Category:Aircraft first flown in 1955
Pages in category "Aircraft first flown in 1955"
The following 53 pages are in this category, out of 53 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 53 pages are in this category, out of 53 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bell XV-3 – The XV-3 featured an engine mounted in the fuselage with driveshafts transferring power to two-bladed rotor assemblies mounted on the wingtips. The XV-3 was first flown on 11 August 1955, the XV-3 program ended when the remaining aircraft was severely damaged in a wind tunnel accident on 20 May 1966. The data and experience from the XV-3 program were key elements used to develop the Bell XV-15. In 1951, the Army and Air Force announced the Convertible Aircraft Program, in October 1953, Bell Helicopter was awarded a development contract to produce two aircraft for testing purposes. The original military designation was XH-33, classifying it as a helicopter, the designation was changed once again in 1962 to XV-3A when the V-prefix was changed to mean VTOL. The leading designers were Bob Lichten and Kenneth Wernicke, the first XV-3 flew on 11 August 1955 with Bell Chief Test Pilot Floyd Carlson at the controls. On 18 August 1955, the experienced a hard landing when the rotor developed dynamic instability. Bell attempted to remedy the situation, and flight testing resumed on 29 March 1956 after additional ground runs, Bell continued to expand the flight envelope of the XV-3, but on 25 July 1956, the same rotor instability occurred again. Flight testing of the XV-3 resumed in late September 1956, then, on 25 October 1956, the aircraft crashed when the test pilot blacked out due to extremely high cockpit vibrations. The vibrations resulted when the shafts were moved 17 degrees forward from vertical. The test pilot, Dick Stansbury, was injured. Flight testing for aircraft #2 began on 21 January 1958 at Bells facility, by April, the aircraft had expanded the flight envelope to 127 miles per hour as well as demonstrating full autorotation landings and 30-degrees forward transitions with the rotor pylons. On 6 May 1958, another instance of rotor instability occurred when the pylons were advanced to 40-degrees forward pylon angle, the XV-3 returned to the Ames wind tunnel in October 1958 to collect more data before it could be flown again. As a result of the wind tunnel testing, the diameter was reduced, wing structure was increased and strengthened. The XV-3 resumed flight testing at Bells facility on 12 December 1958, flight testing at the Bell facilities was completed on 24 April 1959, and the aircraft was shipped to Edwards Air Force Base. The military flight testing of the XV-3 began on 14 May 1959, on 8 August 1961, Army Major E. E. Kluever became the first Army pilot to fly a tiltrotor aircraft. In April 1966, Bell Helicopter aerodynamicist Dr. Earl Hall published an analysis of the XV-3 program data explaining the tiltrotor aircraft pylon whirl instability. In order to establish Halls findings and develop a computer model, as the engineers were completing the last planned test, a wingtip failure caused both rotors to fail, resulting in severe damage of the XV-3 and damage to the wind tunnel
2. Bensen B-8 – The Bensen B-8 is a small, single-seat autogyro developed in the United States in the 1950s. Although the original manufacturer stopped production in 1987, plans for homebuilders are still available as of 2013 and its design was a refinement of the Bensen B-7, and like that aircraft, the B-8 was initially built as an unpowered rotor-kite. It first flew in this form in 1955, and on 6 December a powered version, the design proved to be extremely popular and long-lasting, with thousands of sets of plans sold over the next thirty years. The B-8s design is extremely minimalist, with not much more to the aircraft than a seat, a single tailfin, a rotor. In May 1968 a B-8 and B-8M were studied by the USAF under the Discretionary Descent Vehicle program as the X-25B and X-25A respectively. In this scheme, it was proposed to combat aircraft ejection seats with a small autogyro or rotor kite to allow downed pilots more control over their post-ejection landing spot. The X-25A and X-25B were used to evaluate the piloting and training requirements of the autogyros, no full-scale operational tests were ever performed. The U. S. Air Force stopped funding the DDV program with the end of the Vietnam War, usually powered by a McCulloch 4318 engine B-8MH Hover-Gyro - twin, coaxial rotor design with powered lower rotor and autorotating upper rotor, giving it the capability of hovering. B-8MW Hydro Copter - float-equipped B-8M X-25A - B-8M evaluated by USAF, single example first flown 23 January 1968 and preserved at the AFFTC Museum at Edwards Air Force Base. Rotorcraft Minicopter Mk 1 - South African variant with pre-rotator and cockpit fairing, taylor, John W. R. Janes All The Worlds Aircraft 1982–83. Taylor, Michael J. H. Janes Encyclopedia of Aviation, FAI records set by Igor Bensen in B-8M Plans for B8 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
3. CAC Winjeel – The CAC CA-25 Winjeel is an Australian-designed and manufactured three-seat training aircraft. Entering service with the Royal Australian Air Force in 1955 as a basic to advanced trainer, later, it was used in the Forward Air Control role for target marking until 1994, after which it was retired from RAAF service. The Winjeel was developed by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation at Fishermans Bend in Victoria to satisy RAAF technical requirement No. AC.77 issued in 1948, designed to replace both the Tiger Moth and the CAC Wirraway, the first two prototype CA-22 aircraft were flown in February 1951. However, it proved a very stable aircraft making it almost impossible to spin, sixty two production CA-25 aircraft were subsequently built and given the fleet serials A85-401 to A85-462. The first aircraft flew in February 1955, and deliveries began that September, the first Winjeel entered service with No.1 Basic Flying Training School at Uranquinty, near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. The last aircraft was delivered in August 1957, for most of its service life, the Winjeel was used as a basic trainer at RAAF Base Point Cook in Victoria, after 1 BFTS was transferred there in 1958. The Winjeel remained in service with the RAAF as a trainer until 1968. The failure of this concept ultimately ensured that the Winjeel was retained in the role until 1975. After this, a few Winjeels were used in the Forward Air Control role, initially operated by No.4 Flight, they were equipped with smoke bombs for target marking. By 1994 there were 14 in service with No.76 Squadron based at RAAF Base Williamtown, examples of the aircraft remain in flying condition in private ownership as well as museum displays around Australia. CA-25 Winjeel, Two-seat basic trainer aircraft for the RAAF, janes All The Worlds Aircraft 1955–56. New York, The McGraw Hill Book Company, dennis, Peter, Grey, Jeffrey, Morris, Ewan, Prior, Robin, Bou, Jean. The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, weston Creek, Australian Capital Terrority, Aerospace Publications
4. Cessna 172 – The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history, Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 43,000. The aircraft remains in production today, the Skyhawks main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, and, more recently, the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR22. The Cessna 172 started life as a landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a landing gear. To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172, later, the 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12. The 172 became a sales success, and over 1,400 were built in 1956. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all later 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as Omni-Vision, production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP, the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights. Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, a Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance, the record still stands. On December 4,1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B. They landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 4,1959 after 64 days,22 hours,19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight, the flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a car on a straight stretch of road in the desert. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the accelerator pedal
5. Dornier Do 27 – The Dornier Do 27 was a German single-engine STOL utility aircraft, manufactured by Dornier GmbH. Configuration was a classic high-wing, tail-dragger aircraft with fixed landing gear, dorniers facilities in Spain designed the Do 25, to a Spanish military requirement for a light utility aircraft, as a precursor to the production Do 27. Powered by a single 110 kilowatts ENMA Tigre G. V engine, the Do 27 seated four to six and the original prototype first flew in Spain on 27 June 1955. Most production aircraft were built in Germany, the first German built aircraft taking flight on 17 October 1956,50 more were manufactured in Spain by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA as the CASA-127. The German Air Force and German Army ordered a total of 428 of the Do 27A, a later version with the same basic specifications but equipped with wider track landing gear was known as the Do 27Q-5. The aircraft was offered as a seaplane, the Do 27S-1, and with a larger engine. In addition to the operators in Germany and Spain, Portugal received 40 new build and 106 ex-German aircraft. The Portuguese Air Force used these extensively in the war in Portuguese Africa during the 1960s-70s. In the Portuguese Guinea, in April 1973, two Do 27s were shot down by SAM-7 Grail shoulder-launched AAMs, the Do 27 was notable for being the first mass-produced aircraft in Germany after World War II. It was appreciated for its wide, comfortable cabin and excellent short-field performance. Do 25 Precursor aircraft designed to a Spanish requirement and powered by a 110 kilowatts ENMA Tigre G. V engine, do 27A-1 Military five-seat single-engine STOL utility transport aircraft,177 built Do 27A-2 Do 27A-1 with minor modification inside, two built. Do 27A-3 Do 27A-1 with increased Take Off Gross Weight,88 built, do 27-A4 Variant with wide landing gear and increased Take Off Gross Weight,65 built. Do 27B-1 Dual-control version of the A-1,86 built, do 27B-2 Do 27B-2 with minor modification inside, five built. Do 27B-3 Do 27B-2 with increased Take Off Gross Weight,16 built, do 27B-5 Conversions of 27B-3s to 27A-4 standard. Do 27H-1 Do 27B-2 powered by a 254 kW Avco Lycoming GSO-480 piston engine with a three-bladed propeller and a larger tail, one built. Do 27H-2 Variant of the H-1 for the Swiss Air Force with some modifications as applied to the Do 27Q-1 Do 27J-1 Production of the Do 27A-4 for Belgian Army,12 built, do 27K-1 Production of the Do 27A-4 for Portuguese Air Force,16 built. Do 27K-2 Similar to K-1 with minor modifications for Portuguese Air Force,14 built, do 27Q-1 Six-seat variant of the A-1 for civil market,16 built. Do 27Q-3 Four-seat variant of the Q-1 with a 230 hp Continental O-470K engine, one built, do 27Q-4 Improved Q-1 with auxiliary fuel tanks,34 built
6. Edgar Percival E.P.9 – In 1954, Edgar Percival formed Edgar Percival Aircraft Limited at Stapleford Aerodrome, England, his original company had become part of the Hunting Group. His first new design, the Edgar Percival P.9 was a utility aircraft designed for agricultural use, the aircraft was a high-wing monoplane with an unusual pod and boom fuselage. The pod and boom design allowed the aircraft to be fitted with a hopper for crop spraying, the pilot and one passenger sat together with room for four more passengers. The clamshell side and rear doors also allowed the aircraft to carry standard size wool, even when the hopper was fitted, a ground crew of three could be carried when moving between sites. The prototype first flew on 21 December 1955, after a demonstration tour of Australia four aircraft were ordered as crop-sprayers and an initial batch of 20 was built. Two aircraft were bought by the British Army in 1958, in the same year, Samlesbury Engineering Limited acquired rights to the design and the company was renamed the Lancashire Aircraft Company. Lancashire Aircraft renamed the aircraft the Lancashire Prospector E. P.9 but only six more were built, in early 1958 World Wide Helicopters Ltd were operating three EP-9s out of Tripoli, Libya, on flights into and around the Libyan Sahara in support of oil exploration companies. These aircraft were registered G-APCR, PCS and PCT, their numbers being 21,24 and 25 respectively. In 1959 PCR suffered an accident in the far southwest of the country. The other two aircraft were sold in late 1959/early 1960, in 1959 Kingsford Smith Aviation of Bankstown, Australia re-engined two aircraft with an Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah 10 radial engine as the EP-9C. One EP-9 N747JC had a chequered career and was one of two evaluated by the British Army Air Corps with serial XM819. It was once owned in the late 1960s by a gang of smugglers who found it the ideal way to smuggle stolen furs. Although the criminals were apprehended in 1969, the EP-9 was finally offered for sale in Belgium in 1972, after three years of pleasure flying in England, the aircraft was shipped to the United States where it was stored in a Wisconsin barn until 1999. After extensive restoration, N747JC appeared at Oshkosh in 2001-03, per the current owner, the aircraft is for sale as of April 2015. Edgar Percival E. P.9 Production aircraft powered by a 270 hp Lycoming GO-480-B1. B engine,21 built, Edgar Percival E. P. 9C Two aircraft re-engined in Australia by Kingsford Smith Aviation at Brisbane with a 375 hp Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah 10 radial engine. Lancashire Aircraft E. P.9 Prospector Continued production powered by a 295 hp Lycoming GO-480-G1. A6 engine, six built
7. Fokker F27 Friendship – The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It has the distinction of being the most numerous aircraft to have been manufactured in the Netherlands. Innovative manufacturing techniques were employed in the aircrafts construction. On 24 November 1955, the F27 performed its maiden flight, on 19 November 1958, shortly after its introduction, the F27 was recognised as being a commercial success. During the 1980s, Fokker developed a successor to the F27, the Fokker 50. In the aftermath of the Second World War, twin-engine all-metal monoplanes such as the successful Douglas DC-3 airliner dominated commuter aviation. Over 10,000 DC-3s had been manufactured during wartime, what had led to the type being highly available, by 1951, figures within Fokker were urging that design work be undertaken on a prospective 32-seat airliner intended as a direct replacement for the popular DC-3. Fokker sought the opinions