Category:Alumni of Pretoria Boys High School
Pages in category "Alumni of Pretoria Boys High School"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pretoria Boys High School – Its academic performance places it among the best secondary schools in rankings nationally, as well as in all of Africa. The school enrols around 1500 pupils, including 300 boarders, from South Africa and beyond and its neoclassical red-brick style main school buildings date from 1909, maintaining provincial heritage site status. The school grounds includes a second campus, Pollock Campus, as well as sporting. Three boarding houses are located on the grounds, Rissik House and Solomon House are part of the original school complex completed in 1909. The antecedent of the current school is the historic Staats Model School and this school was not in operation for very long owing to the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899. At the time, the served as a prison, where notably Winston Churchill was briefly imprisoned. Its sister school is Pretoria High School for Girls, founded in 1902, the antecedent of the current school is the historic Staats Model School, built 1896-1897 by the government of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek in central Pretoria. This school was not in operation for very long owing to the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899, at the time, the building served as a prison, where notably Winston Churchill was briefly imprisoned. The Staats Model School was duly refurbished, initial enrolment was 32 pupils, both boys and girls, which increased to 132 by August of that year. Under the new headmaster, Harold Atkinson, enrolment increased to 100 boys by 1903, the name of the school was also changed to Pretoria College. Mr Atkinson left at the end of 1905 and was succeeded by J F Acheson who stayed with the school until it moved from Skinner Street to its current site in 1909, formal devolution between primary and high school pupils only occurred in 1905. The southern most 60 hectares, which included the Waterkloof Kop, was chosen as the new site for Pretoria Boys High School, the architect, Patrick Eagle, met the challenge by designing an edifice rivalling its larger contemporary, Sir Herbert Bakers Union Buildings. Eagle chose to site the buildings on the ridge of the hill giving the school its well-known dramatic setting. The new school buildings were opened in 1909 by General Smuts. The main building of the school, sited on Waterkloof Hill, is at present close to University of Pretoria, one year later, the four colonies of the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal and the Cape formed the Union of South Africa. The combined school was now named Pretoria High School for Boys - Pretoria Hogere school voor Jongens, Smuts would later send his own sons to the school. The dual-medium institution would last ten years, by 1920, the divide between English and Afrikaans speakers had become apparent nationwide, this was reflected in the need for a separate Afrikaans high school in Pretoria. The two schools enjoy close ties to this day, especially in an enthusiastic but friendly rivalry in sporting events, PBHS would now be left in its present form, known as Pretoria Boys High School, an English-medium public school
2. Pretoria – Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the three capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government. Pretoria is the part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. The elder Pretorius also negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal and it became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers settlement movements of the Great Trek, during the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic, the city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War, though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments. The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony, Pretoria then became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was also the capital of the province of Transvaal, on 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status. When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital and it lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold. The city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights, although the average lows during winter are mild it can get bitterly cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C, rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is a rare event, snowflakes were spotted in 1959,1968 and 2012 in the city. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, similar record-breaking extreme heat events also occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city, a total of 914 mm fell up to the end of December, with 220 mm recorded in this month alone
3. South Africa – South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, however, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
