Niels Henrik Abel
Niels Henrik Abel was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields. His most famous result is the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation in radicals. This question was one of the open problems of his day. He was an innovator in the field of elliptic functions, despite his achievements, Abel was largely unrecognized during his lifetime, he made his discoveries while living in poverty and died at the age of 26. Most of his work was done in six or seven years of his working life, regarding Abel, the French mathematician Charles Hermite said, Abel has left mathematicians enough to keep them busy for five hundred years. Another French mathematician, Adrien-Marie Legendre, quelle tête celle du jeune Norvégien, the Abel Prize in mathematics, originally proposed in 1899 to complement the Nobel Prizes, is named in his honour. Niels Henrik Abel was born in Nedstrand, Norway, as the child of the pastor Søren Georg Abel.
When Niels Henrik Abel was born, the family was living at a rectory on Finnøy, much suggests that Niels Henrik was born in the neighboring parish, as his parents were guests of the bailiff in Nedstrand in July / August of his year of birth. Niels Henrik Abels father, Søren Georg Abel, had a degree in theology and philosophy, sørens father, Nielss grandfather, Hans Mathias Abel, was a pastor, at Gjerstad near Risør. Søren had spent his childhood at Gjerstad, and had served as chaplain there, and after his fathers death in 1804, Søren was appointed pastor at Gjerstad. The Abel family originated in Schleswig and came to Norway in the 17th century, Anne Marie Simonsen was from Risør, her father, Niels Henrik Saxild Simonsen, was a tradesman and merchant ship-owner, and said to be the richest person in Risør. Anne Marie had grown up with two stepmothers, in relatively luxurious surroundings, at Gjerstad rectory, she enjoyed arranging balls and social gatherings. Much suggests she was early on an alcoholic and took little interest in the upbringing of the children, Niels Henrik and his brothers were given their schooling by their father, with handwritten books to read.
Interestingly, a table in a book of mathematics reads. With Norwegian independence and the first election held in Norway, in 1814, meetings of the Storting were held until 1866 in the main hall of the Cathedral School in Christiania. Almost certainly, this is how he came into contact with the school, when the time for his departure approached, Hans was so saddened and depressed over having to leave home that his father did not dare send him away. He decided to send Niels instead, in 1815, Niels Abel entered the Cathedral School at the age of 13. His elder brother Hans joined him there a year and they shared rooms and had classes together
Francesco Albani or Albano was an Italian Baroque painter who was active in Bologna, Bologna, Bologna, Bologna, Mantova and Florence. He was born in Bologna in 1578, the son of a merchant who intended him to go into his own trade. By the age of twelve, Albani had become an apprentice to the competent mannerist painter Denis Calvaert and he soon followed Reni to the so-called Academy run by Annibale and Ludovico Carracci. In 1600, Albani moved to Rome to work on the decoration of the gallery of the Palazzo Farnese. At this time, under Clement VIII Aldobrandini was exhibiting some degree of administrative stability, Albani became one of Annibales most prominent apprentices. Using Annibales designs and assisted by Lanfranco and Sisto Badalocchio, Albani completed frescoes for the San Diego Chapel in San Giacomo degli Spagnoli between 1602 and 1607, in 1606-7, Albani completed the frescoes in the Palazzo Mattei di Giove in Rome. He completed two other frescoes in the palace, on the theme of Life of Joseph.
In 1609, he completed the ceiling of a hall with Fall of Phaeton. This work was commissioned by Vincenzo Giustiniani, famous as a patron of Caravaggio, during 1612-14, Albani completed the Choir frescoes at the church of Santa Maria della Pace which had just been remodelled by Pietro da Cortona. In 1616 he painted ceiling frescoes of Apollo and the Seasons at Palazzo Verospi in Via del Corso for the cardinal Fabrizio Verospi, Albanis best frescoes are those on mythological subjects. Among the best of his subjects are a St Sebastian. He was among the Italian painters to devote himself to painting cabinet pictures and his mythological subjects include The Sleeping Venus, Diana in the Bath, Danaë Reclining, Galatea on the Sea, and Europa on the Bull. A rare etching, the Death of Dido, is attributed to him, carlo Cignani, Andrea Sacchi, Francesco Mola, and Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi were among his students. Following the death of his wife he returned to Bologna, where he married a second time, while Albanis thematic would have appealed to Poussin, he lacked the Frenchmans muscular drama.
