Flags used by activist and advocacy groups.
Pages in category "Activism flags"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Flags used by activist and advocacy groups.
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Anarchist symbolism – Since the revival of anarchism around the start of the 21st-century concurrent with the rise of the anti-globalization movement, anarchist cultural symbols are widely present. The black flag, and the black in general, have been associated with anarchism since the 1880s. Many anarchist collectives contain the black in their names. There have been a number of anarchist periodicals entitled Black Flag, the uniform blackness of the flag is in stark contrast to the colorful flags typical of most nation states. Additionally, as a flag has been used to request parley or to surrender. The black flag represents the absence of a flag, and thus stands in opposition to the notion of nation states. In that light, the flag can be seen as a rejection of the concept of representation, modern anarchism has a shared ancestry with – amongst other ideologies – socialism, a movement strongly associated with the red flag. As anarchism became more and more distinct from socialism in the 1880s, some anarchists at the time, such as Peter Kropotkin, preferred to continue using the red flag rather than adopt the black. Both the black and red flags first gained notoriety for their use by Buccaneers, the black flag was displayed, or run up the mast, first as an indication that the lives of the crew would be spared if they surrendered. If the crew resisted, the red flag would then be displayed to indicate that the offer of amnesty had been withdrawn and it first became associated with anarchism in the 1880s. The French anarchist paper, Le Drapeau Noir, which existed until 1882, is one of the first published references to use black as an anarchist color, Black International was the name of a London anarchist group founded in July 1881. Louise Michel, participant in the Paris Commune of 1871, flew the flag on March 9,1883, during demonstration of the unemployed in Paris. An open-air meeting of the unemployed was broken up by the police and around 500 demonstrators, with Michel at the front carrying a flag and shouting Bread, work. Marched off towards the Boulevard Saint-Germain, the crowd pillaged three bakers shops before the police attacked. Michel was arrested and sentenced to six years solitary confinement, public pressure soon forced the granting of an amnesty. According to Michel, the flag is the flag of strikes. The black flag soon made its way to America, on November 27,1884, the black flag was displayed in Chicago at an Anarchist demonstration. According to the English Language newspaper of the Chicago anarchists, it was the symbol of hunger, misery
2. Doug flag – It was designed by Portland, Oregon native Alexander Baretich in 1994. The Doug flag was designed by Portland, Oregon native Alexander Baretich in 1994 and he recalled, I designed the Cascadian flag, aka the Doug, way back in the mid 1990s when I was a graduate student studying in Eastern Europe. Though I totally love the people, cultures and landscape of Eastern Europe, I was deeply homesick for the forests of Cascadia, one day as I sat on a hill with my companion, I had this vision of a flag where the Cascadian landscape came to mind. Prior to the design and its popularity, the idea of Cascadia–specifically the bioregion–was pretty much an abstract concept reserved for radical geographers, the flag conveys something far more tangible than an abstract concept of demarcation of space, the flag captures that love of living communities in our bioregion. Unlike many flags, this is not a flag of blood, nor of the glory of a nation, but a love of the bioregion, our family and its natural boundaries. It consists of three stripes of blue, white, and green, with a single Douglas fir tree in the center. The blue stripe represents the sky, Pacific Ocean, Salish Sea, the white represents clouds and snow and the green represents the regions fields and evergreen forests. The tree symbolizes endurance, defiance and resilience against fire, flood, catastrophic change, all these symbols of color and images come together to symbolize what being Cascadian is all about. Since its inception, Baretichs design has gained popularity and earned status as the flag of Cascadia. The flag appears on boxes of beer from Phillips Brewing in Victoria, the Seattle-based folk band Fleet Foxes included the flag on the back of their 2011 studio album Helplessness Blues. In 2015, Baretich expressed his hope that his designs will not be used for hate, exploitation, furthermore, he said, In seeking out a bioregional flag, I believe that its the bioregion that will capture the artist—not the artist capturing the bioregion. 1994 in art Cascadia Oh, Cascadia. … What Are You, by Sally McCoy, The Corvallis Advocate The Cascadian Flag, A Transformative Icon by Alexander Baretich, Free Cascadia Bioregion of Cascadia, Oregon Flag Registry CascadiaNow. Advocates shift in culture, not secession by Alicia Halberg, The Seattle Times The Washington State Flag Sucks by Kelton Sears, Cascadia Around Town by Brianna Brey, The Source Weekly
