Pages in category "6th-century popes"
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pope Agapetus I – Pope Agapetus I was Pope from 13 May 535 to his death in 536. He is not to be confused with another Saint Agapetus, an Early Christian martyr with the feast day of 6 August, Agapetus was born in Rome, although his exact date of birth is unknown. He was the son of Gordianus, a Roman priest who had been slain during the riots in the days of Pope Symmachus. The name of his father might point to a relation with two other Popes, Felix III and Gregory I. Gregory was a descendant of Felix. Gregorys father, Gordianus, held the position of Regionarius in the Roman Church, nothing further is known about the position. Jeffrey Richards describes him as the last survivor of the Symmachan old guard, having been ordained as a deacon perhaps as early as 502 and he was elevated from archdeacon to pope in 535. Meanwhile, the Byzantine general Belisarius was preparing for an invasion of Italy, king Theodahad of the Ostrogoths begged Agapetus to proceed on an embassy to Constantinople and use his personal influence to appease Emperor Justinian I following the death of Amalasuntha. To defray the costs of the embassy, Agapetus pledged the sacred vessels of the Church of Rome and he set out in mid-winter with five bishops and a large retinue. In February 536, he appeared in the capital of the East, Agapetus immediately turned his attention from the political matter Theodahad had sent him to address to a religious one. The occupant of the Byzantine patriarchal see was Anthimus I, who had left his see of Trebizond. Against the protests of the orthodox, the Empress Theodora finally seated Anthimus in the patriarchal chair, when Agapetus arrived members of the clergy entered charges against Anthimus as an intruder and a heretic. Agapetus ordered him to make a profession of faith and to return to his forsaken see, upon Anthimus refusal. The Emperor threatened Agapetus with banishment, Agapetus is said to have replied, With eager longing have I come to gaze upon the Most Christian Emperor Justinian. In his place I find a Diocletian, whose threats, however, Agapetus, for the first time in the history of the Church, personally consecrated Anthimus legally elected successor, Mennas. Four of Agapetus letters have survived, two are addressed to Justinian in reply to a letter from the emperor, in the latter of which he refuses to acknowledge the Orders of the Arians. A third is addressed to the bishops of Africa, on the same subject, the fourth is a response to Reparatus, Bishop of Carthage, who had sent him congratulations upon his elevation to the Pontificate. Shortly afterwards, Agapetus fell ill and died on 22 April 536 and his remains were brought in a lead coffin to Rome and deposited in St. Peters Basilica. Agapetus I has been canonised by both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions and his memory is kept on 20 September, the day of his deposition, in the Roman Catholic Church
2. Pope Benedict I – Pope Benedict I was Pope from 2 June 575 to his death in 579. Benedict was the son of a man named Bonifacius, and was called Bonosus by the Greeks, the ravages of the Lombards rendered it very difficult to communicate with the Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople, who claimed the privilege of confirming the election of the popes. Hence there was a vacancy of nearly eleven months between the death of Pope John III and the arrival of the confirmation of Benedicts election on 2 June 575. Benedict granted an estate, the Massa Veneris, in the territory of Minturnae, marks near the walls of Spoleto. Famine followed the devastating Lombards, and from the few words the Liber Pontificalis has about Benedict and he was buried in the vestibule of the sacristy of the old Basilica of St. Peter. In a ceremony held in December, he ordained fifteen priests, as of 2016, there have been fifteen Popes named Benedict, as well as at least three Antipopes by the name. Some may be named after this obscure pontiff, but most take their name from Saint Benedict of Nursia. In particular, Pope Benedict XVI stated after his election that he was inspired by Pope Benedict XV, who led the Church through the chaos of World War I, and Saint Benedict of Nursia. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles
3. Pope Boniface II – Pope Boniface II was the first Germanic pope. He reigned from 17 September 530 until his death in 532, Boniface was chosen by his predecessor, Pope Felix IV, who had been a strong adherent of the Arian king, and was never elected. He was later elected, largely due to the influence of the Gothic king Athalaric, for a time, Boniface served as pope in competition with Dioscorus, who had been elected by most of the priests of Rome. Boniface and Dioscorus were both consecrated in Rome on 22 September 530, but Dioscurus died only days later. Boniface IIs most notable act was confirming the decisions of the Council of Orange, Boniface was buried in St. Peters on 17 October 532. Boniface changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini
4. Pope Felix IV – Pope Felix IV served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 12 July 526 to his death in 530. He came from Samnium, the son of one Castorius, following the death of Pope John I at the hands of the Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great, the papal voters gave in to the kings demands and chose Cardinal Felix as Pope. Felixs favor in the eyes of the king caused him to push for greater benefits for the Church and he was elected after a gap of nearly two months after the death of John I. During his reign, an Imperial edict was passed granting that cases against clergy should be dealt with by the Pope and he defined church teaching on grace and free will in response to a request of Faustus of Riez, in Gaul, on opposing Semi-Pelagianism. Felix attempted to designate his own successor, Pope Boniface II, the reaction of the Senate was to forbid the discussion of a pope’s successor during his lifetime or to accept such a nomination. The majority of the clergy reacted to Felixs activity by nominating Dioscorus as Pope, Felix built the Santi Cosma e Damiano in the Imperial forums. His feast day is celebrated on 30 January, when regnal numbering of the Popes began to be used, Antipope Felix II was counted as one of the Popes of that name. The second true Pope Felix is thus known by the number III, and this custom also affected the name taken by Antipope Felix V, who would have been the fourth Pope Felix. List of Catholic saints List of popes Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes Fontes Latinae de papis usque ad annum 530 Liber pontificalis
5. Pope Gregory I – Pope Saint Gregory I, commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was pope of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to his death in 604. Gregory is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome to convert a pagan people to Christianity, Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. He is also known as the Great Visionary of Modern Educational System, for his writings, the epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. For this reason, English translations of Eastern texts will sometimes list him as Gregory Dialogos or the Latinized equivalent Dialogus. A senators son and himself the Prefect of Rome at 30, Gregory tried the monastery but soon returned to public life, ending his life. Although he was the first pope from a background, his prior political experiences may have helped him to be a talented administrator. Gregory regained papal authority in Spain and France, and sent missionaries to England, the realignment of barbarian allegiance to Rome from their Arian Christian alliances shaped medieval Europe. Gregory saw Franks, Lombards, and Visigoths align with Rome in religion, throughout the Middle Ages he was known as the Father of Christian Worship because of his exceptional efforts in revising the Roman worship of his day. His contributions to the development of the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, Gregory is a Doctor of the Church and one of the Latin Fathers. He is considered a saint in the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, immediately after his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim. The Protestant reformer John Calvin admired Gregory and declared in his Institutes that Gregory was the last good pope and he is the patron saint of musicians, singers, students, and teachers. The exact date of Gregorys birth is uncertain, but is estimated to be around the year 540. The medieval writer who provided this etymology did not hesitate to apply it to the life of Gregory, aelfric states, He was very diligent in Gods Commandments. Gregory was born into a wealthy patrician Roman family with connections to the church. Gregorys mother, Silvia, was well-born, and had a sister, Pateria. His mother and two aunts are honored by Catholic and Orthodox churches as saints. Gregorys great-great-grandfather had been Pope Felix III, the nominee of the Gothic king, Gregorys election to the throne of St Peter made his family the most distinguished clerical dynasty of the period. The family owned and resided in a villa suburbana on the Caelian Hill, the north of the street runs into the Colosseum, the south, the Circus Maximus
6. Pope John I – Pope John I can also refer to Pope John I of Alexandria. Pope John I was Pope from 13 August 523 to his death in 526 and he was a native of Siena, in Italy. He is the first pope known to have visited Constantinople during papacy and he may also be the Deacon John to whom Boethius, the 6th-Century philosopher, dedicated three of his five religious tractates, or treatises, written between 512 and 520. John was very frail when he was elected to the papacy as Pope John I, king Theodoric threatened that if John should fail in his mission, there would be reprisals against the orthodox, or non-Arian, Catholics in the West. John proceeded to Constantinople with an entourage, his religious companions included Bishop Ecclesius of Ravenna, Bishop Eusebius of Fanum Fortunae. His secular companions were the senators Flavius Theodorus, Inportunus, Agapitus, although John was successful in his mission, when he returned to Ravenna, Theodorics capital in Italy, Theodoric had John arrested on the suspicion of having conspired with Emperor Justin. John was imprisoned at Ravenna, where he died of neglect and his body was transported to Rome and buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. The Liber Pontificalis credits John with making repairs to the cemetery of the martyrs Nereus and Achilleus on the Via Ardeatina, that of Saints Felix and Adauctus, and the cemetery of Priscilla. Pope John I is depicted in art as looking through the bars of a prison or imprisoned with a deacon and he is venerated at Ravenna and in Tuscany. His feast day is 18 May, the anniversary of the day of his death, List of Catholic saints List of popes