His style sometimes seems to have more in common with the decorative Rococothan with the painting of his own time.5 x 224, petersburg Madonna with Child in Glory with Sts. Penguin Books, Pelican History of Art and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Albani, Francesco. Media related to Francesco Albani at Wikimedia Commons Francesco Albani in the History of Art} Francesco Albani Paitings Gallery
Poul William Anderson was an American science fiction author who began his career during the Golden Age of the genre and continued to write and remain popular into the 21st century. Anderson authored works of fantasy, historical novels. He received numerous awards for his writing, including seven Hugo Awards, Poul Anderson was born on November 25,1926, in Bristol, Pennsylvania, of Scandinavian parents. Shortly after his birth, his father, Anton Anderson, an engineer, moved the family to Texas, following Anton Andersons death, his widow took her children to Denmark. The family returned to the United States after the outbreak of World War II, the frame story of his novel Three Hearts and Three Lions, before the fantasy part begins, is partly set in the Denmark which the young Anderson personally experienced. Anderson married Karen Kruse in 1953 and moved with her to the San Francisco Bay area and their daughter Astrid was born in 1954. They made their home in Orinda, over the years Poul gave many readings at The Other Change of Hobbit bookstore in Berkeley, and his wife donated his typewriter and desk to the store.
He died of cancer on July 31,2001, after a month in the hospital, a few of his novels were first published posthumously. Anderson was a member of the Society for Creative Anachronism in 1966 and of the Swordsmen and Sorcerers Guild of America. The latter was a group of Heroic Fantasy authors led by Lin Carter, originally eight in number. He was the sixth President of Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, robert A. Heinlein dedicated his 1985 novel The Cat Who Walks Through Walls to Anderson and eight of the other members of the Citizens Advisory Council on National Space Policy. Anderson is probably best known for stories in which larger-than-life characters succeed gleefully or fail heroically. His characters were nonetheless thoughtful, often introspective, and well developed and his plot lines frequently involved the application of social and political issues in a speculative manner appropriate to the science fiction genre. He wrote some works, generally of shorter length. Much of his fiction is thoroughly grounded in science.
A specialty was imagining scientifically plausible non-Earthlike planets, in many stories, Anderson commented on society and politics. This is graphically expressed in the short story Welcome. By the end of the story, rebels have established themselves at another stellar system—where their descendants, while horrified by the prospect of the Soviets winning complete rule over the Earth, Anderson was not enthusiastic about having Americans in that role either
Chyngyz Aitmatov was a Soviet and Kyrgyz author who wrote in both Russian and Kyrgyz. He is the best known figure in Kyrgyzstans literature and he was born to a Kyrgyz father and Tatar mother. Aitmatovs parents were servants in Sheker. In 1937 his father was charged with bourgeois nationalism in Moscow, Aitmatov lived at a time when Kyrgyzstan was being transformed from one of the most remote lands of the Russian Empire to a republic of the USSR. The future author studied at a Soviet school in Sheker and he worked from an early age. At fourteen he was an assistant to the Secretary at the Village Soviet and he held jobs as a tax collector, a loader, an engineers assistant and continued with many other types of work. For the next eight years he worked for Pravda and his first two publications appeared in 1952 in Russian, The Newspaper Boy Dziuio and Ашым. His first work published in Kyrgyz was Ак Жаан, and his well-known work Jamila appeared in 1958, in 1961 he was a member of the jury at the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival.