4. Edwin Cameron – Edwin Cameron is a judge on the Constitutional Court of South Africa. He is well known for his HIV/AIDS and gay-rights activism and was hailed by Nelson Mandela as one of South Africas new heroes and his father was imprisoned for car theft and his mother did not have the means to support him. He therefore spent much of his childhood in an orphanage in Queenstown and his elder sister was killed when Cameron was nine. Cameron won a scholarship to attend Pretoria Boys’ High School, one of South Africas best state schools, thereafter he went to Stellenbosch University, studying Latin and classics. Here he stayed at Wilgenhof Mens Residence. After this he attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, there he switched to law and earned a BA in Jurisprudence and the Bachelor of Civil Law, winning the Vinerian Scholarship. When he returned to South Africa he completed an LLB at the University of South Africa and was its best law graduate, camerons early career combined academia and legal practice. In 1982, while working as a lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand. Steyn, then a darling of the apartheid establishment, and, in 1987, Cameron argued that three senior South African judges, including its former Chief Justice, Pierre Rabie, ought to resign to preserve the legitimacy of the judiciary. Cameron practised at the Johannesburg Bar from 1983 to 1994, from 1986 he was a human rights lawyer at Witss Centre for Applied Legal Studies, where in 1989 he was awarded a personal professorship in law. In 1992 he became a co-author of Honorés South African Law of Trusts, camerons report was described as a hard-hitting critique of Armscors conduct, but was quickly eclipsed by myriad other allegations about the South African governments illegal arms trades. Cameron was appointed permanently to the Witwatersrand Local Division in 1995, camerons judgment was described as a most rigorous exposition of the Constitutions application to private disputes and a landmark defence of free speech. Others, while acknowledging the judgment had departed importantly from apartheid-era law, camerons position was substantially confirmed, in subsequent cases, by the Supreme Court of Appeal. Cameron has said there is no doubt this was the correct decision, Cameron was instead appointed to the Supreme Court of Appeal, which he served for eight years. There he wrote leading judgments on legal causation, hearsay evidence, public contracts, in Minister of Finance v Gore, Cameron co-authored a judgment with Fritz Brand that held the state could be delictually liable for causing pure economic loss by fraud. On 31 December 2008 President Kgalema Motlanthe appointed Cameron to the Constitutional Court and he is considered a crucial member of the Courts progressive wing. He has been described as a jurist of the highest order, le Roux v Dey, handed down in 2012, concerned three schoolboys who had superimposed an image of their deputy principals face on the naked body of one man masturbating alongside another. The Constitutional Courts majority judgment held the image was defamatory of the deputy principal, Cameron, however, in a judgment co-authored with Justice Froneman, dissented on this point, saying it could not be actionable to imply someone is gay. The judgment was hailed as a victory for freedom of expression during election campaigns, Cameron has been openly gay since the early 1980s
5. Rik de Voest – Rik de Voest is a former professional South African tennis player. His career-high singles ranking was World No,110, which he achieved in August 2006. Rik currently resides in Vancouver, Canada where he pursues a career in real estate specializing in North Vancouver. De Voest qualified for the 2007 Wimbledon mens singles event, where he lost to Marat Safin in the first round, De Voest qualified for the U. S. Open later on in 2007, where he defeated Thierry Ascione 6–2, 3–0 before Ascione retired. De Voest went on to lose to John Isner in the following round, De Voest is 12–5 in Davis Cup matches, being 8–5 for singles and 4–0 for doubles. Playing with Scott Lipsky of the U. S. he won the Levene Gouldin & Thompson Tennis Challenger in Binghamton, Rik de Voest at the Association of Tennis Professionals Rik de Voest at the Davis Cup De Voest World Ranking History
6. Mark Fish – Mark Anthony Fish is a retired South African footballer. Fish started his career in his native South Africa under the guidance of renowned coach Steve Coetsee, playing for Arcadia Shepherds and he was spotted by then Jomo Cosmos coach Roy Matthews and turned professional as a striker. It was at Cosmos that he was converted into a central defender, in 1994 Fish was signed by Orlando Pirates after Cosmos were relegated. At Pirates he arguably played the best football of his career under the tutelage of Mike Makaab and he also won the league championship at Pirates, as well as the BP Top Eight Cup in 1994, the 1995 African Champions League and the 1995 Bobsave Super Bowl. He captained The Buccaneers when they beat JS Kabylie in the 1996 CAF Super Cup, in the same year he was part of the history making South African national team to have won the African Cup of Nations at the first attempt after South Africas readmission to FIFA in 1992. Soon foreign scouts came knocking and he was signed by Lazio of Italy, after he turned down an