296th Infantry Regiment
The 296th Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment of the Puerto Rico Army National Guard consisting mostly of Puerto Rican enlisted soldiers and officers. Today, only its 1st Battalion remains active, being allotted to the 92nd Maneuver Enhancement Brigade of the Puerto Rico Army National Guard. The 296th is composed by the first battalion of infantrymen that engaged in combat as a Puerto Rico National Guard unit, as the 65th Infantry Regiment was, at the time, a regular Army unit. However, on February 12,1870 the militia were reduced to en cadre until their disbandment in April 1898 after Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States. Almost two decades after, on 1917 and at the brink of World War I, Puerto Ricans were granted American citizenship, right after, the President of the Senate of Puerto Rico requested the United States Army to include Puerto Ricans on the draft. The regiment was merely a reconstitution of the disbanded Spanish-era militia as a regiment assigned to the Puerto Rico National Guard on April 12,1917.
Two years later, this freshly created regiment was designated as the 1st Infantry Regiment on July 19,1919. Several years later, somewhen between July 9 and September 13 of 1922, the Puerto Rico National Guard established a new battalion and called it the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment. It is this battalion that gives birth to the 296th as a few months after being established it was renamed as the 1st Battalion, a few weeks after, on January 23,1923, the aforementioned 1st Infantry Regiment was renamed as the 295th Infantry Regiment. This series of events would establish a long history between the 295th and the 296th infantry regiments. On June 1,1936 a set of confusing changes takes place, the 1st Battalion of the 295th Infantry Regiment is split into two battalions in order to form the 1st Battalion and 2nd Battalion of the 295th Infantry Regiment. Between the 18 and the 25 of August 1940, the regiment received its 3rd Battalion, after such establishment, on August 25,1940, the 296th, together with the 295th, formed the new 92nd Infantry Brigade.
After WWII, the 296th simply served as the sister National Guard regiment of the 65th Infantry Regiment, with the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, the 65th Infantry Regiment was ordered to Korea. The regiment suffered a series of mobilizations, the regiment was simply reorganized as two battalions of the 92nd Infantry Brigade on that date although they maintained their names without an administrative hierarchy as a regiment. Finally, on December 31,1967 the battalions were reorganized as a battalion of the 92nd Infantry Brigade. This brigade, in turn, was reorganized as the 92nd Maneuver Enhancement Brigade of which the 1st Battalion. The battalion, has been allocated at times to the 101st Troop Command when it is needed as a battalion somewhere else without the MEB being deployed with it. Most recently, the 1st Battalion, 296th Infantry Regiment was deployed in 2002 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom as part of the Global War on Terrorism and it deployed to the Iraq War while attached to the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment
9th Bomb Squadron
The 9th Bomb Squadron is a squadron of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the 7th Operations Group, Global Strike Command, stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, the squadron is equipped with the B-1B Lancer bomber. Formed in June 1917, the 9 BS is the oldest bomb squadron in the Air Force, during World War I, the squadron was the first American night reconnaissance squadron to be organized. Later, it served with the Army Air Service and Army Air Corps in the Inter-War period and served in Australia, Egypt, a part of Strategic Air Command during the Cold War, today the squadron is engaged as part of the Global War on Terrorism. The 9th Bomb Squadron maintains combat readiness to deliver rapid, decisive airpower on a scale in support of conventional warfare taskings. Squadron experts provide warfighting commanders with the best in maintenance support, operational aircrews, the 9th Bomb Squadrons patch features 3 spotlights aiming skyward, to represent the 3 major campaigns the 9th participated in during WWI.
One spotlight shines vertically, while the two cross each other. This forms an IX, which is the Roman Numeral for 9, the 9th Bombardment Squadron began as the 9th Aero Squadron at Kelly Field, Texas on 14 June 1917. World War I had begun in April of that year and the unit was targeted for overseas combat duty and their first European stop was Winchester, England in December 1917. Following the holidays the unit moved on to RFC Grantham, England to train for flying the Sopwith Scout. After eight months of training, the unit moved to the Western Front in August 1918. While in Colombey-les-Belles Airdrome, the 9th was assigned to the First Army Observation Group, after arrival in France, the unit began flying a new aircraft, the French Breguet 14. That aircraft would be used extensively to perform the units mission, by specializing in night reconnaissance, the 9th gained the unique distinction of being the first in the Army Air Service to do so. However, their missions were not without danger, in one case, two of the 9th aircraft were engaged by seven enemy Fokkers.
