Category:8th-century Muslim scholars of Islam
Pages in category "8th-century Muslim scholars of Islam"
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Abu Hanifa – Zūṭā al-Fārisī, known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh. He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims and he is often called The Great Imam. Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq and his father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul, Afghanistan, was 40 years old at the time of Abū Ḥanīfahs birth. His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather and great-grandfather and those stories maintain for his ancestors having been slaves purchased by some Arab benefactor are, therefore, untenable and seemingly fabricated. There is a discussion on being of Turkic or Persian origin, but the widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry from Kabul. In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State and his student Abu Yusuf was later appointed Qadi Al-Qudat by the next Caliph Harun al-Rashid. In his reply to al-Mansur, Abū Ḥanīfah said that he was not fit for the post, Al-Mansur, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Abū Ḥanīfah of lying. If I am lying, Abū Ḥanīfah said, then my statement is doubly correct, how can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi. Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abū Ḥanīfah arrested, locked in prison and he was never fed nor cared for. Even there, the jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him, in 767, Abū Ḥanīfah died in prison. The cause of his death is not clear, as some say that Abū Ḥanīfah issued an opinion for bearing arms against Al-Mansur. It was said that so many people attended his funeral that the service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. On the authority of the historian al-Khatib, it can be said that for twenty days people went on performing funeral prayer for him. Later, after years, the Abū Ḥanīfah Mosque was built in the Adhamiyah neighbourhood of Baghdad. The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508, in 1533, Ottomans reconquered Iraq and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites. While it was used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifas main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman
2. Abu Mashar Sindhi – Abu Mashar Al-Sindi, Abulmazar ابو ماشرالسندي, was a scholar of Hadith literature from Mansura, Sindh now the part of Pakistan. Arab rule produced men of note in Sindh, and some of them achieved fame and distinction in Damascus, one of them was Abu Mashar Sindhi. He was described by historians and chroniclers as a pioneer in the compilation of Hadith. Abu Mashar Sindhi was Muslim world’s noted scholar of Seerah and Fiqh and he lived at Medina for a number of years and later shifted to Baghdad where he died. He was a respected figure and in fact, the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi led his funeral prayers. His son Abu Abdul Malik Sindhi was also an eminent scholar, another of his relatives was the young Hafiz Abu Mohamniad Khalaf bin Salem Sindhi who was a Hadith scholar and had migrated from Sindh to Iraq where he attained fame. - Page 12 History of Muslim civilization in India and Pakistan, - Page 49 Education in Sind, past and present - Page 73 Islamic and comparative law quarterly - Page 115 Islamic culture, the Hyderabad quarterly review - Page 21 Abbasid Caliphate
3. Abu Yusuf – He served as the chief judge during reign of Harun al-Rashid. His most famous work was Kitab al-Kharaj, a treatise on taxation, Abu Yusuf lived in Kufa and Baghdad, in what is now Iraq, during the 8th century. His genealogy has been traced back to Sad b, habta, a youth in Medina in the time of the Prophet, and his birth date is estimated based on his the date of his death to be around 113/729CE. Based on anecdotal stories, Abu Yusuf was raised poor but with an appetite for knowledge. His mother disapproved of his desires, insisting that he master some trade so as to help make ends meet. While it cannot be verified, stories suggest that he complied with his mothers wishes. His talent and commitment was recognized by Abu Hanifa who became his mentor with Abu Yusuf as his star pupil. He is portrayed as an incredibly studious individual who was unceasing in his pursuit for knowledge, under the guidance of Abu Hanifa, Abu Yusuf achieved incredible success and helped develop and spread the influence of the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Abu Yusuf lived in Kufa until he was appointed Qadi in Baghdad and it is unclear whether he was appointed by Mahdi, al-Hadi, or Harun al-Rashid. According to one story, Abu Yusuf was able to provide sound advice pertaining to law to a government official who rewarded him generously and recommended him to the caliph. He continued to provide legal opinions to the caliph who drew him into his inner circle. While this version of events is probable, it is not necessarily authentic and this made the position of Grand Qadi analogous to a modern-day chief justice. Abu Yusuf held the position of Grand Qadi until his death in 182/798CE, during his lifetime, Abu Yusuf created a number of literary works on a range of subjects including Islamic jurisprudence, international law, narrations of collected traditions, and others. The Kitāb al-Fihrist, a compilation of books written in the 10th century by Ibn al-Nadim. With one exception, none of these works listed in the Fihrist have survived, the exception is his book entitled Kitāb al-Kharāj, a treatise on taxation and financial issues facing the empire written at the request of the caliph, Harun al-Rashid. While the caliph took some suggestions and ignored others, the effect was to limit the rulers discretion over the tax system. A selection of other works credited to him that do not appear in the Fihrist have also survived, the Kitab al-Athar is a collection of Kufian traditions which he narrated. Kitab Ikhtilaf Abi Hanifa wa Ibn Abi Layla is a comparison of the opinions between the authorities, Abu Hanifa and Abu Layla