In 1971 he was a member of the jury at the 7th Moscow International Film Festival,1980 saw his first novel The Day Lasts More than a Hundred Years, his next significant novel, The Scaffold was published in 1988. The Day Lasts More than a Hundred Years and other writings were translated into several languages, in 1994 he was a member of the jury at the 44th Berlin International Film Festival. In 2002 he was the President of the Jury at the 24th Moscow International Film Festival, Aitmatov suffered kidney failure, and on 16 May 2008 was admitted to a hospital in Nuremberg, where he died of pneumonia on 10 June 2008 at the age of 79. Chinghiz Aitmatov belonged to the generation of writers. His output before Jamila was not significant, a few short stories, but it was Jamila that came to prove the authors work. Aitmatovs representative works include the short novels Farewell, Gulsary. The novel was translated into Welsh by academic and translator W. Gareth Jones. Llyfraur Dryw,1971 The White Ship, The Day Lasts More Than a Hundred Years, Aitmatov was honoured in 1963 with the Lenin Prize for Tales of the Mountains and Steppes and was awarded a State prize for Farewell, Gulsary.
Aitmatovs art was glorified by admirers, even critics of Aitmatov mentioned the high quality of his novels. Aitmatovs work has some elements that are unique specifically to his creative process and his work drew on folklore, not in the ancient sense of it, rather, he tried to recreate and synthesize oral tales in the context of contemporary life
Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI, born Adriaan Florensz, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523. The only Dutchman to become pope, he was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II,456 years later. Born in the Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht, Adrian studied at the University of Louvain in France, in 1507, he became the tutor of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who trusted him as both his emissary and his regent. In 1516, Adrian became bishop of Tortosa and was appointed grand inquisitor of the kingdoms of Aragon. He was appointed cardinal by Pope Leo X in 1517 and elected pope in 1522 as a candidate after Leos death. Adrian came to the papacy in the midst of one of its greatest crises, threatened not only by Lutheranism to the north and he refused to compromise with Lutheranism theologically, demanding Luthers condemnation as a heretic. However, he is noted for having attempted to reform the Catholic Church administratively in response to the Protestant Reformation and he was succeeded by the Italian Medici pope, Clement VII.
Adrian VI and his eventual successor Marcellus II are the only popes of the era to retain their baptismal names after their election. Adriaan Florensz was born on 2 March 1459 in the city of Utrecht, which was the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht and he was born into modest circumstances as the son of Florens Boeyensz, born in Utrecht, and his wife Geertruid. He had three brothers, Jan and Claes. Adrian consistently signed with Adrianus Florentii or Adrianus de Traiecto in life, suggesting that his family did not yet have a surname, Adrian was probably raised in a house on the corner of the Brandsteeg and Oude Gracht that was owned by his grandfather Boudewijn. His father, a carpenter and likely shipwright, died when Adrian was 10 years or younger, Adrian studied from a very young age under the Brethren of the Common Life, either at Zwolle or Deventer and was a student of the Latin school in Zwolle. In June 1476, he started his studies at the University of Leuven, in 1478 he had the title of Primus Philosophiae, as well as that of Magister Artium.
In 1488 he was chosen by the Faculty of Arts to be their representative on the Council of the University, on 30 June 1490, Adrian was ordained a priest. After the regular 12 years of study, Adrian became a Doctor of Theology in 1491 and he had been a teacher at the University since 1490, was chosen vice-chancellor of the university in 1493, and Dean of St. Peters in 1498. In the latter function he was permanent vice-chancellor of the University and his lectures were published, as recreated from his students notes, among those who attended was the young Erasmus. Adrian offered him a professorate in 1502, but Erasmus refused, in November 1506 Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy became Governess of the Habsburg Netherlands and chose Adrian as her advisor. The next year Emperor Maximilian I appointed him tutor to his seven-year-old grandson, and Margarets nephew, Charles
Magdalena Abakanowicz is a Polish sculptor and fiber artist. She is notable for her use of textiles as a sculptural medium and she was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań, Poland from 1965 to 1990 and a visiting professor at University of California, Los Angeles in 1984. Abakanowicz currently lives and works in Warsaw, Magdalena Abakanowicz was born to a noble landowner family. Her mother descended from old Polish nobility and her father came from a Polonized Tatar family, which traced its origins to Abaqa Khan, the 13th century Mongol chieftain. He fled Russia to newly independent Poland after the October Revolution, the Russian invasion of 1920 forced her family to flee their home, after which they moved to the city of Gdańsk. When she was nine Nazi Germany invaded and occupied Poland and her family endured the war years living on the outskirts of Warsaw. After the war and resulting Soviet occupation, the moved to the small city of Tczew near Gdańsk, in northern Poland. Under Soviet control, the Polish government officially adopted Socialist realism as the only art form which should be pursued by artists.