The 9ths aircraft not only shot down two German aircraft, but completed their photographic mission, as the war progressed the unit participated in many night missions and battles. Most famous of those battles were the Battle of Lorraine, Battle of St Michiel, for those, the unit earned their first battle streamers. After the war had drawn to a close, the unit was moved to Trier, in June 1919, the unit was ordered back to the States where they were stationed at Mitchel Field, New York, Park Field, and at March Field, California. With the establishment of a permanent Army Air Service, on 14 March 1921, funding shortages, however led to the squadrons inactivation on 29 June 1922
The 9K52 Luna-M is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system. The 9M21 rockets are unguided and spin-stabilized and its GRAU designation is 9K52, and its NATO reporting name is FROG-7. FROG is a backronym for Free Rocket Over Ground, the 9M21 rockets are mounted on a wheeled 9P113 transporter erector launcher based on the ZIL-135 8x8 army truck. The TEL features a hydraulic crane used for reloading rockets from 9T29 transporters. The 9M21 has a range up to 70 km and a CEP between 500 m and 700 m, the road mobile rocket has a 550 kg warhead and is capable of delivering high explosive, nuclear, or chemical warheads. Six of the version of the 9M21 were in Cuba during the missile crisis in October 1962. These missiles, which were ready to fire, had nuclear warheads installed, a further 70 warheads were stockpiled on the island. The Luna was deployed throughout some Soviet satellite states. The rocket has been exported and is now in the possession of a large number of countries. Another 14 soldiers were injured, and 22 vehicles destroyed or seriously damaged, RAF jets targeted and destroyed FROG-7 launchers operated by Pro-Gaddafi forces south of Sirte in the 2011 Libyan civil war.
Starting in 2012, during the Syrian Civil War, the Syrian Arab Army fired several FROG-7 rockets against different areas under control of different insurgent formations. Once again they proved to be a weapon with scarse military effectiveness against dispersed targets while inflicting severe damage to the civilian population. 9M21B Nuclear-armed variant, fitted with a 500 kg warhead, 9M21G This variant is fitted with a 390 kg warhead. Laith-90 Iraqi version with increased range and submunition warhead, algeria -24 - acquired between 1964 and 1974,15 systems supposed to be decommissioned by 2014
27th Infantry Division Brescia
The 27th Infantry Division Brescia was an auto-transportable Infantry Division formed 1 January,1935 as 27th Infantry Division Sila and reorganized to the 27th Infantry Division Brescia 24 May,1939. It was made up of draftees from Calabria, the Brescia was classified as an auto-transportable division, meaning staff and equipment could be transported on cars and trucks, although not simultaneously. The division was part of the Italian XXI Infantry Corps in the North Africa, already in Ethiopia in October,1935, the division Sila have participated first in the capture of Mekele. From 4 November,1935, it has stationed in the Adigrat, in December,1936, some local fighting has happened at the line Ādī K’edawīt - Passo Doghea line. Also, reconnaissance raids were carried to Ziban Debrī Bota and Celecot,19 January,1936, the Sila division have broken through the Ethiopian defences, capturing several towns in the Tembien Province. It did not participate in the nearby First Battle of Tembien though and acted only in the stages of Battle of Amba Aradam.
In March,1936, the Sila division has spread to Finarwa - Sekota region where it stayed until the end of war,24 May,1939, the division Sila was renamed Brescia and received a 1st mobile artillery regiment instead of normal infantry artillery regiment. By the June,1940, the Brescia was located around Zawiya, after the Franco-Italian Armistice has come into effect, the division was tasked with the coastal defence west of Tripoli. A divisional arillery was detached to fight at Mechili-Derna, Libya line 25-29 January,1941, following failure of Italian front, it retreated through Marj and Benghazi, but was encircled north of Ajdabiya 5 February,1941. In early March,1941, the division have consolidated at El Agheila and started a counter-offence 24 March,1941 and it has entered Ajdabiya 2 April,1941, and used for the defence of the communication lines. But the attack have stalled and Rommel was forced to call for reinforcements, on the night of 30 April, a strong Italo-German force attacks the Tobruk defences again, and the Ariete, Brescia, 8th Bersaglieri Regiment and Guastatori involved capture seven strongpoints.
Side by side with the Brescia assault troops they inflict heavy losses on the enemy and take out further strong points with explosives, Australian military historian Mark Johnston states there was an unwillingness to acknowledge reverses against Italians in Australian official accounts. Major-General Leslie Morshead was furious and ordered the Australians to be far more vigilant in the future, on 24 May, the Brescia Division which had taken over the western front of Tobruk, repelled an attacking infantry force, supported by tanks. On 2 August, another attack was launched to recover the lost strongpoints and this was the last Australian effort to recover the lost fortifications. Advancing in broad daylight on 11 December, a battalion of the Brescia came within 50 yards of the 23rd New Zealand Battalion, initial retreat was to the Ayn al Ghazālah. 18 December, stuck with the British forces and outflanked from south, it began to retreat to Ajdabiya, from January,1942, the Brescia division was defending a front around Qabr al Fārigh, south-west Derna, Libya.