7. Pope John II – Pope John II was Pope from 2 January 533 to his death in 535. Born in Rome as Mercurius, the son of Projectus, he became a priest of the Basilica di San Clemente on the Caelian Hill and he was made pope on 2 January 533. The basilica of St. Clement still retains several memorials of Johannes surnamed Mercurius, Mercurius was the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy. Considering his birth name to be honored the pagan god Mercury—he took the name John after Pope John I. At this period, simony in the election of popes and bishops was rife among clergy, during the sede vacante of over two months, shameless trafficking in sacred things was indulged in. Even sacred vessels were exposed for sale, the matter had been brought before the Senate, and laid before the Arian Ostrogothic Court at Ravenna. The last decree which the Roman Senate is known to have issued, passed under Boniface II, was directed against simony in papal elections, the decree was confirmed by Athalaric, king of the Ostrogoths. He ordered it to be engraved on marble and to be placed in the atrium of St. Peters Basilica in 533 and this sum was to be given to the poor. John remained on good terms with Athalaric, who, being an Arian Christian, was content to refer to Johns tribunal all actions brought against the Roman clergy. The notorious adulterous behavior of Contumeliosus, Bishop of Riez in Provence, until a new bishop could be appointed, he bade the clergy of Riez obey the Bishop of Arles. The question of re-admittance to the lapsed troubled north Africa for centuries, the answer to their question was given by Agapetus, as John II died on 8 May 535. He was buried in St Peters Basilica
8. Pope John III – Pope John III can also refer to Pope John III of Alexandria. Pope John III was Pope from 17 July 561 to his death in 574 and he was born in Rome of a distinguished family. The Liber Pontificalis calls him a son of one Anastasius and his father bore the title illustris, more than likely being a vir illustris. According to the historian Evagrius, his name was Catelinus. He may be identical with the subdeacon John who made a collection of extracts from the Greek Fathers and his pontificate is characterized by two major events over which he had no control. The first was the death of Emperor Justinian I in 565, jeffrey Richards considers his reign was an anomaly, a temporary damming up of the stream of history. With his death, the Byzantine Empire turned its attention from Rome and the West to pressing problems in the Balkans, from the Avars, Persians, Italy, being geographically peripheral to the imperial heartland, inevitably took bottom place on the strategic priority list. The other major event was the invasion of the Lombards, which began in 568, much of northern Italy was overrun, as well as the central spine of the peninsula, making a shambles of the imperial administration. Further, their warriors threatened the survival of Rome herself, subjecting the Eternal City to repeated sieges, lastly, their entrance reintroduced the newly extinguished Arian belief, which threatened the predominance of Roman Catholicism. As the Lombards poured south into Italy, the appointed governor Longinus sat powerless in Ravenna. Pope John took it himself to go to Naples, where the former governor Narses was preparing to return to Constantinople. He had been recalled by the new Emperor Justin II in response to Italian petitions over his oppressive taxation, Narses agreed to this, and returned to Rome. However, popular hatred of Narses was then extended to John for inviting him back and this unrest reached such a pitch that the Pope was forced to retire from Rome and take up residence at the catacombs along the Via Appia two miles outside the city. There he carried out his duties, including the consecration of bishops, one recorded act of Pope John involved two bishops, Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap, who had been condemned in a synod at Lyons. This pair succeeded in persuading Guntram, King of Burgundy, that they had been condemned unjustly, influenced by Guntrams letters, John decided that they should be restored to their sees. It is recorded in the Liber Pontificalis that he died on 13 July 574
9. Pope Pelagius I – Pope Pelagius I was Pope from 556 to his death in 561. He was the pope of the Byzantine Papacy, and like his predecessor. He came from a Roman noble family and his father John seems to have been vicar of one of the two civil dioceses, or districts, into which Italy was then divided. Pelagius accompanied Pope Agapetus I to Constantinople and was appointed by him nuncio of the Roman Church to that city, when Pope Vigilius went to Constantinople on the orders of Emperor Justinian I, Pelagius stayed in Rome as the popes representative. Totila, King of the Goths, had begun to blockade the city, Pelagius poured out his own fortune for the benefit of the famine-stricken people, and tried to induce the king to grant a truce. Though he failed, he afterwards induced Totila to spare the lives of the people when he captured Rome in December 546. Totila sent Pelagius to Constantinople in order to arrange a peace with Justinian I, traditionally, he is credited with the construction of the Santi Apostoli, Rome, built to celebrate the complete victory of Narses over the Ostrogoths. Pelagius was elected Pope as Justinians candidate, while before his ordination he opposed Justinians efforts to condemn the Three Chapters in order to reconcile theological factions in the Church, afterwards Pelagius adopted Justinians position. This damaged the reputation in northern Italy, Gaul, and elsewhere in Western Europe. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A. D. 590–752