Originally conceived by Joseph Stalin in the 1930s, Socialist realism, in nature, had to be national in form and socialist in content. Other art forms being practiced at the time in the West, such as Modernism, were outlawed and heavily censored in all Eastern bloc nations. Abakanowicz completed part of her school education in Tczew from 1945 to 1947. After her graduation from the Liceum in 1949, Abakanowicz attended the Gdańsk Academy of Fine Arts, in 1950, Abakanowicz moved back to Warsaw to begin her studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, the leading art school in Poland. Her years at the university, 1950–1954, coincided with some of the harshest assaults made on art by the Soviet leadership, realist artistic depictions based on the national 19th-century academic tradition was the only form of artistic expression advocated by in Poland at the time. Abakanowicz found the climate at the Academy to be highly “rigid” and she recalled, I liked to draw, seeking the form by placing lines, one next to the other.
The professor would come with an eraser in his hand and rub out every line on my drawing, leaving a thin. These instructors and skills would greatly influence Abakanowiczs work, as well as other prominent Polish artists at the time, following her education at the Academy, Abakanowicz began to produce her first artistic works. Due to the fact that she spent most of her life moving from place to place, much of her earlier artwork was lost or damaged, with only a few. Between 1956 and 1959, she produced some of her earliest known works and these works, described as being biomorphic” in composition, depicted imaginary plants, exotic fish, and seashells, among other biomorphic shapes and forms
He was the first to describe numerous species of Siberian flora and lifestyle of native ethnic people. Arseniev was born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire and his father, born a serf, became the chief of the Moscow District Railway. After a military education, Arseniev began his expeditions to the forests of the Far East and he lived in Vladivostok through the years of the Russian Civil War and was a Commissar for Ethnic Minorities of the independent Far Eastern Republic. After the Far Eastern Republic was absorbed by Soviet Russia in 1922 Arsenyev refused to emigrate, Arseniev is most famous for authoring many books about his explorations, including some 60 works on the geography and ethnography of the regions he traveled. Arsenievs most famous book, Dersu Uzala, is a memoir of three expeditions in the Ussurian taiga of Northern Asia along the Sea of Japan and North to Vladivostok, the book is named after Arsenievs guide, an Ussurian native of the Nanai/Goldi tribe. Eventually the book was made two films, one by Soviet director Agasi Babayan in 1961, the other by Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa in 1975.
The latter Dersu Uzala version won that years Oscar for Best Foreign-Language Film, the third book of Arsenyevs trilogy, In the Sikhote-Alin mountains, was published posthumously in 1937. Arseniev died in 1930 in Vladivostok at the age of 57, the military court hearings of the case took only 10 minutes and sentenced her to death. Arsenyevs daughter Natalya was arrested in April 1941 and sentenced to the Gulag, arsenyev’s family home in Vladivostok has been made into a museum. Arsenyev, a located in Primorsky Krai, was named after him. Путешествие в горную область Сихотэ-Алинь, the first book of Dersu Uzala trilogy, Дерсу Узала Из воспоминаний о путешествиях по Уссурийскому краю в1907 г. Dersu Uzala translated by Malcolm Burr as Dersu the trapper, В горах Сихотэ-Алиня, the third book of the Dersu-Uzala trilogy, published posthumously in 1937 Мифы, легенды, предания и сказки народов Дальнего Востока. Monograph Series, International Institute of Ethnolinguistic and Oriental Studies, ISSN 1230-3283,10, ISBN 83-902273-4-7 Article about Vladimir Arsenyev
Peter Abelard was a medieval French scholastic philosopher and preeminent logician. His love for, and affair with, Héloïse dArgenteuil have become legendary, the Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century. Abelard, originally called Pierre le Pallet, was born c. 1079 in Le Pallet, about 10 miles east of Nantes, in Brittany, as a boy, he learned quickly. Instead of entering a career, as his father had done. During his early academic pursuits, Abelard wandered throughout France and learning and he first studied in the Loire area, where the nominalist Roscellinus of Compiègne, who had been accused of heresy by Anselm, was his teacher during this period. Around 1100, Abelards travels finally brought him to Paris, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris, he was taught for a while by William of Champeaux, the disciple of Anselm of Laon, a leading proponent of Realism. During this time he changed his surname to Abelard, sometimes written Abailard or Abaelardus, and William thought Abelard was too arrogant.
It was during this time that Abelard would provoke quarrels with both William and Roscellinus and his teaching was notably successful, though for a time he had to give it up and spend time in Brittany, the strain proving too great for his constitution. Abelard was once more victorious, and Abelard was almost able to hold the position of master at Notre Dame, for a short time, William was able to prevent Abelard from lecturing in Paris. Abelard accordingly was forced to resume his school at Melun, which he was able to move, from c. 1110-12, to Paris itself, on the heights of Montagne Sainte-Geneviève. From his success in dialectic, he turned to theology and in 1113 moved to Laon to attend the lectures of Anselm on biblical exegesis. Unimpressed by Anselms teaching, Abelard began to offer his own lectures on the Book of Ezekiel, Anselm forbade him to continue this teaching, and Abelard returned to Paris where, in around 1115, he became master of Notre Dame and a canon of Sens. Distinguished in figure and manners, Abelard was seen surrounded by crowds – it is thousands of students – drawn from all countries by the fame of his teaching.
Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and entertained with universal admiration, he came, as he says, but a change in his fortunes was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had lived a very regular life, enlivened only by philosophical debate, now, at the height of his fame. Héloïse dArgenteuil lived within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle and she was remarkable for her knowledge of classical letters, which extended beyond Latin to Greek and Hebrew. Abelard sought a place in Fulberts house and, in 1115 or 1116, the affair interfered with his career, and Abelard himself boasted of his conquest. Once Fulbert found out, he separated them, but they continued to meet in secret, Héloïse became pregnant and was sent by Abelard to be looked after by his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to a son whom she named Astrolabe after the scientific instrument
Jacques I Androuet du Cerceau
He introduced Renaissance architecture to France with the assistance of Pierre Lescot, Philibert Delorme and Jean Bullant. Androuet was born in Paris, but worked in Orléans until 1559, when he returned to Paris, in the 1570s he was back in Paris, working for Charles IX and Catherine de Medici. The nickname Cerceau comes from the emblem of a ring that appears in lieu of a signature on engravings by Jacques Androuet, the standard work on Jacques Androuet du Cerceau the Elder remains the 1887 monograph of Henry de Geymüller. Catherine de Medicis building projects Androuet du Cerceau for the family Notes Sources Baldus, oeuvre de Jacques Androuet dit du Cerceau. Copy at the University of Heidelberg, les Du Cerceau, leur vie et leur oeuvre. 9, pp. 350–354, in The Dictionary of Art, edited by Jane Turner, reprinted with minor corrections in 1998
Ernest Alexandre Ansermet, was a Swiss conductor. Ansermet was born in Vevey, although he was a contemporary of Wilhelm Furtwängler and Otto Klemperer, Ansermet represents in most ways a very different tradition and approach from those two musicians. Originally he was a professor, teaching at the University of Lausanne. He began conducting at the Casino in Montreux in 1912, traveling in France for this, he met both Debussy and Ravel, and consulted them on the performance of their works. During World War I, he met Stravinsky, who was exiled in Switzerland, in 1918, Ansermet founded his own orchestra, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande. Also, Ansermet was one of the first in the field of music to take jazz seriously. After World War II, Ansermet and his orchestra rose to prominence through a long-term contract with Decca Records. From that time until his death, he recorded most of his repertoire, Ansermet disapproved of Stravinskys practice of revising his works, and always played the original versions.