3. Eureka Flag – The design was first used as the war flag of the Eureka Rebellion at Ballarat in Victoria, Australia. A number of people swore allegiance to the flag as a symbol of defiance at its first flying at Bakery Hill on 29 November 1854, over 30 miners were killed at the Eureka Stockade, along with six troopers and police. Some 125 miners were arrested and many others badly wounded, the flag has been lent to the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka by the Art Gallery of Ballarat. It is listed as an object of state significance on the Victorian Heritage Register and was designated as a Victorian Icon by the National Trust in 2006. The flag is reputed to have designed by a Canadian member of the Ballarat Reform League. Local legend claims that the flag was sewn by three local women – Anastasia Withers, Anne Duke and Anastasia Hayes, Ross was said to be inspired by the design of the Australian Federation Flag. According to Frank Cayleys book, Flag of Stars, the five stars represent the Southern Cross. The flag is silk, blue ground with large cross, no device or arms. It flew for the first occasion on Bakery Hill as a symbol of the resistance of the miners during the Eureka Stockade rebellion in the year 1854. Approximately 31% of the specimen is missing. The flag was re-discovered by Len Fox during the 1940s, and it was found after World War II in a drawer at the gallery, discovered by members of the Australian Communist Party. The final irrefutable validation of its authentication occurred when sketchbooks of Canadian Charles Doudiet were put up for sale at a Christies auction in 1996, two sketches in particular show the flag design as contained in the tattered remains of the flag at the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. The remnant of the original Eureka Flag remains today, preserved for display at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka. It is listed as an object of state significance on the Victorian Heritage Register and was named as an icon by the National Trust in 2006. Since the original miners revolt at Eureka, the flag, born out of adversity, continues to be regarded by some as a symbol of rebellion closely associated with the struggle for democracy and unity. In the event that the design of the Flag of Australia is ever reviewed, along these lines, some also believe that the flag used during the Lambing Flat riots was a derivative of the Eureka Flag. During a 1983 royal tour, a republican supporter informally presented a small Eureka Flag to Diana, Princess of Wales, the event prompted a cartoon of the royal couple with Charles, Prince of Wales, observing Mummy will not be pleased. Enquiries made by the Art Gallery of Ballarat, custodians of the Eureka Flag, have so far unable to solve this mystery
4. Federalist flag – The federalist flag, also known as the Flag of the European Movement, is a flag commonly used by groups or individuals promoting European federalism, consisting of a large green E upon a white field. It was designed as the flag of the European Movement, but is no longer used by it. The flag first appeared at the Congress of Europe in 1948, which was organised by the International Committee of the Movements for European Unity, however, the congress demonstrated the first divisions between unionists and federalists. The congress led to the creation of the European Movement and, at its first meeting in Strasbourg in September of the year, adopted the E flag. It intended the flag to be a symbol of hope for peace, the flag was first flown in London in 1949 at the European economic congress. The Council of Europe was established in 1949 as a European forum, with a purpose of protecting democracy. It began its search for a European flag the following year, however, in 1955 it adopted a circle of twelve yellow stars upon a blue background. The European Communities, later the European Union, also not to use the European Movements flag. The flag is dominated by a green, elongated and rigid letter E upon a white background, the E hence fills two thirds of the area of the elongated flag. Today, the no longer simply stands for European unity. Hence, there is a desire among federalists not to let the flag fall into disuse and it is not something that is in competition with the European Unions flag, which the federalists see as representing the status quo. Furthermore, in its ideals of peace, progress, anti-nationalism and ending the division of mankind, in the years following the Financial Crisis 2007-08, economic and political changes within the EU and Eurozone have caused a rise in euroscepticsm and other anti-EU feeling. This has been seen most visibly in Northern Europe, especially in the traditionally isolationist lobby in the United Kingdom, the antipathy towards the European project has inevitably created interest in the opposite view, and led to a small but not insignificant increase in federalist sentiment. Several new green and white designs have been created and distributed, Flag of Europe Flag of the Western European Union Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community European Movement Union of European Federalists History of the European Union
