1837 in the United States
Events from the year 1837 in the United States. President, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren Vice President, Martin Van Buren, Richard Mentor Johnson Chief Justice, taney Speaker of the House of Representatives, James K. Polk Congress, 24th, 25th January 1 - Dons Rok founded. January 10 - DePauw University founded in Greencastle, January 26 - Michigan is admitted as the 26th U. S. state. February 4 - Seminoles attack Fort Foster, february 8 - Richard Johnson becomes the only Vice President of the United States chosen by the United States Senate. February 15 - Knox College founded in Galesburg, february 25 In Philadelphia, The Institute for Colored Youth is founded as the first institution for the higher education of coloreds. Thomas Davenport obtains the first United States patent on an electric motor, march - Victor Séjours short story Le Mulâtre, the earliest known work of African American fiction, is published in the French abolitionist journal Revue des Colonies. March 4 Martin Van Buren succeeds Andrew Jackson as President of the United States, chicago is granted a city charter by Illinois.
May 10 - Panic of 1837, New York City banks fail, june 5 - Houston, Texas, is granted a city charter. June 11 - The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, july - Charles W. King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison. In the Morrison incident, he is turned away from Japanese ports with cannon fire, October - First publication of the The United States Magazine and Democratic Review. October 21 - General Thomas Jessup captures Osceola in pretext of negotiations, November 7 - In Alton, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob while he attempts to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a third time. November 8 - Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which become Mount Holyoke College. The Little and Company publishing house opens its doors in Boston, john Greenleaf Whittiers first poetry book, Poems Written During the Progress of the Abolition Question in the United States, is published by Boston abolitionists. Second Seminole War January 9 – Julius C, senator from Connecticut from 1905 to 1911 George Dewey, U. S.
Admiral of the Navy September 28 – David Barton, U. S. Senator from Missouri from 1821 to 1831 October 1 – Robert Clark, politician October 9 – Oliver H. Prince, U. S. Senator from Georgia from 1828 to 1829 November 7 – Elijah P. Lovejoy, abolitionist November 11 – Thomas Green Fessenden, poet Media related to 1837 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Northwest)
The 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. The unit was formed as the 3rd Arkansas Infantry Battalion. After receiving the required 10 companies, the unit was redesignated as the 21st Arkansas Infantry Regiment, upon recognition that there was already a 21st Arkansas, the unit was again redesignated as the 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment. This was the third Arkansas unit to bear the designation 15th Arkansas, the others are the 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment and the 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment. The unit saw action both west and east of the Mississippi, before serving in the Vicksburg campaign, the regiment was surrendered at Vicksburg in July 1863. After being paroled and exchanged, the regiment was consolidated with other depleted Arkansas regiments to form the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment, Brigadier General McCulloch intended to increase the battalion to a regiment. Company A – Commanded by Capt. James H. Hobbs, Company B – Commanded by Capt.
Edward B. Company C – Commanded by Capt. David A. Stuart, Company D – Commanded by Capt. Joshua L. Hollowell, of Yell County and it appears that a volunteer militia company, known as the Johnson County Lancers, Commanded by Capt. Bastion Whitehurst Cox, raised from the 10th Regiment, Arkansas State Militia and this company apparently disbanded after Wilsons Creek and did not become a part of the 15th Arkansas. The original Field and Staff Officers were, Lieutenant Colonel Dandridge McRae, assistant Commissary, Captain Henry J. Hays. The field officers were Colonels Squire Boone, James H. Hobbs, and Dandridge McRae, Lieutenant Colonel William W. Reynolds, the regiment was ordered to Missouri, moving through Carthage and by a circuitous route returned Arkansas about the November 1,1861. The new 21st Arkansas Regiment was officially established on December 3,1861, at Camp Benjamin, Company A – of Benton County, commanded by Captain Paul Graham. Company B – of Franklin County, commanded by Captain E. B, Company C – of Franklin County, commanded by Captain Joseph A.
