Omar Derdour, full name Abou El Kacem Omar Derdour, was an Algerian Muslim leader and political worker. A disciple of Abdelhamid Ben Badis, he was active in the Islamic reformation of Algeria and he directed the Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty Partys Federation in Constantine, and was a member of the Central Committee and Deputy of the Constantine region from 1947 to 1951. After independence, Omar Derdour devoted himself to teaching, became a member of the Islamic Institute. Derdour was born on 13 October 1913 in Hidoussa, a village in the municipality of Teniet El Abed. He was born into a family of scholars which hailed from the Ouled Abdi Valley in that mountain region, the village lies He learned the Quran in his great-grandfathers zawiya. Derdour went to Tolga where he studied at the school of Sheikh Ali bin Omar for two years, and was given a thorough Islamic education in language and jurisprudence, in 1933 Derdour joined the Green Mosque and began studying under Sheikh Abdelhamid Ben Badis.
He would remain there for seven years, in 1934, Ben Badis appointed Derdour teacher in the two mosques of Sidi Guemouche and Sidi Boumaâza in Constantine. In 1936, he became the assistant of Ben Badis in organizing the courses. In 1936 Omar Derdour and a group of students founded a division of the Algerian Muslim Scholars Association and became active in education in the fields of religious. In 1937, Derdour returned to his village to establish a madrasa for the education of children, Ben Badis considered him the soul of the Islahiste movement in the Aures. At the end of 1937, the French authorities became aware of his activities, Derdour was released on 6 January 1938, but was imprisoned a second time in August 1939 to complete his four-month sentence and was fined 8,000 francs. He was released in September 1939 upon the outbreak of World War II, during the war the authorities suppressed all political activities, and he was forced to limit himself to non-political education. Omar Derdour directed the AML Partys Federation in Constantine, and was a member of the Central Committee, between July 1955 and January 1956 he lived in Vichy, working with the National Liberation Front on defining the objectives and approach of the revolution.
Derdour moved to Cairo, meeting Sheikh Mohammed Bashir Brahimi and other members of the Revolutionary Command and he was given the task of travelling to the Arab countries to raise support for the Algerian revolution. Derdour was based in Cairo until he moved to Tunisia in 1960 and he taught soldiers on the Algerian border until independence was achieved in 1962. After Algeria gained independence, Omar Derdour devoted himself to teaching Islam and he founded the first Islamic institute in Batna in May 1963, followed by the creation of similar institutions in several cities across the country, reaching 10,000 students. In 1986, Derdour was appointed inspector of Religious Affairs in Batna. In the 2000s he built a mosque and a zawiya in the locality of El Hamza in the municipality of Oued Taga, on 19 March 2009 Abou El Kacem Omar Derdour died after a long battle against the effects of a stroke
Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj was an Algerian nationalist politician dedicated to the independence of his homeland from France. He founded the Mouvement national algérien to counteract the efforts of the Front de libération nationale. Hadj was born in 1898 into an Algerian family, his father was of Turkish origin, in 1927 he was elected leader of an Algerian workers association based in Paris. He attended the Anti-Imperialism Congress in Belgium that year, which created the League against Imperialism, back in France and in his native Algeria, a French colony, Messali helped build an underground movement and work towards Algerian independence. In the 1920s he started Étoile nord-africaine, one of the first modern Algerian nationalist organizations, both groups were suppressed by France, and in November 1937, Messali was put on trial for agitation, and imprisoned for several years. In May 1945, nationalist riots and clashes between French troops and native Algerians during World War II victory celebrations led to reprisals, around 6,000 Algerians were killed, many realized that the independence movement would not succeed by peaceful means.
He, along with Ferhat Abbas formed the Amis du Manifeste et de la Liberté and this resulted in the quick dissolution of the AML. In 1946 Messali founded the Mouvement pour le triomphe des libertés démocratiques, Messali lived under house arrest in Brittany and could not travel to Algeria. His group was perceived as moderate and accommodating, but his revolutionary ideals alienated parts of Algerias conservative Muslim society, messalis brand of Algerian nationalism gained its most important following among Algerian workers in France, while the FLN and other grass-roots groups took hold in Algeria. After the outbreak of the Algerian War of Independence in 1954 which was started against his wishes, Messali created the Mouvement National Algérien, messalis followers clashed with the FLN, his was the only socialist faction not absorbed into the Fronts fight for independence. In 1958, Messali supported the proposals of President Charles de Gaulle, during negotiation talks in 1961 the FLN did not accept the participation of the MNA, and this led to new outbursts of fighting.
Messali Hadj remained in exile near Paris, with influence over Algerian politics. He was married to Émilie Busquant, a French feminist, anarcho-syndicalist, the Messali Hadj Archive - from www. marxists. org