5. Free Speech Flag – The Free Speech Flag is a symbol of personal liberty used to promote freedom of speech. Designed by artist John Marcotte, the flag and its colors correspond to a key which enabled users to copy HD DVDs. It was created on May 1,2007, during the AACS encryption key controversy, in response to attempts to remove the key from the Internet, netizens publicized the cryptographic key on the news aggregator website Digg, in an example of the Streisand effect. On April 30,2007, a blogger named Rudd-O published the encryption key for HD DVDs, Knowledge of this numeric key value allowed users to bypass digital rights management and copy HD DVDs that previously could not be duplicated. News media reported on this development and Digg, an aggregator and social media website. Votes by 15,000 Digg users drove an article about the key to the front page of the site. The Advanced Access Content System, the organization which controlled access to the HD DVD encryption key, sent a cease, in its letter, AACS claimed that by publishing news articles on its website that reported on the encryption key, the website itself was engaging in illegal activity. Articles by numerous journalists reporting on the story were posted to Digg. Jay Adelson, the CEO of Digg, announced that the website would abide by the AACS requests, Adelsons decision to self-censor his website caused an unintended backlash from the Digg community in the form of the Streisand effect. In trying to make the issue go away, notes Jeremy Goldman in his 2012 book Going Social. Digg users made sure, by their votes and online participation, Digg founder Kevin Rose observed, The Digg community is one that loves to have their voice heard, and this has been something that struck a chord with them. After listening to complaints from Diggs community about Adelsons decision to self-censor news stories about the encryption key, youd rather see Digg go down fighting than bow to a bigger company. Effective immediately, we wont delete stories or comments containing the code, in his initial post announcing his flag, Marcotte criticized how the mere use of numbers had become intellectual property. We want to start a movement, Marcotte wrote, a movement to reclaim personal liberties and decorporatize the laws of our nation. He encouraged online viewers of his work to spread his message throughout the Internet, to that end we have made a flag, a symbol to show support for personal freedoms. Spread it as far and wide as you can, Marcotte embedded the secret HD DVD key into the colors of the flag itself, using the flag hex code format colors #09F911 #029D74 #E35BD8 #4156C5 #635688. By appending the byte C0 to the right corner of the flag. He originally released the flag freely with rights for people to make similar, derivative works, soon after it was first published, bloggers publicized the Free Speech Flag across multiple websites, increasing its popularity and disseminating the forbidden code within the flag
6. Gadsden flag – The Gadsden flag is a historical American flag with a yellow field depicting a rattlesnake coiled and ready to strike. Positioned below the rattlesnake are the words DONT TREAD ON ME, the flag is named after American general and politician Christopher Gadsden, who designed it in 1775 during the American Revolution. It was used by the Continental Marines as an early motto flag, the timber rattlesnake can be found in the area of the original Thirteen Colonies. Its use as a symbol of the American colonies can be traced back to the publications of Benjamin Franklin, in 1751, he made the first reference to the rattlesnake in a satirical commentary published in his Pennsylvania Gazette. It had been the policy of Great Britain to send convicted criminals to the Americas, in 1754, during the French and Indian War, Franklin published his famous woodcut of a snake cut into eight sections. It represented the colonies, with New England joined together as the head and South Carolina as the tail, under the snake was the message Join, or Die. This was the first political cartoon published in an American newspaper, the rattlesnake, like the bald eagle and American Indian, came to symbolize American ideals and society. As the American Revolution grew, the snake began to see use as a symbol of the colonies. In 1774, Paul Revere added Franklins iconic cartoon to the nameplate of his paper, at the top center of the Seal is a rattlesnake holding a banner which says, This Well Defend. This design of the War Office Seal was carried forward—with some minor modifications—into the subsequent designs for the War Departments Seal, as such, the rattlesnake symbol has been in continuous official use by the US Army for over 236 years. In fall 1775, the Continental Navy was established by General George Washington in his role as Commander in Chief of all Continental Forces, before Esek Hopkins was named Commodore of the Navy. The Navy began with seven ships, often called Washington Cruisers and this is according to the October 20,1775 letter of Washingtons aide Colonel Joseph Reed, which is stored in the Library of Congress. One ship captured by Captain John Manley had 30,000 pairs of shoes on it, however, the admiralty agent demanded his 2 1/2 per cent commission before he would release the cargo for Washingtons army, so many soldiers marched barefoot in the snow. To aid in this, the Second Continental Congress authorized the mustering of five companies of Marines to accompany the Navy on their first mission. The first Marines enlisted in the city of Philadelphia, and they carried drums painted yellow, depicting a rattlesnake with thirteen rattles. This is the first recorded mention of the future Gadsden flags symbolism, at the Congress, Continental Colonel Christopher Gadsden represented his home state of South Carolina. He was one of seven members of the Marine Committee who were outfitting the first naval mission and it was displayed at the mainmast. Gadsden also presented a copy of this flag to the Congress of South Carolina in Charleston, early written discussions uniformly include an apostrophe, however, as early as 1917, a flag reference book includes a picture of a version without the apostrophe