Latimore. Company D – of Yell County, commanded by Captain J. L. Hollowell, Company E – of Pope County, commanded by Captain Caleb Davis, was originally organized as a volunteer infantry company of the 15th Militia Regiment, Arkansas State Militia on June 24,1861. Company F – of Benton County, commanded by Captain Austin K. Ertis, Company G – of Benton County, commanded by Captain William H. Holcomb. Company H – of Washington County, Originally Commanded by Captain Pleasant Wilson Buchanan, Emergency Company I – of Benton County, commanded by Captain Cyrus L. Pickens. The unit went into quarters at Cross Hollows, in Benton County Arkansas
8 Uppers is the fourth studio album released by the Japanese boy band Kanjani Eight. 8 Uppers was released a year and seven months from the release of their third album, there was three versions of this release, a regular edition, a CD+DVD limited edition, and a CD+2 DVD special collectors edition. The special edition contained the movie and its making as well as a poster, movie program, the music style of 8 Uppers is, different from their previous albums. This time the album adopts a more generic, mature feel as the songs were written to accompany the film of the same title. The album opens up with the theme song, Oriental Surfer. The album ends with the single, Kyū Jō Show. in many ways, the album can be looked as a soundtrack to the movie. Kanjani Eight themselves took charge over the Members Solo album with some of writing their own music. Tadayoshi Ohkura and Shota Yasuda collaborated to write the track on the Members Solo album entitled. Ohkura commented with, Yasuda, in the interview, added that Ska and Melodic Hardcore is Eights weapon.
When talking about working with Ken Yokoyama of Crazy Ken Band, many of the members showed slight apprehension to the aggressive, soulful. Yokoyama remarked with, This has to be the hardest song, I didnt believe I could sing it, but that Subaru would be great at it. When I first heard Kens demo, I thought it was impossible, the first single released from the album was Kyū Jō Show. A rockabilly-inspired tune that quickly followed up after the release of their junior album, the single did well, charting at #1 on the Oricon and Billboard Japan Hot 100 on its debut. A few months after, in May 2010, the single for the album was released, titled Wonderful World. Wonderful World is a playful, feel good, a-typical Japanese pop tune with the members rapping over it, the song did well, charting at #1 on the week of its debut. Was quickly followed by the third single, Life in August 2010. The song is pop-rock tune that was the theme song for the Japanese television drama, GM, Odore Doctor. Promotion for 8 Uppers began with the release of Wonderful World, and continued with Life with the included DVDs on the limited editions
1000 Ways to Lie
1000 Ways to Lie was a special and satire of the television series 1000 Ways to Die. It recreates intricate lies that people have told, as well as how and it includes interviews with experts who describe the science behind each lie. The special aired on Spike on March 3,2010, names have been changed to protect the guilty. and the gullible. Do not attempt to try ANY of the actions depicted, YOU CAN BE ARRESTED AND/OR PROSECUTED. The disclaimer cuts to animation while the voice-over reads Everybody lies, and everybody gets lied to. We lie to get ahead, we lie to get the girl, and to keep our secrets. Whether motivated by greed, ego, or criminal intent, just when you think youve heard it all, official website 1000 Ways to Lie at the Internet Movie Database
500 Years Later
500 Years Later is an independent documentary film directed by Owen Alik Shahadah, written by M. K. Asante, Jr. and released in 2005. It has won five international film awards in the category of Best Documentary UNESCO Breaking the Chains Award). 500 Years Later has received praise as well as controversy, both for the genre of the film, and its impact with relation to race study. The film opened on February 28,2005, at the Pan-African Awards and it made its American television premiere on August 23,2008, on TV One, and Ethiopian Television premiere on October 27,2007. It was shown nationally in South Africa on December 14,2014, in 2010, the sequel, was released. The film gives insight into the struggles faced by continental Africans today, for instance in terms of poverty, the film states that the lasting effects of slavery are still felt 500 years later, hence the title. This is justified and explained through a series of interviews throughout the film. The film begins with an adage that illustrates its historical theme, Until lions tell their story, the film includes testimonies and opinions gathered around five continents.