It has moved to positions at Qabr al Fārigh (south of Derna. Operating at Ghawţ al ‘Abīdī depression,20 June,1942, the Brescia division have passed to the south of Tobruk, and rapidly moved through Bardia, As Sallūm and Sidi Barrani, arriving to Mersa Matruh 30 June,1942
32 Canadian Brigade Group
32 Canadian Brigade Group of the Canadian Army is part of the 4th Canadian Division. It is centred on the Greater Toronto Area, as well as Niagara Region and it is headquartered at LCol George Taylor Denison III Armoury in Toronto, Ontario. Colonel Andrew Zalvin, CD, is the Commander of 32 CBG whilst Chief Warrant Officer Grant Lawson, Brigade Headquarters has a staff of approximately 40 full-time and 20 part-time members, both military and civilian. 32nd Brigade Group was created, within 2 Militia District, on 1 April 1942 when the force in Canada was reorganized for the war. Like today, the formation consisted of soldiers who paraded and trained on evenings. Resulting from a restructuring of the army, it was established as one of ten reserve brigade groups organized across Canada. Although 32 CBG has a history, this cannot be said of its units. Most units have served in almost all of the military campaigns involving Canadians, Fenian raids, Red River Expedition, North-West Rebellion, South African War, since the 1980s, they have been contributing to UN and NATO missions around the world.
Many soldiers of 32 Canadian Brigade Group have served on operations around the world, nearly 70 members of the brigade deployed to Afghanistan in August 2006 and more than 120 others have recently returned from service in Kandahar during the winter of 2008-2009. The brigade has played a big role in relief at home, helping Canadians during the Manitoba floods. It remains prepared to back up the services of the Greater Toronto Area. The role of 32 CBG is to produce well-trained Reserve soldiers to enhance Canada’s combat capability,32 CBG comprises part-time soldiers plus a small cadre from the Regular Force who help plan and execute the training. Soldiers of the Army Reserve ― traditionally, the Militia ― train an average of one night a week, many Reservists train full-time during the summer, because many of the younger soldiers are students. 32 CBG is a brigade with 2100 soldiers in 10 units based in Toronto, Brantford, Scarborough, St. Catharines, Brampton, Georgetown. It has two regiments, two field artillery regiments, a field engineer regiment and six infantry battalions.
The brigade recently added two new, temporary armouries, the Queen’s Own Rifles now have an infantry company in Scarborough, while the Toronto Scottish have established a company in Mississauga. In the Canadian Forces, an armoury is a place where a reserve unit trains, list of armouries in Canada Military history of Canada History of the Canadian Army Canadian Forces Official Brigade Website
The 5Y3 is a medium-power directly heated full-wave rectifier vacuum tube introduced by RCA in 1935. It has found use in tube radios and early guitar amplifiers. It is virtually identical, electrically, to the older four-pin type 80 tube, 5Y3G, 5Y3GT, and 5Y3WGTA are variants with essentially the same specification, the 6087 is similar and a plug-in replacement, but with indirectly heated cathode. RCA and other manufacturers introduced many similar 5V rectifier tubes of both higher and lower current and voltage rating, including the 5V3, 5W3, 5X3, 5Z3, 5U4, 5Z4, GZ32, and GZ34. As for a replacement, the 5Y4G has same specifications as the 5Y3G. Sovtek in Russia manufacture a 5Y3GT with similar specifications, but indirectly heated, and with higher maximum current at 140 instead of 120 mA
548th Combat Training Squadron
The 548th Combat Training Squadron is a United States Air Force squadron assigned to the 57th Operations Group at Fort Polk, Louisiana. It is a Geographically Separated Unit from the 57th OG, its headquarters being at Nellis Air Force Base, the unit was originally formed as the 548th Night Fighter Squadron in 1944. After training, it was deployed to Seventh Air Force and ordered to the Mariana Islands in the Central Pacific and its mission was the air defense of Twentieth Air Force B-29 Superfortress airfields on Saipan and on Iwo Jima. It provided escort for the B-29s in case of Japanese interceptor attacks. It served on Okinawa where it was inactivated in December 1945, the squadron was re-activated in 1969 during the Vietnam War as part of the 1st Air Commando Wing. The squadron was inactivated in 1973 as part of the withdrawal of United States forces from the Vietnam War, the 548th Combat Training Squadron provides Air Combat Command-directed support to the U. S. Army’s Joint Readiness Training Center located at Fort Polk, Louisiana.