7. Peace flag – There have been several designs for a peace flag. The Peace Flag is an initiative that aims to unify all nations underneath one common symbol on International Peace Day, while there are various icons of peace – the olive branch, the dove – there is no official world flag of peace adopted by the United Nations. That’s why this initiative has proposed that, for one day a year on 21 September, the initiative was nominated for a White Pencil in 2012 at D&AD for its contribution towards peace, in support of Peace One Day. The white flag is recognized in most of the world as a flag of surrender, the first mention of a white flag used in this context is made during the Eastern Han dynasty. A white flag was used by the anti-war movement during the US Civil War in 1861. In 1891, the third Universal Peace Congress in Rome devised a generalized Peace Flag design and this was used by the American Peace Society and the Universal Peace Union. It was designed by Henry Pettit, originally, there was a complicated symbol on the middle band, a shield. This flag was adopted by the International Council of Women in 1896, in 1904, it lost the complicated design and became a simple tricolor. James William van Kirk, a Methodist minister from Youngstown, designed the first world peace flag of the Earth, using rainbow stripes, stars, in 1913 and 1929, he made a peace tour through Europe with his flag. He traveled around the world arguing for the brotherhood of man, the Universal Peace Congress eventually came to adopt Kirks flag as its official World Peace Flag, and it was subsequently adopted by the American Peace Society as well as other groups. In 1938, Kirk authored an autobiography, Stranger than fiction, four times around the world, designer of world flag, the banner of peace is a symbol of the Roerich Pact. This pact is the first international treaty dedicated to the protection of artistic and scientific institutions and it was signed on April 15,1935. The banner of peace was proposed by Nicholas Roerich for a pact for the protection of culture values. The most common recent design is a flag representing peace. The flag was inspired by similar multi-coloured flags used in demonstrations against nuclear weapons, a previous version had featured a dove drawn by Pablo Picasso. The most common variety has seven colours — purple, blue, azure, green, yellow, orange and it became popular with the Pace da tutti i balconi campaign in 2002, started as a protest against the impending war in Iraq. The flag was flown from balconies in all Italian cities by citizens against the war and its use spread to other countries too, and the Italian Pace was sometimes, but not everywhere, replaced with the corresponding translation in the local languages. According to Amnesty International, producer Franco Belsito had produced about 1,000 flags per year for 18 years, common variations include moving the purple stripe down below the azure one, and adding a white stripe on top
8. National League of Families POW/MIA Flag – The National League of Families POW/MIA flag, also known as the POW/MIA flag, consists of a silhouette of a prisoner of war before a guard tower and barbed wire in white on a black field. “POW/MIA” appears above the silhouette and the words “You Are Not Forgotten” appear below in white on the black field. S, POW/MIAs, some of whom had been held captivity for as many as seven years. The flag is black, and bears in the center, in black and white, the emblem was designed by |Newton F. The leagues POW-MIA flag is the only flag displayed in the rotunda. The leadership of both houses of Congress hosted the ceremony in a demonstration of bipartisan congressional support. On August 10,1990, the 101st Congress passed U. S, beyond Southeast Asia, it has been a symbol for POW/MIAs from all U. S. wars. S. Civilians are free to fly the POW/MIA flag whenever they wish, there are red and white versions, which some say are to cover more recent military actions, but this is not official policy. There are black and red versions available as well, when displayed from a single flagpole, the POW/MIA flag should fly directly below, and be no larger than, the United States flag. If on separate poles, the U. S. flag should always be placed to the right of other flags