Many of the people who voice their opinion are scholars or experts on the African diaspora, a majority of the black children chose the white dolls. Many of those interviewed believe that a change to the educational system is necessary to change the mindset of people of African descent. The film affirms that the kind of education that we have is to still enslave our minds, education should be the main weapon for the new generations of Africans and African descendants, to remind the world of the richness and struggle of African history. At the end of the film, Africans are encouraged to remember their past, the goal proposed is to teach African children a more Afrocentric history, instead of a Eurocentric one. It further argues that teaching African-descent people about a history that is not their own will not help because they relate to it. It indicates that society must establish and promote African ideas, the film calls for the ideas promoted within it to become mainstream so that there can be a better Africa and a better history associated with the continent.
The cast features key figures from the African-American academic world, maulana Karenga Francis Cress Welsing Paul Robeson, Jr. Andrew Muhammad Kimani Nehusi Hakim Adi M. K. Asante, Jr. UNESCO launched the Slave Route Project in 1994. This project wants to increase knowledge and understanding in terms of slavery, shetah pointed out that, although the movie did a great job in touching on sensitive issue that are causes for Africas problems, it is worth mentioning it failed to treat the issue of conflict. Shetah cites reasons that independent African state governments are heavily corrupted due to problems that cant be simply be tied down to ideology and colonialism. While not exactly presenting overly new information, the delivery of the material and evidence is refreshing
1776 is a musical with music and lyrics by Sherman Edwards and a book by Peter Stone. The story is based on the surrounding the signing of the Declaration of Independence. It dramatizes the efforts of John Adams to persuade his colleagues to vote for American independence and it premiered on Broadway in 1969, earning warm reviews, and ran for 1,217 performances. The production was nominated for five Tony Awards and won three, including the Tony Award for Best Musical, in 1972 it was made into a film adaptation. It was revived on Broadway in 1997, in 1925, Rodgers and Hart had written a musical about the American Revolution, called Dearest Enemy. Edwards recounted that I wanted to show at their outermost limits and these men were the cream of their colonies. They disagreed and fought each other. But they understood commitment, and though they fought, they fought affirmatively, producer Stuart Ostrow recommended that librettist Peter Stone collaborate with Edwards on the book of the musical. Stone recalled, The minute you heard, you knew what the show was.
You knew immediately that John Adams and the others were not going to be treated as gods or cardboard characters, chopping down trees and flying kites with strings. It had this very affectionate familiarity, it wasnt reverential, the outspoken delegate from Massachusetts, was chosen as the central character, and his quest to persuade all 13 colonies to vote for independence became the central conflict. Stone confined nearly all of the action to Independence Hall and the debate among the delegates, after tryouts in New Haven, Conn. and Washington, the show opened on Broadway at the 46th Street Theatre on March 16,1969. NOTE, The show can be performed in one or two acts, on May 8,1776, in Philadelphia, as the Second Continental Congress proceeds with its business. John Adams, the widely disliked delegate from Massachusetts, is frustrated, the other delegates, too preoccupied by the rising heat, implore him to sit down. Adams response is that Congress has done nothing for the last year and he reads the latest missive to his loving wife Abigail, who appears in his imagination.
He asks if she and the women are making saltpeter for the war effort but she ignores him and states the women have a more urgent problem. They bicker about it until Adams gives in and they pledge their love to each other, that day, Adams finds delegate Benjamin Franklin outside. Adams bemoans the failure of his arguments for independence, Franklin suggests that a resolution for independence would have more success if proposed by someone else
The 8-track tape is a magnetic tape sound-recording technology that was popular in the United States from the mid-1960s to the late 1970s, when the Compact Cassette format took over. The format is regarded as a technology, and was relatively unknown outside the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia. Stereo 8 was created in 1964 by a led by Bill Lear of Lear Jet Corporation, along with Ampex, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Motorola. It was a development of the similar Stereo-Pak four-track cartridge introduced by Earl Madman Muntz. A quadraphonic version of the format was announced by RCA in April 1970 and first known as Quad-8, to eliminate the nuisance of tape-threading, various manufacturers introduced cartridges that held the tape inside a metal or plastic housing to eliminate handling. Most were intended only for low-fidelity voice recording in dictation machines, the first tape cartridge designed for general consumer use, including music reproduction, was the Sound Tape or Magazine Loading Cartridge, introduced in 1958 by RCA.
Prerecorded stereophonic music cartridges were available, and blank cartridges could be used to make recordings at home, program starts and stops were signaled by a one-inch-long metal foil that activates the track-change sensor. Inventor George Eash invented a design in 1953, called the Fidelipac cartridge. Fidelipac cartridges were used by radio stations for commercials, jingles. Eash formed Fidelipac Corporation to manufacture and market tapes and recorders, as did several others, there were several attempts to sell music systems for cars, beginning with the Chrysler Highway Hi-Fi of the late 1950s. Entrepreneur Earl Madman Muntz of Los Angeles, however, in 1962 he introduced his Stereo-Pak four-track cartridge stereo system and tapes, mostly in California and Florida. The four tracks were divided into two programs, typically corresponding to the two sides of an LP record, with each comprising two tracks read simultaneously for stereo playback. He licensed popular music albums from the record companies and duplicated them on these four-track cartridges, or CARtridges.
The Lear Jet Stereo 8 track cartridge was designed by Richard Kraus while working under Bill Lear and for his Lear Jet Corporation in 1963. The major change was to incorporate a neoprene rubber and nylon pinch roller into the cartridge itself, rather than to make the roller a part of the tape player. Lear eliminated some of the parts of the Eash cartridge, such as the tape-tensioning mechanism. By doubling the number of tracks from 4 to 8, the recording length doubled to 80 minutes, in 1964, Lears aircraft company constructed 100 demonstration Stereo 8 players for distribution to executives at RCA and the auto companies. The popularity of both four-track and eight-track cartridges grew from the automobile industry
421st Air Refueling Squadron
The 421st Air Refueling Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 41st Air Division at Yokota Air Base, since consolidation the squadron has not been active. The 421st Bombardment Squadron was activated on paper in March 1944 at Dalhart Army Air Field and it moved to Fairmont Army Air Field, Nebraska the day after activation, where it received its initial cadre from the 9th Bombardment Group. Because of aircraft availability, initial training missions were flown with Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft and its mission was the strategic bombardment of the Japanese Home Islands and the destruction of Japans war-making capability. The 421st flew shakedown missions against Japanese targets on Moen Island, the squadron began combat missions over Japan on 25 February 1945, with a firebombing mission over northeast Tokyo. The 421st continued to participate in wide area firebombing attack, after that, the squadron flew conventional bombing missions using high explosive bombs.
The squadron continued attacking urban areas of major Japanese cities with incendiary ordnance until the end of the war in August 1945 and it conducted raids against strategic objectives, bombing aircraft factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, and other targets in Japan. The squadron flew its last combat missions on 14 August, when hostilities ended, its B-29s carried relief supplies to Allied prisoner of war camps in Japan and Manchuria. The squadron was demobilized on Tinian during the fall of 1945. It remained in the western Pacific, the 421st moved to Clark Field in the Philippines in March 1946. It was inactivated at Clark Field on 15 June 1946, the squadrons low-hour aircraft were flown to storage depots in the United States. The 421st Air Refueling Squadrons origins were in a detachment of tankers assigned to the 98th Bombardment Wing. Shortly after arrival at Yokota, the Detachment was replaced by the 421st Air Refueling Squadron, which assumed its mission, the mission of the squadron was to provide dedicated air refueling for in-flight refueling capable Far East Air Force bombers and fighter bombers.
The squadron was equipped with transferred Strategic Air Command KB-29M Stratofortress bombers that were converted to tankers using a British-developed hose refueling system. In 1958, the squadron upgraded to Boeing B-50 Superfortress tankers, KB-50s were modified about 1959 to KB-50J configuration which added a J-47 turbojet engine underneath each wing in place of the auxiliary fuel tanks to increase the speed of the aircraft. Some aircraft and crews deployed to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base, some of these aircraft ran low on fuel while still over South Vietnam. Some of the refuelings were carried out at low altitudes that they came under hostile ground fire. By 1964, the unit possessed almost all of the KB-50s remaining in the Air Force inventory, the squadrons aircraft were scrapped on their hardstands at Yokota