Squadron members assist in the planning of Air Force operational support, the Air Force supports deployments of personnel and equipment with strategic airlift and sustainment of forces in their operational area by theater airlift. Tactical aircraft provide the air support to the Army contingent on the ground. Important to maintaining the ability to fight and win is tough, the events occurring in Iraq and Afghanistan is representative of the kind of realistic training experience our combat units receive, and it is what the 548th CTS and the JRTC are all about. The squadron was established on 23 March 1944 as the 548th Night Fighter Squadron at Salinas Army Air Base and it was part of the final group of dedicated night fighter interceptor squadrons formed by the Army Air Forces, being programmed to deploy to the Central Pacific. It was at Salinas that the squadron adopted its emblem, Skopie as in radar-scope, the squadron trained at various airfields in the San Joaquin Valley and was ready to deploy into combat by early September.
The Squadron moved by train to Seattle, Washington where it boarded the USS General W. F. Hase, arriving after a two-week crossing, it remained at Hickam Field, until its aircraft and equipment arrived in Hawaii. At Hickam, it was assigned to Seventh Air Force, at the end of January 1945, the ground echelon of the squadron departed Hawaii, bound for newly captured Central Field, on Iwo Jima. Arriving in late February, the detachment on Saipan re-joined the squadron, a large percentage of the squadrons missions consisted of long-distance patrols over water, many of which involved interceptions of Japanese Mitsubishi G4M Betty bombers. Its presence, although rarely shooting down any aircraft, did cause the bombers to jettison their loads. The squadron moved to Ie Shima on 12 June just 3 miles off the coast of Okinawa to provide night interceptor patrols over Okinawa and it finished out the war doing night penetration raids and weather observations to support the B-29s bombing the Japanese home islands.
It was during this time that the squadron scored its first two kills were scored by squadron pilots on aircraft on 21 June. Two more kills were scored on 14–15 August, the last two victories by American pilots in the Pacific War
The A26 road is one of the three cross-country two-digit numbered roads in the southeast of England, the others being the A25 road and A27 road. It carries traffic from Maidstone in Kent in a generally south-westerly direction to Tunbridge Wells, the road is almost entirely single carriageway resulting in congestion. The original A26 at Lewes headed to Brighton following the modern day A27, the road runs for a total distance of some 50 miles and provides access to the North Kent area and its industrial base with the ferry port of Newhaven. In consequence it has a large Heavy Goods Vehicle usage, media related to A26 road at Wikimedia Commons
The 2K11 Krug is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile system. The system was designed by NPO Novator and produced by Kalinin Machine Building Plant and its NATO reporting name is SA-4 Ganef, after a word of Yiddish origin meaning thief or rascal. Development of the Krug ZRK-SD air defense system started in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB design bureau and it was first displayed during a parade in Moscow in May 1965. The system started to be fielded in 1967 and became operational in 1969. It was used by the Russian Army as a long-range SAM, the early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The upgraded version Krug-M was fielded in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, a target drone called 9M316M Virazh, developed from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994. The 2K11 was briefly operated by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, in 1997, it was reported that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia.
Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit targets, the TEL vehicles are tracked based on a GM-123 chassis and carry two missiles each on an elevating turntable for up to 360-degree rotation and 70-degree elevation. The two primary versions of the missile in service are the 9M8M1 and 9M8M2, both of which are believed to be known to the US DoD as SA-4B. The original 9M8 was first introduced into service in 1965 and followed by the upgraded 9M8M in 1967 before the 9M8M1 in 1971, the 9M8M2 actually has a lower maximum engagement altitude and shorter range in exchange for better performance in engaging aircraft close to the battery. Thin Skin is mounted on a truck, Batteries may feature Ural 375D trucks 2T6 carrying spare missiles for reloading the launchers. The missiles are launched with the aid of four solid rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, a ramjet sustainer engine is ignited. It reaches speeds of up to Mach 4 and has a range of 50–55 km depending upon the version.
It carries a 135 kg fragmentation warhead, possible engagement altitudes range from 100 m to 27 km. The 3M8 missile was designed and produced by NPO Novator, optical tracking is possible for guidance in a heavy ECM environment. SAM- Regiment with two SAM- Divisions, SAM- Brigade with three SAM- Divisions, in each headquarter, brigade and division, is one Control Battery. Each SAM- Division with three SAM- Batteries, germany — Phased out during the 1990s Hungary had 1 regiment,25