Ansermets reputation suffered after the War due his collaboration with the Nazis, in his last years, he and his ensemble surprised many by issuing discs devoted to Haydn and Brahms. These performances were not at all conventionally Germanic, and were much censured at the time of their appearance, in May 1954, Decca recorded Ansermet and the orchestra in Europes first commercial stereophonic recordings. They went on to record the first stereo performance of the complete The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky on LP, Ansermet conducted early stereo recordings of Debussys Nocturnes and the Prélude à laprès-midi dun faune. Part of his recording of The Rite of Spring, augmented by a rehearsal recording unobtainable elsewhere, was used by Decca on the companys 1957 stereo demonstration LP, the conductors clear and methodical counting of beats is a distinct feature of this rehearsal sequence. Ansermet was an ardent man who argued his opinions vehemently and he was notable in Britain for his argumentative rehearsals with British orchestras, who were used to the more jovial style of Sir Thomas Beecham or the more restrained manner of Sir Adrian Boult.
His last recording, of Stravinskys The Firebird, was made in London with the New Philharmonia Orchestra, which included a recording of the rehearsal sessions made as a memorial to him. Another late recording for Decca, issued as an album, was with LOrchestre de la Suisse Romande. Ansermet composed some pieces and compositions for orchestra, among them a symphonic poem entitled Feuilles de Printemps. He orchestrated Debussys Six épigraphes antiques in 1939 and he died on 20 February 1969 in Geneva at the age of 85. Les fondements de la musique dans la conscience humaine, New edition, edited by J. -Claude Piguet, Rose-Marie Faller-Fauconnet, et al
Later in 1982, he became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a position he held until his death fifteen months later. Andropov was born in Nagutskaya, Stavropol Region, Russian Empire, Andropov was educated at the Rybinsk Water Transport Technical College and graduated in 1936. Both of his parents died early, leaving Yuri an orphan at the age of thirteen, as a teenager he worked as a loader, a telegraph clerk, and a sailor for the Volga steamship line. At 16, Yuri Andropov, a member of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, was a worker in the town of Mozdok in the North Ossetian ASSR, during World War II, Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finland. From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol for Communist Party work, between 1946 and 1951, he studied at the university of Petrozavodsk. In 1947, he was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, in 1951 Andropov was transferred, by the decision of the CPSU Central Committee, to its staff.
He was appointed an inspector and the head of a subdepartment of the Committee, in July 1954 he was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Hungary and held this position during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian uprising and he convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev that military intervention was necessary. He is known as ‘The Butcher of Budapest’ for his ruthless suppression of the Hungarian uprising, the Hungarian leaders were arrested and Imre Nagy and others executed. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. In 1957 Andropov returned to Moscow from Budapest in order to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers Parties in Socialist Countries, in 1961, he was elected full member of the CPSU Central Committee and was promoted to the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee in 1962. He gained additional powers in 1973, when he was promoted to member of the Politburo.
During the Prague Spring events of 1968 in Czechoslovakia, Andropov was the proponent of the extreme measures. The KGB whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia could fall victim to NATO aggression or to a coup, however his message was destroyed because it contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov. Andropov ordered a number of measures, collectively known as operation PROGRESS. After the assassination attempt against Brezhnev in January 1969, Andropov led the interrogation of the captured gunman, Ilyin was pronounced insane and sent to Kazan Psychiatric Hospital. On 3 July 1967, he made a proposal to establish for dealing with the opposition the KGBs Fifth Directorate. At the end of July, the directorate was established and entered in its files cases of all Soviet dissidents including Andrei Sakharov, the proposal by Andropov to use psychiatry for struggle against dissidents was implemented