4. Ibn al-Qasim – Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim al-Utaqi, better known as Ibn al-Qasim was a prominent early jurist in the Maliki school from Egypt. He was one of Maliks main companions and had an influence in recording the positions of the school. Ibn al-Qasim was the source for Sahnun in his Mudawwana, a record of Maliks teachings. He has the position in the Maliki school as Muhammad al-Shaybani has in the Hanafi school. Ibn al-Qasim had opinions which differed from those of Malik, to the point that it was said that he was dominated by opinion, Ibn al-Qasims full name was Abd ar-Rahman ibn ibn al-Qasim al-Utaqi although he was well known as Ibn al-Qasim. He was born in Egypt in a known as the Utaqi Mosque in the mid 8th century CE at a time when the Abbasids took control of the Muslim world from the Umayyads. Ibn al-Qasims origins were from the Palestinian town of Ramla and he was a descendant from the slaves of Taif whom the Prophet Muhammad had freed. Ibn al-Qasims father was in the Dewan, and he used the money he inherited from him for his studies and he travelled from Egypt to Medina after what is recorded as a visionary dream and after having been drawn to gatherings of religious knowledge in Egypt. In Medina, he met Malik as well as Ibn Wahb, Ibn al-Qasim kept the company of Malik for the relatively long period of about twenty years. It was from him that he learned his fiqh, in Medina he also met Al-Layth, Ibn al-Majishun and Muslim ibn Khalid al-Zanji. Many people related from him and consulted him about Maliks fatwas, Ibn Wahb used to say, If you want this business – meaning the fiqh of Malik – you must have Ibn al-Qasim. His transmission of the Muwatta is considered to be the soundest transmission, and Sahnun learned the contents of the Mudawwana, thus he can be considered as the main transmitter of Maliki fiqh, for the Mudawwana is its chief source. Ibn al-Qasim was generally known for his vast knowledge, when Malik was asked about him and Ibn Wahb, he replied that Ibn Wahb was a knowledgeble man whilst Ibn al-Qasim was a true faqih. He was also known as having qualities and spent much of his time reciting the Quran such that he would finish many readings in a short space of time. On his return to Egypt he refused to marry the daughters of wealthy officials and he died in Egypt at the age of 63 in the month of Safar,191 AH three days after returning from a trip to Mecca. Ibn al-Qasim left behind him two sons Abd ar-Rahman and Umar
5. Ibn Wahb – Abu muhammad Abdallah ibn Wahb ibn Muslim al-Fihri al-Qurashi al-Misri, better known as Ibn Wahb was an important Egyptian early jurist in the Maliki school. He was one of Maliks best known companions and had an influence in spreading the Maliki school in Egypt. He was born at Old Cairo in Dhu al-Qi‘dah in the year 125 AH. He was a member, by adoption, of the tribe of Quraysh, a native of Egypt, was a mawla to Rehana, who was herself a mawla to Abu Abd ArRahman Yazid Ibn Unais, of the tribe of Fihr. He received his training in the Islamic sciences under the tutelage of the Egyptian scholar Uthman ibn Abd al-Hakam al-Judhami. He stayed with Malik for about twenty years, and disseminated his fiqh in Egypt and he studied not only with Malik but also with many of the companions of Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. Many also related hadiths from him, Ibn Wahb has a high standing in the Maliki school as he was one of Maliks first and most prominent companions. Al-Asbagh, one of the students of Maliks companions said of him, Ibn Wahb was the companion of Malik with the most knowledge of the Sunnah, Ibn Wahb himself recognised that some of his hadiths were weak. He said, if it had not been that Allah rescued me through Malik and al-Layth, I knew many hadiths, and that confused me. I used to present them to Malik and al-Layth and they would say, Take this, Malik esteemed and loved Ibn Wahb. He did not spare any of his companions criticism except for Ibn Wahb, Malik used to call him the faqih when he wrote to him. Ibn Wahb was one of those who spread Maliks school in Egypt, people travelled to him to learn Maliks fiqh both during Maliks lifetime and after his death. He left many excellent books, including what he heard from Malik which took up about 30 volumes and he died on 24th of Sha‘ban in the year 197 AH
6. Malik ibn Anas – ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist. Shall set forth from East and West without finding a sage other than the sage of the people in Medina, when the scholars of knowledge are mentioned, Malik is the guiding star. His full name was Abu Abdullah Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik Ibn Abī Āmir Ibn Amr Ibnul-Hārith Ibn Ghaimān Ibn Khuthail Ibn Amr Ibnul-Haarith, Malik was born the son of Anas ibn Malik and Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina circa 711. According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very fair, with hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard. Living in Medina gave Malik access to some of the most learned minds of early Islam and he memorized the Quran in his youth, learning recitation from Abu Suhail Nafi ibn Abd ar-Rahman, from whom he also received his Ijazah, or certification and permission to teach others. This fact may explain the mutual respect and relative peace that has existed between the Hanafi and Maliki Sunnis, on one hand, and the Shiis on the other. Maliks chain of narrators was considered the most authentic and called Silsilat al-Dhahab or The Golden Chain of Narrators by notable scholars including Muhammad al-Bukhari. The Golden Chain of narration consists of Malik, who narrated from Nafi‘ Mawla ibn ‘Umar, who narrated from Ibn Umar, verily, from their Lord, that day, shall they be veiled, as proof of his belief. When asked about the nature of faith, Malik defined it as speech and works, Malik seems to have been a proponent of intercession in personal supplication. It is also known, moreover, that the books of the Mālikīs are replete with the stipulation that duā be made while facing the grave. On the basis of several traditions, it is evident that Malik held the early Sufis. It is related, moreover, that Malik was a proponent of combining the inward science of mystical knowledge with the outward science of jurisprudence. When he knows the outward science and puts it into practice, God shall open for him the inward science -, only he who combines the two proves true. Malik was a supporter of tabarruk or the seeking of blessing through relics, Malik considered following the sunnah of the Prophet to be of capital importance for every Muslim. It is reported that he said, The sunnah is Noahs Ark, whoever boards it is saved, and whoever remains away from it perishes. Malik often defined wisdom as superlative understanding in the Religion of God, a light by which God guides whomever He pleases, it does not consist in knowing many things. Malik also believed that wisdom and knowledge decrease over time, saying, Knowledge has diminished incessantly after the Prophets and the revealed scriptures. Accounts of Maliks life demonstrate that the scholar cherished differences of opinion amongst the ulema as a mercy from God to the Islamic community, were a mercy for the people