of a number of existing DC-3 operators on what performance increases, on the basis of this feedback, the design team chose to incorporate various new technologies into the tentative design. In 1953, the proposed airliner received the name Friendship, on 24 November 1955, the first prototype, registered PH-NIV, performed its maiden flight. The second prototype and initial production machines were 0 and these aircraft were also powered by the Dart Mk 528 engine, which was capable of generating greater thrust. Throughout the F27s production life, Fokker F27 proceeded to adapt the design for various purposes and roles, the adaption of the type to produce several models for the purpose of performing as a military transport were also produced. Fokker also chose to design a model of the F27 for conducting maritime reconnaissance missions. During 1952, Fokker established a relationship with the American aircraft manufacturer Fairchild, in 1956, Fokker signed a licensing deal with Fairchild, under which the latter was authorised to manufacture the F27 in the USA. On 12 April 1958, the first American-built aircraft conducted its first flight, production of Fairchild built aircraft would continue until July 1973. Fairchild proceeded to developed a stretched version of the airliner. The majority of sales completed by Fairchild fell within the North American market, in the early 1980s, Fokker decided to develop a modernised successor to the F27 Friendship, designated as the Fokker 50. The Fokker 50 ultimately replaced the F27 in production, in November 1958, the first production aircraft, an F27-100 model, was delivered to Irish airline Aer Lingus, it performed its first revenue flight in the following month. In 1960, demand for the F27 increased rapidly as multiple airlines placed orders for the type
8. Folland Gnat – The Folland Gnat is a British compact swept-wing subsonic fighter aircraft developed and produced by Folland Aircraft. Petter, the Gnat has its origins in the private venture Folland Midge. The issuing of Operational Requirement OR.303 by the British Air Ministry served to motivate the types development and its design allowed for its construction and maintenance tasks to be carried out without specialised tools, making it suitable for use in countries that had not yet become highly industrialised. Although never used as a fighter by the Royal Air Force, in the United Kingdom, the Gnat became well known due to its prominent use as the display aircraft of the RAFs Red Arrows aerobatic team. The Gnat F.1 was exported to Finland, Yugoslavia and India, the Indian Air Force became the largest operator and eventually manufactured the aircraft under licence. Impressed by its performance during combat, India proceeded to develop the improved HAL Ajeet, in British service, the Gnat was replaced by the Hawker Siddeley Hawk. In October 1950, WEW Teddy Petter, a British aircraft designer formerly of Westland Aircraft and English Electric, joined Folland Aircraft as its managing director and chief engineer. Petter examined the prospects for producing a more affordable but capable light fighter, the light fighter project soon received the Fo-141 designation along with the name Gnat. Development of the Gnat and the specifics of its design were influenced by the issuing of Operational Requirement OR.303. The emergence of new lightweight turbojet engines, several of which were advanced in their own development process. The Gnat was initially intended to be powered by a Bristol BE-22 Saturn turbojet engine, however, development of the Saturn was cancelled, in its place, the more capable but not immediately available Bristol Orpheus turbojet engine was adopted instead. This demonstrator was designated Fo-139 Midge, on 11 August 1954, the Midge performed its maiden flight, piloted by Follands chief test pilot E. A. Tennant. Despite the low-powered engine, the jet was able to break Mach 1 while in a dive. On 20 September 1955, the Midge was destroyed in a crash, the Midge, partly due to its nature as a private venture, had only a short lifespan, however had served as a proof-of-concept demonstrator for the subsequent aircraft. It had failed to interest the RAF as an aircraft at that time. The first prototype Gnat was built as a venture by Folland. Subsequently, six aircraft were ordered by the British Ministry of Supply for evaluation purposes. On 18 July 1955, the Folland prototype, serial number G-39-2, first flew from RAF Boscombe Down, although the evaluation by the British brought no orders for the lightweight fighter, orders were placed by Finland and Yugoslavia