opportunity to play for his boyhood club, however he did move to England after just one season at Lazio to become the highest paid player at Bolton Wanderers. Despite Fishs efforts Bolton were relegated on the last day of the season despite having accumulated 40 points, however, new suitors soon came calling, and only after the appointment of Sam Allardyce did Fishs star begin to fall in Lancashire. Fish soon followed his Danish teammate Claus Jensen and at Alan Curbishleys second time of asking moved to Charlton Athletic in a £700,000 move in November 2000. The Big Fish as he was known throughout his playing career went on to make 102 Premiership appearances for the Addicks. In 2005 he began to fall out of favour at Charlton and he went on to have a very short loan spell at Ipswich Town in the 2005–06 season but a severe cruciate ligament injury led to Fish announcing his retirement. Fish returned to football when he signed a contract with his first club Jomo Cosmos in early 2007. Internationally, Fish is best remembered as being a part of South Africas victorious national soccer squad when they won the 1996 African Cup of Nations. He scored one of the goals in the final against Algeria. He was named to the Team of the Tournament in both the 1996 and 1998 African Cup of Nations, in total he won 62 caps for the South African national team, scoring twice. He made his debut in a friendly game against Mexico on 6 October 1993. He was married to Loui Fish, a lingerie model. They have two sons, Luke Fish & Zeke Fish and he was one of a handful of Ambassadors in South Africas successful bid to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Mark and Loui divorced in April 2011, Mark is currently an ANC member of the Lilliesfarm branch
7. Bernard Friedman – Dr Bernard Friedman, was a surgeon, politician, author, businessman, and outstanding orator who co-founded the anti-apartheid Progressive Party. He was educated at Pretoria Boys High School and then he read medicine at Edinburgh University and he later became a specialist in aural surgery after studies in London and Vienna. Dr Friedman practised in Johannesburg and was Honorary Surgeon to the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of Johannesburg Hospital and he was senior lecturer in Otolaryngology at the Medical School of the University of Witwatersrand and consultant to the United Defence Force. In the 1920s he became a friend of Princess Alice. The friendship lasted until Princess Alices death, as an officer in the Medical Corps in the Second World War, he was Chief Aural Surgeon to the Military Hospital in Johannesburg. A United Party candidate, he became an MP for Hillbrow in 1943 when Smuts was returned to power, Dr Friedman kept his seat until 1948 when Smuts fell from power and the Nationalist Party under Malan took over Government. In 1955, Dr Friedman resigned his seat in protest against the United Partys refusal to pledge to the restoration of Coloured voters on the common roll and he stood as an Independent but was narrowly defeated by the UP candidate. He then became one of the founders of the Progressive Party and was its leader in the Transvaal for 10 years, helen Suzman was a protégé of his. C Kaplan wrote in his obituary, He was a man who saw the injustice of reducing the rights of South Africans of all races and was not afraid to say so and he retired and became President of the South African Institute of Race Relations. He was also the founder and chairman of the Prudential Building Society, Chairman, unit Securities and Trust Company of South Africa Ltd. and numerous other companies. He was befriended by Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, when the Earl was Governor-General of South Africa and he developed the township of Northcliffe, near Johannesburg. He was also a friend of Gandhi and he was married to Florence Louie Friedman the satirist, translator of poetry, and publisher, and South African secretary of PEN. He was father of the writer, Jillian Becker and a son, Jonathan Friedman, Smuts, A Reappraisal, George Allen & Unwin, London 1975, ISBN 0-04-920045-3. Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Liberalism in South Africa
8. Peter Hain – In 2007, he ran for the Deputy Leadership of the Labour Party, coming fifth out of six candidates, although his failure to declare donations during this contest led to his resignation in 2008. In 2014 he announced he would stand down as the MP for Neath at the 2015 general election and he was nominated for a life peerage in the 2015 Dissolution Honours. Writing in the Guardian, he outlined his views on House of Lords reform. He came to the UK from South Africa as a teenager and he was also Honorary Vice-President of the Campaign for Homosexual Equality. Hain was born in Nairobi in what was then Kenya Colony, Hains father, later to become an architect, was born there on 29 December 1924. Hains maternal grandparents were of notable 1820 Settler British South African stock and his 4th great-grandfather was George Southey who hailed from Devonshire. A brother of Sophia and George Southey was Sir Richard Southey a British colonial administrator, Hain is a fifth cousin six times removed