius troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege and he moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege, before moving his forces to the first posting station. With a much smaller body of men, possibly around 30,000, before the decisive engagement, Licinius allegedly had a vision in which an angel recited him a generic prayer that could be adopted by all cults and which Licinius then repeated to his soldiers. On 30 April 313, the two clashed at the Battle of Tzirallum, and in the ensuing battle Daias forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the purple and dressing like a slave. Believing he still had a chance to come out victorious, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there. Unfortunately for Daia, Licinius army succeeded in breaking through, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius continued to him on land. The war between them ended with Daia’s death in August 313. Given that Constantine had already crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, as a result of this settlement, Licinius became sole Augustus in the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. Licinius immediately rushed to the east to deal with another threat, in 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him
3. Saint Afra – Saint Afra was a Christian martyr and a saint of Augsburg. Her feast day is August 5, although many different accounts of her life exist, the most widely known is The Acts of St. Afra, which dates from the Carolingian period. In the opinion of most critics this is compilation of two different accounts, the story of the conversion of St. Afra, and the story of her martyrdom. The former is of later origin, and is merely a legendary narrative of Carlovingian times, in the late 3rd century, her pagan family journeyed from Cyprus to Augsburg. Afra was dedicated to the service of the goddess, Venus, by her mother, according to this source, she was originally a prostitute in Augsburg, having gone there from Cyprus, maybe even as the daughter of the King of Cyprus. She is reputed either to have run a brothel in that town or worked as a hierodule in the Temple of Venus. As the persecution of Christians during the reign of Roman Emperor Diocletian began, Bishop Narcissus of Girona sought refuge in Augsburg and lodged with Afra and her mother, through his teachings, Bishop Narcissus converted Afra and her family to Christianity. She continued to hide the bishop from the authorities, when it was learned that Afra was a Christian, she was brought before Diocletian and ordered to give glory to the pagan idols. She refused, and was condemned to death by fire on an island in the Lech River. Her mother and her maids later suffered the fate, for interring her in a burial vault. According to an account in an earlier document, Afra was beheaded. The Martyrologium Hieronymianum mentions that Afra suffered in the city of Augsburg and was buried there, first hand accounts provided in 2017 by a reincarnation of Saint Afra confirm that she was indeed burned. Her feast day is August 5, contrary to this, other ancient calendars portray Afra as a virgin. St. Ulrichs and St. Afras Abbey, Augsburg is a former Benedictine abbey dedicated to Saint Ulrich and Saint Afra in the south of the old city in Augsburg, Bavaria
4. Fausta – Flavia Maxima Fausta was a Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, in 307 Maximianus married her to Constantine I, Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293. As the sister of Emperor Maxentius, Fausta had a part in her fathers downfall, in 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year. Empress Fausta was held in esteem by Constantine, and proof of his favour was that in 324 she was proclaimed Augusta. However three years later Fausta was put to death by Constantine, following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina, Fausta was executed by suffocation in an over-heated bath, a mode of assassination not otherwise attested in the Roman world. Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order and her sons became Roman Emperors, Constantine II, reigned 337 –340, Constantius II reigned 337 –361, and Constans reigned 337 –350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta, of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation, gérard Minaud, Les vies de 12 femmes d’empereur romain - Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés, Paris, L’Harmattan,2012, ch. 12, La vie de Fausta, femme de Constantin, p. 285-305, J. W. Drijvers, Flavia Maxima Fausta, Some Remarks, Historia 41 500-506. Media related to Fausta at Wikimedia Commons Fausta, Flavia Maximiana
5. Gratian – For other figures with this name, including his paternal grandfather, see Gratian. Gratian was Roman emperor from 367 to 383, the eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father on several campaigns along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratians brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his fathers soldiers, in 378, Gratians generals won a decisive victory over the Lentienses, a branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria. Gratian subsequently led a campaign across the Rhine, the last emperor to do so and that same year, his uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths – making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire Roman Empire. He favoured Christianity over traditional Roman religion, refusing the divine attributes of the Emperors, Gratian was the son of Emperor Valentinian I by Marina Severa, and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia. He was named after his grandfather Gratian the Elder, Gratian was first married to Flavia Maxima Constantia, daughter of Constantius II. His stepmother was Empress Justina and his half siblings were Emperor Valentinian II, Galla. On 24 August 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus, on the death of Valentinian, the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son emperor under the title of Valentinian II. The division, however, was nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian. Gratians general Mallobaudes, a king of the Franks, and Naniemus, completely defeated the Lentienses, upon receiving news of the victory, Gratian personally led a campaign across the Upper Rhine into the territory of the Lentienses. After initial trouble facing the Lentienses on high ground, Gratian blockaded the enemy instead, the Lentienses were forced to supply young men to be levied into the Roman army, while the remainder were allowed to return home. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on 9 August. Valens refused to wait for Gratian and his army to arrive and assist in defeating the host of Goths, Alans and Huns, as a result, Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Illyricum of barbarians in the Gothic War. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain, Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the generals, Andragathius. The reign of Gratian forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, Gratian also published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria. The move was mainly thrust at the various beliefs that had arisen out of Arianism, Gratian, under the influence of his chief advisor the Bishop of Milan Ambrose, took active steps to repress pagan worship. This brought to an end a period of widespread, if unofficial, in 382, Gratian appropriated the income of the Pagan priests and Vestal Virgins, forbade legacies of real property to them and abolished other privileges belonging to the Vestals and to the pontiffs
6. Magnus Maximus – Magnus Maximus was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388. In 387, Maximus ambitions led him to invade Italy, resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388, in the view of some historians, his death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain. Maximus was born c.335 in Gallaecia, on the estates of Count Theodosius, to whom he was a nephew, and Flavius Iulius Eucherius son, near contemporaries described his dignity as offended when lesser men were promoted to high positions. Maximus was a general, who served under Count Theodosius in Africa in 373. It is likely he also may have been an officer in Britain in 368. Assigned to Britain in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts and Scots in 381, the western emperor Gratian had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans over Roman citizens. The Alans are an Iranian speaking people who were early adopters of Christianity, in 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul to pursue his ambitions, taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him. Following his landing in Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his opponent, emperor Gratian. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25,383, negotiations followed in 384 including the intervention of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, leading to an accord with Valentinian II and Theodosius I in which Maximus was recognized as Augustus in the west. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum in Gaul, and ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and he issued coinage and a number of edicts reorganizing Gauls system of provinces. Some scholars believe Maximus may have founded the office of the Comes Britanniarum as well and he became a popular emperor, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus delivered a panegyric on Maximus virtues. He used foederati forces such as the Alamanni to great effect and he was also a stern persecutor of heretics. These executions went ahead despite the wishes of prominent men such as St. Martin of Tours. Maximus edict of 387 or 388 which censured Christians at Rome for burning down a Jewish synagogue, was condemned by bishop Ambrose, in 387 Maximus managed to force emperor Valentinian II out of Milan, after which he fled to Theodosius I. Theodosius I and Valentinian II then invaded from the east, and campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July–August 388, their troops being led by Richomeres, Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, and retreated to Aquileia. Meanwhile, the Franks under Marcomer had taken the opportunity to invade northern Gaul, andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and the killer of emperor Gratian, was defeated near Siscia while Maximus brother, Marcellinus, fell in battle at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia, and although he pleaded for mercy was executed, the Senate passed a decree of Damnatio memoriae against him
7. Saints Vitalis and Agricola – Saints Vitalis and Agricola are venerated as martyrs, who are considered to have died at Bologna about 304, during the persecution ordered by Roman Emperor Diocletian. Agricola was a Christian citizen of Bologna who converted his slave, Vitalis, to Christianity, Vitalis was first to suffer martyrdom, being executed in the amphitheatre. The authorities then tortured Agricola, but failed to make him give up his religion, information about Vitalis and Agricola is based on the writings of Saint Ambrose. In 392 or 393, Eusebius, bishop of Bologna, had announced the discovery of the relics of Vitalis and he reburied the relics according to Christian rites, an event at which Ambrose attended. The reburial led to popular veneration of these saints, the cult of these two martyrs was diffused in Western Europe due to the efforts of Ambrose, who transferred some of the relics to Milan and gave some to Florence. He took some of the blood, parts of the cross, on this occasion he delivered an oration in praise of virginity, with special reference to the three virgin daughters of Juliana. His mention of the martyrs Agricola and Vitalis in the first part of the oration is the source of information on their the martyrs lives. In 396 other relics were sent to St. Victricus, Bishop of Rouen, the cult had as its center the city of Bologna, where a basilica was built to hold the relics. The crypt of the two dates back to the 11th century. Vitalis and Agricola Santi Vitale e Agricola
8. Apodemius – Apodemius was an officer of the Roman Empire, a courtier of Emperor Constantius II, involved in the deaths of Constantius Gallus and Claudius Silvanus. Apodemius was an agens in rebus, a sort of secret agent, in 350, Constantius ordered Apodemius and Barbatio to go to Poetovio, arrest his cousin and caesar of the East Constantius Gallus and bring him to Pula, where trial awaited him. When the magister militum Claudius Silvanus rebelled in Gaul, in 355, in 361 Constantius II died, his successor was Julian, half-brother of Constantius Gallus. The new emperor instituted the Chalcedon tribunal to bring to trial the officers of Constantius II, in particular their involvement in Gallus fall, Apodemius, who by the time had already returned to private life, was found guilty of having plotted against Gallus and put to death
9. Boz (king) – Boz was the king of the Antes, an early Slavic people that lived in parts of present-day Ukraine. His story is mentioned by Jordanes in the Getica, in the preceding years, some years after the Ostrogothic defeat by the invading Huns, a king named Vinitharius, Ermanarics great-nephew, marched against the Antes of Boz and defeated them. Vinitharius condemned Boz, his sons, and seventy of his nobles, to crucifixion and these conflicts constitute the only pre-6th century contacts between Germanics and Slavs documented in written sources. Jordanes noted that the Gothic tribes regularly made raids into Slavic territory, Jordanes mentioned three tribes of the same origin, that constituted the Slavs, Wends, Antes and Sklaveni, and stated that the Antes were the bravest and strongest among these. He also stated that the Antes rule was hereditary, while Procopius maintained that the Sklaveni and Antes are not ruled by one man, according to Roman Smal-Stocki, the Antes received a strong ruling power and military organization over time from the Gothic influence. They inhabited the area between the Dniester and Dnieper, most likely in the region extending from the Vistula to the Danube mouth, the tribal union of the Antes probably included some neighbouring West Slavic tribes. The Antes seem to have attempted to form their own state in the frontiers of – or even within – the Gothic state, the Huns, accompanied by the Alani whom they had just conquered, invaded Ermanarics territories. Ermanaric, who feared devastation, took his own life, in the years following Ermanarics death, there was a war between the section of the Ostrogoths who remained under Hun rule, and the Antes. Ermanarics great-nephew, Vinitharius, who disliked being under Hun rule, withdrew his forces and marched against the Antes in order to defeat them and this took place in the last quarter of the 4th century, possibly around 380. Vinitharius left their bodies hanging to induce fear in those who had surrendered and these conflicts constitute the only pre-6th century contacts between Germanics and Slavs documented in written sources. Afterwards, the Alans rushed to rescue their kin, with a battle fought against the Ostrogoths at the river Erak. The Ostrogoths eventually reached the lower Danube shores, Jordanes wrote his name in Late Latin as Boz, though several manuscripts of the Getica use Box or Booz. There are various theories in etymological studies regarding the name, the name has been rendered in the Slavic languages as Bož. One theory is that it derives from the Slavic word bog, God, polish linguist Stanisław Urbańczyk mentioned *Božь, *Vožь, and *Bosь as possibilites. Ukrainian scholar Mykhailo Hrushevsky speculated that his name was perhaps Bozhko, Bozhydar, ukrainian Bohdan Struminsky stressed that as the first palatalizations had not yet occurred in Slavic at the time of Boz, *Božь was unconvincing and *Vožь even less acceptable. His title, rex Antorum, translates to King of the Antes, historian Florin Curta believes that Jordanes account regarding Boz and Vinitharius possibly originated in the Gothic oral tradition, given the narrative pattern of the story. He views of Boz as quasi-legendary, as he is the only Slavic leader mentioned by Jordanes, some historians have tried to identify Boz with Bus mentioned in the Tale of Igors Campaign, in which boyars tell Sviatoslav I of Kiev of Gothic maidens. Singing about the time of Bus, but this has been refuted, the first to connect the two was Omeljan Ohonovskyj, in 1876