9. Handley Page Dart Herald – The Handley Page Dart Herald was a 1950s British turboprop passenger aircraft. In the mid-1950s Handley Page developed a new fast short-range regional airliner, intended to replace the venerable Douglas DC-3, the Herald was an extensive re-development of the original concept of the Marathon, notable for its high mounted wing. The HP Reading division succeeded in producing a design with excellent flight. However, the made a serious misjudgement which was, in the end, to cost the company dearly, and like some other classic British aircraft of the time. Handley Page preferred a design, which led to the new 870 hp Alvis Leonides Major 14-cylinder radial engine. At almost the time, the Dutch company Fokker made the opposite choice for its competitor for the same market. Large flaps were fitted to give good short takeoff and landing characteristics. It was designed to cruise at a speed of 224 mph, had a range of 1,640 mi, could land and take off in a distance of less than 500 yards and had an initial rate of climb of over 1,800 ft/min. At first, it seemed that Handley Page had made the choices with the HPR.3, which was named Herald in August 1954. Break-even was expected after the sale of 75 aircraft and Handley Page expected total sales of up to 300 Heralds, by now, however, the Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engine had shown proven success in the Vickers Viscount. Before the second prototype had completed, Handley Page was faced with the fact that it had no orders for the Herald. There had already been a substantial investment in the Herald project. Handley Page decided to press ahead with the Herald project, in an effort to recover the investment, the revised aircraft, now designated the HPR. The first prototype was converted to Dart Herald standard, making its flight on 11 March 1958. The initial Series 100 version of the Dart Herald was certified in April 1958, the basic price in 1960 was around £185,000. The first order for the Dart Herald was in June 1959 from British European Airways for a lease of three aircraft for use on its Scottish Highlands and Islands routes, the second prototype was converted to Series 200 standard and first flew in that form on 8 April 1961. A key design feature of the Herald was the high-mounted wing, in addition, the Heralds vertical fin was covered with miniature airfoils, adding further to the Heralds excellent stability. Pilots reported that the Herald flew like a dream, very stable in the air, ground handling was said to be the Heralds only vice due to an overlarge tailfin
10. Lockheed U-2 – It provides day and night, high-altitude, all-weather intelligence gathering. The U-2 has also used for electronic sensor research, satellite calibration. Early versions of the U-2 were involved in several events through the Cold War, being flown over the Soviet Union, China, Vietnam, in 1960, Gary Powers was shot down in a CIA U-2A over the Soviet Union by a surface-to-air missile. Another U-2, piloted by Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. was lost in a fashion during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The U-2 is one of a handful of types to have served the USAF for over 50 years. The newest models entered service in the 1980s, the current model, the U-2S, received its most recent technical upgrade in 2012. They have taken part in post–Cold War conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, after World War II, the U. S. military desired better strategic aerial reconnaissance to help determine Soviet capabilities and intentions. Richard Leghorn of the USAF suggested that an aircraft that could fly at 60,000 feet should be safe from the MiG-17, the Soviet Unions best interceptor, which could barely reach 45,000 feet. He and others believed that Soviet radar, which used American equipment provided during the war, the highest-flying aircraft available to America and its allies at the time was the English Electric Canberra, which could reach 48,000 feet. Air Research and Development Command mandated design changes made the aircraft more durable for combat. The Soviet Union, unlike the United States and Britain, had improved radar technology after the war and it was thought that an aircraft that could fly at 70,000 feet would be beyond the reach of Soviet fighters, missiles, and radar. Another USAF officer, John Seaberg, wrote a request for proposal in 1953 for an aircraft that could reach 70,000 feet over a target with 1,500 nmi of operational radius. The USAF decided to solicit designs only from smaller companies that could give the project more attention. Under the code name Bald Eagle, it contracts to Bell Aircraft, Martin Aircraft. Officials at Lockheed Aircraft Corporation heard about the project and decided to submit an unsolicited proposal, to save weight and increase altitude, Lockheed executive John Carter suggested that the design eliminate landing gear and avoid attempting to meet combat load factors for the airframe. The company asked Clarence Kelly Johnson to come up such a design. Johnson was Lockheeds best aeronautical engineer, responsible for the P-38 and he was also known for completing projects ahead of schedule, working in a separate division of the company, informally called the Skunk Works. Johnsons design, named CL-282, was based on the Lockheed XF-104 with long, slender wings, the design was powered by the General Electric J73 engine and took off from a special cart and landed on its belly