9. Rainbow flag – A rainbow flag is a multicolored flag consisting of the colors of the rainbow. There are several independent rainbow flags in use today, the most widely known worldwide is the pride flag representing LGBT pride. The peace flag is popular in Italy and the cooperative flag symbolizes the international co-operative movement. It is also used by Andean people to represent the legacy of the Inca Empire, the choice of the rainbow in the form of a flag harkens back to the rainbow as a symbol of biblical promise. According to the Bible, God first created the rainbow as a sign to Noah that there would never again be a world-wide flood, the reformer Thomas Müntzer connected socially revolutionary claims with his preaching of the gospel. He is often portrayed with a flag in his hand. The Thomas Müntzer statue in the German town of Stolberg also shows him holding a flag in his hand. In the German Peasants War of the 16th century, the flag together with the peasants boot was used as the sign of a new era, of hope. A flag with a seven-striped rainbow design is used in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador is anachronically associated with Tawantin Suyu, even today in the city of Cusco, Peru it is common to see the flag around the city displayed even in government buildings and in Cusco main square. The flag is inspired on the wiphala which was part of Inca symbolism and used in the Tahuantinsuyo, some specialists suggest that there are chronicles and some references that support the idea of a banner attributable to the Inca. The existence and the use of this probably has been from the same creation of Tiwanaku for more than 2000 years. However, recent investigations state that there is no reference to an Inca or Tawantisuyo flag or banner until the early 1920s. According to Peruvian historiography, the Inca Empire never had a flag, a flag to represent Buddhism was designed in Sri Lanka in 1885 and modified to its current form in 1886. In 1950 it was adopted by the World Fellowship of Buddhists to be a symbol of all forms of Buddhism around the world. It consists of six vertical colored segments, the first five of which are blue, yellow, red, white. Rainbow flag proposed after Armenia regained independence after World War I and it was designed by famous Armenian artist Martiros Saryan. It was not adopted as the country went with three stripes using the colors used in a past Armenian kingdom. The artists used muted, richer, oriental colors reflecting Armenian fabrics, a seven-colour rainbow flag is a common symbol of the international cooperative movement
10. Red flag (politics) – In politics, a red flag is a symbol of socialism, communism, and left-wing politics, it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution. Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871. The flags of several communist states, including China, Vietnam, the Labour Party in Britain used it until the late 1980s. It was the inspiration for the socialist anthem, The Red Flag, in the Middle Ages, ships in combat flew a long red streamer, called the Baucans, to signify a fight to the death. In one petition, a group of English sailors asserted that the Crown had no right to a share of the money earned from a Norman ship captured in 1293 because it had raised the Baucans. By the 17th century, the Baucans had evolved into a red flag and it was raised in cities and castles under siege to indicate that they would not surrender. The red flag is a signal of defiance and battle, according to Chambers Cyclopedia, the red cap was a symbol of popular revolt in France going back to the Jacquerie of 1358. The color red become associated with early in the French Revolution due to the popularity of the Tricolour cockade, introduced in July 1789. A red flag was raised over the Champ-de-Mars in Paris on July 17,1791 by Lafayette, commander of the National Guard, as a symbol of martial law, as many as fifty anti-royalist protesters were killed in the fighting that followed. Inverting the original symbolism, the Jacobins protested this action by flying a red flag to honor the martyrs blood of those who had been killed and they created their own red flags to declare the martial law of the people against the revolt of the court. The Jacobin Club ruled France during the Reign of Terror and made the red flag an unofficial national emblem, however, the earlier Tricolor never lost its official status and regained popularity under Napoleon. British sailors mutinied near the mouth of the River Thames in 1797, two red flags soaked in calfs blood were flown by marchers in South Wales during the Merthyr Rising of 1831. It is claimed to be the first time that the red flag was waved as a banner of workers power, along with the Newport Rising eight years later, it was one of the most serious violent outbreaks witnessed on mainland Britain. The red flags of Merthyr became a potent relic following the execution of early trade unionist Dic Penderyn in August 1831, during the Mexican siege of the Alamo in March 1836, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana displayed a plain red flag from the highest church tower in Bejar. The meaning of flag was not socialism, its meaning - directed to the Alamo defenders - meant no surrender. At much the same time, the Liberal Colorados in the Uruguayan Civil War used red flags, during the 1848 Revolution in France, Socialists and radical republicans demanded that the red flag be adopted as Frances national flag. The banner of the Paris Commune of 1871 was red and it was at time that the red flag became a symbol of communism. The flag was flown by anarchists at a May Day rally for a workday in Chicago in 1886