of the Poet Laureate Robert Southey. When Hain was 10, he was awoken in the hours by police officers searching his bedroom for incriminating documents. Mrs Rhyss grand daughter suffered severe burns, as a result of security police harassment, Hains father was unable to continue his work as an architect, and the family decided to leave for the United Kingdom in 1966. After university, Hain worked as a researcher for the Union of Communication Workers, Hain became chairman of the Stop The Seventy Tour campaign which disrupted tours by the South African rugby union and cricket teams in 1969 and 1970. In 1971 director John Goldschmidt produced a film for Granadas World in Action programme featuring Peter Hain debating Apartheid in South Africa at the Oxford Union, the film was transmitted on the ITV network. In 1972 Hain was convicted of conspiracy in a trial at the Old Bailey. In 1972 he was sent a letter bomb that failed to explode because of faulty wiring, in 1976 Hain was tried for, and acquitted of, a 1974 bank robbery, allegedly having been framed by the South African Bureau of State Security. He joined the Liberal Party and was elected chairperson and then president of the Young Liberals, the same year, he was a founder of the Anti-Nazi League and he remains a prominent supporter of Unite Against Fascism today. He contested Putney in the 1983 and 1987 general elections but was defeated on both occasions by Conservative David Mellor and he was elected to the House of Commons at the by-election in April 1991 for the Neath constituency that followed the death of the sitting member, Donald Coleman. In 1995 he became a Labour whip and in 1996 became a shadow employment minister, after Labours victory in the 1997 general election he joined the government, first at the Welsh Office 1997–1999, then as minister of state at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office from 1999–2001. In October 2000 he set up a war avoidance team to carry messages back, team members who travelled repeatedly to Iraq on behalf of Hain variously included William Morris, Burhan Chalabi, and Nasser al-Khalifa. He voted for the invasion of Iraq in 2003, later calling it a fringe issue, in 2001 Hain moved briefly to the Department of Trade and Industry before returning to the Foreign Office as Minister for Europe, being sworn of the Privy Council the same year
9. Michael Levitt – Michael Levitt, FRS is an American-British-Israeli biophysicist and a professor of structural biology at Stanford University, a position he has held since 1987. Levitt received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel, michael Levitt was born in Pretoria, South Africa, to a Jewish family from Plungė, Lithuania, his father was Lithuanian and his mother is of Czech descent. He attended Sunnyside Primary School and then Pretoria Boys High School between 1960 and 1962, the family moved to England when he was 15. Levitt spent 1963 studying applied mathematics at the University of Pretoria and he attended Kings College London, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics in 1967. In 1967, he visited Israel for the first time, together with his Israeli wife, Rina, a multimedia artist, he left to study at Cambridge, where his three children were born. In 1979, he returned to Israel and conducted research at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and he served in the Israeli Defense Forces for six weeks in 1985. In 1986, he began teaching at Stanford, and since then has split his time between Israel and California and they were using computer modelling to understand the behaviour of biological molecules. He went on to gain a fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. From 1980 to 1987, he was Professor of Chemical Physics at Weizmann Institute of Science, thereafter, he has served as Professor of Structural biology, at Stanford University, California. He has also worked on simplified representations of structure for analyzing folding and packing and developing scoring systems for large-scale sequence-structure comparisons. He has mentored many scientists, including Mark Gerstein and Ram Samudrala. Cyrus Chothia was one of his colleagues, Levitt has served on the Scientific Advisory Boards of the following companies, Oplon Ltd, Cocrystal Discovery, StemRad, Ltd, and Cengent Therapeutics, Inc. He received the DeLano Award for Computational Biosciences in 2014 and he was elected an ISCB Fellow by the International Society for Computational Biology in 2015. Levitt holds American, British and Israeli citizenship, Levitt spends time every year in Israel, where his wife and children live. List of Israeli Nobel laureates List of Jewish Nobel laureates
