Washington in the American Civil War
The history of Washington in the American Civil War is atypical, as the territory was the most remote from the battlefields of the American Civil War. At the start of the American Civil War, modern-day Washington was part of the Washington Territory, Washington Territory before the Civil War was a in the United States from the theater of conflict. Also of great concern locally was the recent Pig War and continuing dispute over San Juan Island that affected relations with Great Britain during the American Civil War. Politically the territory was a stronghold for the Democratic Party with many sympathetic to the Southern cause or at least tolerant of it. With the regular U. S. Army troops recalled from the District of Oregon to fight the Civil War in the east, soldiers were still needed to man the forts and outposts in Washington Territory. The acting governor of the territory, Henry M. McGill, issued a proclamation on May 10,1861, in response to President Lincolns first call for volunteers, not until October 12, was an effective step taken to raise volunteers in the territory when Colonel Thomas A.
Leaving R. V. Peabody to raise a company in the Sound country, there he opened a recruiting office on March 1,1862, and two months had secured four companies, and had two more started, soon to be at full strength. Early in May, with the four companies completed and mustered, he left San Francisco for Fort Vancouver, two more were raised in California, making eight in all from California, in the regiment which was not withstanding known as the 1st Washington Territory infantry. In the end only two companies of the Regiment were raised in Washington Territory, and one of these was recruited largely from residents of Oregon, Company K, which was mustered in at Fort Steilacoom was the only Company raised only from men from Washington Territory. East of the Cascades troops could not be raised from the men involved in the frenzy of the Idaho gold rush beginning. Three companies in the newly formed Idaho Territory were engaged in an expedition to clear the area of the Snake Indians who threatened emigrants to the territory in 1863 and 1864.
It was first garrisoned by Company A, U. S. 9th Infantry Regiment and by Company A, in 1863, a mate to Cape Disappointment, Fort at Point Adams, Fort Stevens was established in Oregon on the south bank of the Columbia River. In 1864, Post at Cape Disappointment was renamed Fort Cape Disappointment, despite the fears of the Union, these forts saw no action against any enemy in the Civil War. On March 15,1863, a schooner, called the J. M. Chapman, had seized in the harbor of San Francisco. This seizure made Union men everywhere along the coast more alert for other attempts to get a vessel for the purpose, among its papers was one letter disclosing plans for the capture of the USS Shubrick but the scheme appeared to have been abandoned. In the ensuing Shubrick Incident, Shubricks Captain Pease and most of the crew and they are awaiting, it seems from rumors, the receipt of letters of marque from the president of the so-called Confederate States. At this moment an English steamer, called the Fusi Yama, is expected in this port from England, USS Saginaw cruised the Puget Sound and Straits of San Juan de Fuca and found no privateer.
The Southern Association failed to carry out their intentions to outfit a privateer
Tennessee in the American Civil War
To a large extent, the American Civil War was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee, as only Virginia saw more battles. However, Tennessee is the state to have major battles or skirmishes fought in every single county. Tennessee was considered the Bread Basket of the Confederacy, for its rich farmland that fed both armies during the war. A large number of important battles occurred in Tennessee, including the fighting at the Battle of Shiloh. Other large battles in Tennessee included Stones River, Nashville, Tennessee was one of the most divided states in the country at the outset of the war. Before the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Tennessee was actually staunchly pro-Union, the situation changed when Fort Sumter was bombarded and Lincoln made the call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion. Tennesseans saw this as a threat to their brethren. In fact, Tennessee would furnish more troops for the Union than any other Confederate state, over three times that number volunteered for the Confederacy.
Interestingly, notable general Nathan Bedford Forrest voted against secession, most Tennesseans showed little enthusiasm for breaking away from a nation whose struggles it had shared for so long. In 1860, they had voted by a margin for the Constitutional Unionist John Bell. A vocal minority of Tennesseans spoke critically of the Northern states, the people of the South are preparing for their next highest duty– resistance to coercion or invasion, wrote the Nashville Daily Gazette on January 5,1861. A pro-secessionist proposal was made in the Memphis Appeal to build a fort at Randolph, Governor Isham G. Harris convened an emergency session of the Tennessee General Assembly in January 1861. Upon the well-defined constitutions rights of the Southern citizen and he identified numerous grievances with the Republican Party, blaming them for inducing slaves to run off by means of the Underground Railroad, John Browns raids, and high taxes on slave labor. Harris agreed with the idea of sovereignty, that only the people within a state can determine whether or not slavery could exist within the boundaries of that state.
Furthermore, he regarded laws passed by Congress that made U. S, Governor Harris proposed holding a State Convention. A series of resolutions were presented in the Tennessee House of Representatives by William H. Wisener against the proposal and he declared passing any law reorganizing and arming the state militia to be inexpedient. The centrality of the question of slavery to the movement was not doubted by people at the time of the Civil War. If you desire to wait until you are tied hand and foot vote for the men who advocate the watch and wait policy
California in the American Civil War
The State of California did not send its units east, but many citizens traveled east and joined the Union Army there, some of whom became famous. Californias Volunteers conducted operations against the native peoples within the state and in the other Western territories of the Departments of the Pacific. Following the Gold Rush, California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, Democrats dominated the state from its foundation. In the beginning of 1861, as the crisis began, the secessionists in San Francisco made an attempt to separate the state and Oregon from the union. Patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter, providing the manpower for Volunteer Regiments recruited mainly from the counties in the north of the State. When the Democratic party split over the war, Republican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state in the September elections, Volunteer Regiments were sent to occupy pro-secessionist Southern California and Tulare County, leaving them generally powerless during the war itself.
However some Southerners traveled east to join the Confederate Army, evading Union patrols, others remaining in the state attempted to outfit a privateer to prey on coastal shipping, and late in the war two groups of partisan rangers were formed but none was successful. When California was admitted as a state under the Compromise of 1850, as a result, Southerners in Congress voted against admission in 1850 while Northerners pushed it through, pointing to its population of 93,000 and its vast wealth in gold. Northern California, which was dominated by mining and commercial elites of San Francisco, in the 1856 presidential election, California gave its electoral votes to the winner, James Buchanan. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature, approved overwhelmingly by voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado and sent to Washington, D. C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However the secession crisis following the election of Lincoln in 1860 led to the proposal never coming to a vote.
In 1860 California gave a plurality of 38,733 votes to Abraham Lincoln, whose 32% of the total vote was enough to win all its electoral votes. During the secession crisis following Lincolns election, Federal troops were under the command of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, in Benicia, General Johnston strongly believed in the Southern right to secede but regretted that it was occurring. A group of Southern sympathizers in the state plans to secede with Oregon to form a Pacific Republic. The success of their plans rested on the cooperation of General Johnston and he told them to tell this to their Southern friends. Deprived of his aid the plans for California and Oregon to secede from the United States never came to fruition, Union men feared Johnston would aid such a plot and communicated their fears to Washington asking for his replacement. Brig. Gen. Edwin Vose Sumner was soon sent west via Panama to replace Johnston in March 1861, Johnston resigned his commission on April 9, and after Sumner arrived on April 25 turned over his command and moved with his family to Los Angeles.
He would soon travel with other Southerners across New Mexico Territory to Texas and he died at the Battle of Shiloh
Washington, D.C., in the American Civil War
Washington, D. C. during the American Civil War was a significant civilian leadership, military headquarters, and logistics center. As the capital of the United States, defending the city and the District of Columbia became a priority of the War Department. This set the stage for the expansion of the city throughout the latter half of the 19th century. Despite being the capital, Washington remained a small city of a few thousand residents, virtually deserted during the torrid summertime. In February 1861, the Peace Congress, an attempt by delegates from 21 of the 34 states to avert what many saw as the impending Civil War. The strenuous effort failed and the War started in April 1861, faced with an open rebellion that had turned hostile, President Abraham Lincoln began organizing a military force to protect Washington. The Confederates desired to make Washington their capital and massed to take it, on April 10 forces began to trickle into the city. On April 19, the Baltimore riot threatened the arrival of further reinforcements, led by Andrew Carnegie, a railroad was built circumventing Baltimore, allowing soldiers to arrive on April 25, thereby saving the capital.
Thousands of raw volunteers came to the area to fight for the Union, George Templeton Strongs observation of Washington life led him to declare Of all the detestable places Washington is first. Crowd, bad quarters, bad fair, bad smells, beelzebub surely reigns here, and Willards Hotel is his temple. The city became the area for what became the Manassas Campaign. Most Washington citizens embraced the arriving troops, although there were pockets of apathy, upon hearing a Union regiment singing John Browns Body as the soldiers marched beneath her window, resident Julia Ward Howe wrote the patriotic Battle Hymn of the Republic to the same tune. The 1860 Census put the population at just over 75,000 persons, supply depots, ammunition dumps, and factories were established to provide and distribute materiel for the Federal armies, and civilian workers and contractors flocked to the city. