Category:Afghan musical instruments
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Baloch musical instruments (2 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Dombra – The dombra is a long-necked Turkic lute and a musical string instrument. The instrument shares some of its characteristics with the komuz and dutar, the instrument differs slightly in different regions. The Kazakh dombra has frets and is played by strumming with the hand or plucking each string individually, while the strings are traditionally made of sinew, modern dombras are usually produced using nylon strings. In 2012 the elektrodomra was created, the Turkestani and Badakhshani damburas are fretless with a body and neck carved from a single block of wood, usually mulberry or apricot. The dambura is played with much banging and scratching on the instrument to give a percussive sound. The two strings are made of nylon or gut and they cross a short bridge to a pin at the other end of the body. There is a sound hole in the back of the instrument. It is not finished with any varnish, filing/sanding of any kind, the Dumbyra is the equivalent instrument of the Volga Tatars and Bashkirs. A performer strikes all the strings at the same time, the upper string performs the bourdon tone and the lower string performs the melody. A dumbura is used as a solo as well as an ensemble instrument, the dombra is played by Erzhan Alimbetov in the Ulytau band. From the 12th to the 18th century, the dumbura was used by Bashkir sasans to accompany their poetic legends and it is mentioned in the epic poem Zayatulyak and Hiuhiliu. However, by the beginning of the 20th century, the dumbura was forgotten, the sasans were often the main ideologists of ethnic insurrections. So when the Russian administration put down an uprising, they punished the sasans, in the second half of the 20th century, several reconstructions were carried out. At present, the revivalist work continues, among others, performer V. Shugayupov works on the revival of the dumbura. The modern wooden dumbura has a pear-shaped or an oval form and this instrument has become a part of an Internet phenomenon after a video clip from SuperStar KZ, the Kazakh equivalent of the Idol series, was posted on YouTube. The video includes two contestants singing and a third one singing and playing the dombra, which caused the popularity, the name of the original song is Freestailo by R. Lizer, a Kazakh man. Dombyra as an instrument is being popularized with mean of Dombyra Parties, the videos of Dombyra Party activities are shared on YouTube, Facebook etc. Many folk and regional tunings have been existing though below there is the most accepted academic DG tuning for standard concert dombra prima of Kazakhstan
2. Dutar – The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for two strings, دو تار dotār, although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings, when played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks. Related instruments include the Kazakh dombra, the Dutar is also an important instrument among the Kurds of Khorasan amongst whom Haj Ghorban Soleimani of Quchan was a noted virtuoso. In Kormanji one who plays the dutar is known as a bakci, Khorasan bakhshi music is recognized on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. At the time of the Dutars humble origins in the 15th century as an instrument its strings were made from gut. However, with the opening up of the Silk Road, catgut gave way to strings made from twisted silk imported from China, to this day some instruments still feature silk strings, although nylon strings are also commonly used. The dutar has a warm, dulcet tone, typical sizes for the pear-shaped instrument range from one to two meters
3. Ghaychak – Ghaychak, Gheychak or ghijak is the name of several bowed instruments of Asia. A double-chambered bowl lute with 4 or more strings and a short fretless neck. It is used by Iranians and Baloch people, and is similar to Sarinda, the soundbox is carved out of a single piece of wood. The upper orifice is partly covered in the middle by the handle, a spike lute, either with a bowl soundbox, or with a box soundbox often made from a tin can, with three or four metal strings. It is used by Afghans, Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Tajiks, Turkmens, archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Ghaychak Afghan gaychak Tajik ghijak (box lute
4. Tabla – The tabla is a South Asian membranophone percussion instrument consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music. It has been an important instrument in Hindustani classical music since the 18th century, and remains in use in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh. The name tabla likely comes from tabl, the Persian and Arabic word for drum, the tabla consists of two single headed, barrel shaped small drums of slightly different size and shapes, daya also called dahina meaning right, and baya also called bahina meaning left. The daya tabla is played by the right hand, and is about 15 centimetres in diameter and 25 centimetres high. The baya tabla is a bit bigger and deep kettledrum shaped, each is made of hollowed out wood or clay or brass, the daya drum laced with hoops, thongs and wooden dowels on its sides. The dowels and hoops are used to tighten the tension of the membrane, the daya is tuned to the ground note of the raga called Sa. The baya construction and tuning is about a fifth to an octave below that of the daya drum, the musician uses his hands heel pressure to change the pitch and tone color of each drum during a performance. In the Hindustani style tabla is played in two ways, band bol and khula bol, in the sense of classical music it is termed tali and khali. It is one of the main instrument used by Sufi musicians of Bangladesh, Pakistan. The tabla is also an important instrument in the bhakti devotional traditions of Hinduism and Sikhism, the history of tabla is unclear, and there are multiple theories regarding its origins. There are two groups of theories, one that traces its origins to Muslim and Moghul invaders of the Indian subcontinent, the first theory, very common during the colonial period scholarship, is based on the etymological links of the word tabla to Arabic word tabl which means drum. They would beat these drums to scare the residents, the armies, their elephants and chariots. Babur, the Turk founder of the Mughal Empire, is known to have used these paired drums carrying battalions in their military campaigns. However, this theory has had the flaw that the war drums did not look or sound anything like tabla, they were large paired drums and were called naqqara. The second version of the Arab theory is that Amir Khusraw, a musician patronized by Sultan Alauddin Khilji invented the tabla when he cut an Awaj drum and this is, however, unlikely, as no painting or sculpture or document dated to his period supports it with evidence. For example, Abul Fazi included a long list of instruments in his Ain-i-akbari written in the time of the 16th century Mughal Emperor Akbar. Abul Fazis list makes no mention of tabla, however, scholars such as Neil Sorrell and Ram Narayan state that this legend of cutting a pakhawaj drum into two to make tabla drums cannot be given any credence. The second theory traces the origin of tabla to indigenous ancient influences and this version states that this musical instrument acquired a new Arabic name during the Islamic rule, but it is an evolution of the ancient puskara drums
5. Zurna – The zurna, is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia. It is usually accompanied by a davul in Anatolian folk music, the zurna, like the duduk and kaval, is a woodwind instrument used to play Anatolian, Middle Eastern and Central Asian folk music. The zurna is an oboe, made from the apricot fruit tree. Thus, it has historically been played outdoors during festive events such as weddings and it has eight holes on the front, seven of which are used while playing, and one thumbhole which provides a range of one octave. It is similar to the mizmar, in the Slavic nations of the Balkans it is typically called zurla. The zurna is most likely the predecessor of the European shawm. The Japanese charumera, or charamera, traditionally associated with itinerant noodle vendors is a small zurna, few, if any, noodle vendors continue this tradition, and those who do would use a loudspeaker playing a recorded charumera. There are several different types of zurnas and they all share one and the same sound inductor—the so-called kalem—which is actually a very tight double reed, sometimes made out of wheat leaves. The longest is the Kaba zurna, used in northern Turkey, as a rule of thumb, a zurna is conical and made of wood. Turkish lore says that Adam, who was moulded from clay, had no soul and it is said only the melodious tuiduk-playing of Archangel Gabriel could breathe life into Adam. According to a Turkmen legend, the played the main role in tuiduk invention. The name is derived from Persian سرنای surnāy, composed of سور sūr “banquet, feast” and نای nāy “reed, memo G. Schachiner, MusicalConfrontations. com Zurna FAQ