10. Crispus – Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was the son of Constantine I and Minervina. Crispus year and place of birth are uncertain and his mother Minervina was either a concubine or a first wife to Constantine. Nothing else is known about Minervina, in 307, Constantine allied to the Italian Augusti, and this alliance was sealed with the marriage of Constantine to Fausta, daughter of Maximian and sister of Maxentius. The marriage of Constantine to Fausta has caused historians to question the status of his relation to Minervina. If Minervina was his wife, Constantine would have needed to secure a divorce before marrying Fausta. However, Minervina may have already been dead by 307, a widowed Constantine would need no divorce. Neither the true nature of the relationship between Constantine and Minervina nor the reason Crispus came under the protection of his father will probably be known. The offspring of an illegitimate affair could have caused problems and would likely be dismissed. This can be seen as evidence of a loving and public relationship between Constantine and Minervina which gave him a reason to protect her son, the story of Minervina is quite similar to that of Constantines mother Helena. Constantine in turn may have had to put aside Minervina in order to secure an alliance with the same man, Constantius did not however dismiss Constantine as his son, and perhaps Constantine chose to follow the example of his father. Whatever the reason, Constantine kept Crispus at his side, surviving sources are unanimous in declaring him a loving, trusting and protective father to his first son. Constantine even entrusted his education to Lactantius, among the most important Christian teachers of that time, by 313, there were two remaining Augusti in control of the Roman Empire. Constantine reigned as a Western Roman Emperor and his brother-in-law Licinius as an Eastern Roman Emperor, on 1 March 317, the two co-reigning Augusti jointly proclaimed three new Caesars, Crispus, alongside his younger half-brother Constantine II and his first cousin Licinius Iunior. Constantine II was the son of Fausta but was probably about a month old at the time of his proclamation. Thus only Crispus assumed actual duties, Constantine apparently believed in the abilities of his son and appointed Crispus as Commander of Gaul. The new Caesar soon held residence in Augusta Treverorum, regional capital of Germania, in January 322, Crispus was married to a young woman called Helena. Helena bore him a son in October,322, there is no surviving account of the name or later fate of the son
11. Domitius Alexander – Lucius Domitius Alexander, probably born in Phrygia, was vicarius of Africa when Emperor Maxentius ordered him to send his son as hostage to Rome. Alexander refused and proclaimed emperor in 308. The most detailed if somewhat confusing description of the insurrection is given by Zosimus and he reports that Maxentius sent his portrait to Africa to gain recognition as Emperor there. The troops resisted because of their loyalty to Galerius, Maxentius ordered Domitius Alexander, the vicar of Africa, to send his son to Rome to secure his loyalty. Alexander refused and was crowned Emperor by his army, the incident was probably caused by the conflict between Maxentius and his father Maximian early in 308, and Zosimos confused Galerius with Maximian in his account. Apart from the provinces in north Africa, Domitius Alexander also controlled Sardinia, at the time of his accession, he was already at an advanced age. There is evidence in an inscription that Alexander and Constantine I allied themselves in opposition to Maxentius, salama suggests that, at the latest, the pact was entered into by autumn of 310. Maxentius sent his praetorian prefect Rufius Volusianus and a certain Zenas to quell the rebellion, apparently, his troops did not offer much resistance. Maxentius retaliated with confiscations of the property of alleged supporters of Alexander, the year of the end of Alexanders reign is subject to debate, dates ranging from 309 to 311 have been proposed. The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, Cambridge 1981, p. 14f, chastagnol, André, Les Fastes de la Préfecture de Rome au Bas-Empire, Paris 1962, p. 54ff. Paschoud, Francois, Zosime, Histoire Nouvelle, Paris 2000, de imperatoribus Romanis on Alexander, including bibliography
12. Guo Pu – Guo Pu, courtesy name Jingchun, was a Chinese writer and scholar of the Eastern Jin period, and is best known as one of Chinas foremost commentators on ancient texts. Guo was a Taoist mystic, geomancer, collector of tales, editor of old texts. He was the first commentator of the Shan Hai Jing and so probably, with the noted Han bibliographer Liu Xin, was instrumental in preserving this valuable mythological, Guo Pu was the well educated son of a governor. He was a historian and a prolific writer of the Jin dynasty. In AD307 a Xiongnu clan invaded the area and Guos family relocated south of the Yangtze River, reaching Xuancheng, Guo served as an omen-interpreter to military leaders and Eastern Jin chancellor Wang Dao before being appointed to official court positions in 318 and 320. Guos mother died in 322, which caused Guo to resign his position, Guo was likely the most learned person of his era, and is one of the foremost commentators on ancient Chinese works. In particular, Guos commentaries to the Erya, Shan Hai Jing, without his glosses and commentaries, large portions of these texts would be unintelligible today. Guo was also a poet, and his 11 surviving fu poems display his extensive command of the ancient Chinese language. One of them, entitled Fu on the Yangtze River, used the image of the Yangtze to praise the restoration of the Jin dynasty and his best known poems are a series entitled Wandering as an Immortal, of which 14 survive. All that remains today are his writings from the Wen Xuan, from the Eastern Han through the Western Jin. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1, To 1375, in Knechtges, David R. Chang, Taiping. Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature, A Reference Guide, Part One, the Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature, Volume 2. From the Eastern Jin through the early Tang, the Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1, To 1375. Works by Pu Guo at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Pu Guo at Internet Archive Qin Lore Guo Pu The Book of Burial