10. Gerard Moerdijk – Gerard Leendert Pieter Moerdijk, also known as Gerard Moerdyk, was a South African architect best known for designing the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria. Both Moerdyks parents were Dutch immigrants, who moved to South Africa in 1888, during the Second Boer War Gerard Moerdyk was interred in the Standerton concentration camp with his mother, two brothers and two sisters. After the war, the family lived in Pretoria where Gerard went to the forerunner of Pretoria Boys High School and he matriculated with honours in 1909 and qualified as an architect at the Architectural Association in England. He also studied in France for a while and was exposed to classical Roman, Moerdyk was the first South African to be an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Moerdyk returned to South Africa in 1913 and received first prize for the design of a church in Bothaville and he started his own practice and received more than eighty commissions to design churches. In his designs Moerdyk broke with the traditional plan, and replaced it with an octagonal formation. Another Church the Nederduitse Hervormde Kerk was designed in 1935, picture of Church and memorial plate insterted He also designed several bank buildings, hospitals, houses and city halls. Commissioned works for which he is famous is the Reserve Bank building in Bloemfontein, the Libertas building in Pretoria and the Merensky Library at the University of Pretoria. This last building, now known as the Old Merensky Library – since a new library has been built – houses the Edoardo Villa Museum with the collection of sculptures by the artist Eduardo Villa. The foundation stone for building was laid in 1937 by General Jan Smuts. In 1991 it was declared a National Monument (it was later redesignated a provincial heritage site, the Voortrekker Monument on Proclamation Hill at the southern outskirts of Pretoria is considered to be Moerdyks masterpiece. The Central Volks Monuments Committee started a Structure Committee which approached the public in 1936 for suggestions about the contents, several sketches from sculptors, architects and other artists were submitted. Bouman designed the sculptural laager, or ring of ox-wagons, around the monument, the South African Academy for Arts and Science awarded Moerdyk an honorary membership in 1936 and in 1950 the University of South Africa awarded him an honorary doctorate. The Dutch Reformed Church in Piet Retief was designed and built in 1921, a well-known Colonial African restaurant in the Pretoria suburb Arcadia is named Gerard Moerdyk Restaurant, after him. Pretoria also has a district on Gerard Moerdyk Street in the suburb of Sunnyside. It is known as The Overzicht Artists Village and consists of old cottages, the village has theatres, craft shops, restaurants and an education museum. Spatial Symbolism in the Voortrekker Monument Gerard Moerdyk and images of the Voortrekker Monument
11. Elon Musk – Elon Reeve Musk is a South African-born Canadian-American business magnate, investor, engineer, and inventor. As of March 2017, he has a net worth of $13.9 billion. In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The Worlds Most Powerful People, Musk has stated that the goals of SolarCity, Tesla, and SpaceX revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. He has a brother, Kimbal, and a younger sister. His paternal grandmother was British, and he also has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, after his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria. During his childhood he had an interest in reading and often did so for hours at a time, at age 10, he developed an interest in computing with the Commodore VIC-20. He taught himself computer programming at the age of 12, sold the code for a BASIC-based video game he created called Blastar, to a magazine called PC and Office Technology, a web version of the game is available online. Musk was severely bullied throughout his childhood, and was hospitalized when a group of boys threw him down a flight of stairs. Musk was initially educated at schools, attending the English-speaking Waterkloof House Preparatory School. Musk later graduated from Pretoria Boys High School and moved to Canada in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday, therefore, with the law change, he is considered to have always been a Canadian citizen by birth. At the age of 19, Musk was accepted into Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelors degree. While at the University of Pennsylvania, Musk and fellow Penn student Adeo Ressi rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, in 2002, he became a U. S. citizen. In 1995, Musk and his brother, Kimbal, started Zip2, the company developed and marketed an Internet city guide for the newspaper publishing industry. Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, while at Zip2, Musk wanted to become CEO, however, none of the board members would allow it. Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in February 1999, Musk received 7% or US$22 million from the sale. In March 1999, Musk co-founded X. com, an financial services and e-mail payment company. One year later, the merged with Confinity, which had a money transfer service called PayPal. The merged company focused on the PayPal service and was renamed PayPal in 2001, PayPals early growth was driven mainly by a viral marketing campaign where new customers were recruited when they received money through the service
12. John Smit – John William Smit is a South African former rugby union player and former chief executive officer of the Sharks. He was the 50th captain of the South Africa national rugby union team and he played most of his senior career as a hooker, but also won 13 caps as a prop, where he had also played for South Africas under-21 team. He retired from rugby following the 2011 Rugby World Cup as the most-capped South African player ever. Smit was inducted into the IRB Hall of Fame on 24 October 2011, alongside all other World Cup-winning captains, Smit played his first Springbok game in 2000 at the age of 22, when South Africa beat Canada 51–18 at Basil Kenyon Stadium in East London. When Peter de Villiers was appointed as the new South Africa coach in 2008, in the first test against New Zealand, Smit equalled the record of 59 Tests as captain held by Australias George Gregan and Englands Will Carling. The following week, he became the captain in international rugby history. As of September 2009, Smit is one of South Africas most successful ever, having led the Springboks to victory in 46 of the 64 games that he captained. He has won more tests as captain than any other Springbok has played as captain, on 23 August 2010, he played his 100th Test – only the 15th player ever, and second South African to reach that milestone. After his Springbok retirement his record as captain for the most international games was broken, by Irelands Brian ODriscoll in 2012, during the run-up to the 2007 Rugby World Cup, he was linked with the French club Clermont. He eventually signed a deal with Clermont, effective after the World Cup. Despite his move to France, the South African Rugby Union announced on 20 February 2008 that he would retain his Boks captaincy, after just one year with Clermont, Smit rejoined the Sharks and the Super 14 side Sharks. Rugby World Cup Champions,2007 Tri Nations Winners,2004,2009 Runners-up,2005 SA Rugby Player Profile – John Smit, John Smit on Twitter John Smits Blog Sharks Rugby profile Springbok Hall of Fame
13. Max Theiler – Max Theiler was a South African-American virologist and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951 for developing a vaccine against yellow fever in 1937, born in Pretoria, Theiler was educated in South Africa through completion of his degree in medical school. That year, he moved to the United States to do research at the Harvard University School of Tropical Medicine and he lived and worked in that nation the rest of his life. In 1930, he moved to the Rockefeller Institute in New York, Theiler was born in Pretoria, then the capital of the South African Republic, his father Arnold Theiler was a veterinary bacteriologist. He attended Pretoria Boys High School, Rhodes University College, and University of Cape Town Medical School and he left South Africa for London to study at St Thomass Hospital Medical School, Kings College London, and at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In 1922, he was awarded a diploma in medicine and hygiene, he became a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of London. Theiler wanted to pursue a career in research, so in 1922, he took a position at the Harvard University School of Tropical Medicine in Cambridge and he spent several years investigating amoebic dysentery and trying to develop a vaccine for rat-bite fever. After becoming assistant to Andrew Sellards, he started working on yellow fever, in 1926, they disproved Hideyo Noguchis hypothesis that yellow fever was caused by the bacterium Leptospira icteroides. In 1928, the year after the disease was identified conclusively as a virus, they showed that the African, in the course of this research, Theiler contracted yellow fever, but survived and developed immunity. In 1930, Theiler moved to the Rockefeller Institute in New York and he was professor of epidemiology and public health at Yale University from 1964 to 1967. After passing the yellow fever virus through laboratory mice, Theiler found that the weakened virus conferred immunity on rhesus macaques, the stage was set for Theiler to develop a vaccine against the disease. Theiler first devised a test for the efficacy of experimental vaccines, in his test, sera from vaccinated human subjects were injected into mice to see if they protected the mice against yellow fever virus. This “mouse protection test” was used with variations as a measure of immunity until after World War II and it took until 1937, and more than 100 subcultures in chicken embryos, for Theiler and his colleague Hugh Smith to obtain an attenuated strain, which they named 17D. Animal tests showed the attenuated 17D mutant was safe and immunizing, Theilers team rapidly completed the development of a 17D vaccine, and the Rockefeller Foundation began human trials in South America. Between 1940 and 1947, the Rockefeller Foundation produced more than 28 million doses of the vaccine, for this work, Theiler received the 1951 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In 1937, Max Theiler discovered a filterable agent that was a cause for paralysis in mice. He found the virus was not transmittable to rhesus macaques, the virus is now referred to as Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus. The virus has been characterized, and now serves as a standard model for studying multiple sclerosis