11. Stromberg v. California – Better America Federation, a group whose goal was to clear the State of California from what they deemed to be dangerous dissent, targeted the Pioneer Summer Camp in the summer of 1929. California had a law, enacted in 1919, that prohibited public display of a red flag. The BAF persuaded a local sheriff to search the Pioneer Summer Camp, the resultant search turned up a red flag, the sheriff then arrested Yetta Stromberg, a summer teacher at the camp, along with several other employees. Stromberg was a member of the Young Communist League, an international organization affiliated with the Communist Party. In the state trials, the charge brought up against her was in relation to a ceremony that took place at the camp where she worked as a teacher. Stromberg was tried and convicted in state court and she appealed the conviction to the Supreme Court on the grounds that the California statute in question outlawed the symbol of a legally recognized party. Strombergs attorneys cited Holmes concept of the Clear and present danger test, the Court had to consider whether the 1919 California Red Flag Law was unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment. The California legislature repealed the law in 1933, the Court had previously established in a series of cases that the right of free speech is essential to liberty, and is protected by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The opinion noted, however, that this protection did not extend to forms of expression which may incite violence, crime, or the overthrow of organized government by unlawful means. ”In thus finding the first clause of the statute invalid, the Court set aside the conviction of the appellant, as the conviction appeared to have rested exclusively on that first clause. The Court did not proceed to rule on the constitutionality of the second, mcReynolds dissented from the Court’s opinion. In this specific instance, no such challenges appeared to have been brought, mcReynolds agreed with this determination and suggested that the judgment should be affirmed. Justice Butler wrote a dissent in this matter, addressing several different issues. Justice Butler, however, believed that the record showed that the petitioner was not convicted for violation of the first clause. Prior to the trial of this case, the California Supreme Court had already deemed invalid a city ordinance that would make unlawful the public display of a red flag, emblem, etc. Thus, under that decision, the California state courts were already directed to hold invalid the first clause of the statute, the record does not show that the defendant separately challenged in the trial court the validity of the first clause. The defendant’s counsel likewise failed to object to state’s instructions, the Court of Appeals found the second and third provisions of section 403a of the California Penal Code to be in compliance with the state and federal Constitutions’ guarantees of freedom of speech. They did, however, state that the constitutionality of the first clause was “questionable and it appears that he viewed the matter as that of procedural challenges, rather than a case of broad protections of freedom of speech. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 279 Frank v. Mangum Palko v. Connecticut Fourteenth Amendment Gossett, free Speech on Trial, Communication Perspectives on Landmark Supreme Court Decisions
12. Morning Star flag – The Morning Star flag was a flag used in a supplemental fashion on Netherlands New Guinea to the Flag of the Netherlands. It was first raised on 1 December 1961, and fell into disuse on 1 October 1962, the flag is used by the Free Papua Organization and other independence supporters. Under Papuas Special Autonomy Law, ratified in 2002, the flag may be raised in Papua so long as the flag of Indonesia is also raised and it is higher than the Morning Star flag. After territorial elections in January 1961 a New Guinea Council consisting of 28 members were sworn into office by Governor Dr. P. J. The Council appointed a National Committee to draft a Manifesto expressing the desire for independence, the design of the flag is credited to Markus Wonggor Kaisiepo. The full New Guinea Council endorsed these actions on 30 October 1961, the Dutch authorities gave West Papua this flag to use as their National Flag as well as their National anthem and coat of arms. The official raising of the flag took place on 1 December 1961 on West Papuas Independence Day, within a year, Indonesia invaded the Independent Nation of West Papua under Suharto with National Committee Chairman Mr William Inury. Special ceremonies take place on December 1 of each year, to commemorate the first flag raising in 1961, the flying of the Morning Star was a source of controversy over human rights abuses by Indonesian authorities. Over 500,000 Papuans have been killed by the Indonesian Military since 1961, some of them simply for raising the flag, two Papuan men, Filep Karma and Yusak Pakage, were sentenced to 15 and 10 year sentences for raising the flag in Jayapura in 2004. Pakage was released in 2010, having served five years of his term, Karma remains imprisoned and has alleged abuse at the hands of prison authorities. Amnesty International considered both men prisoners of conscience and named Karma a 2011 priority case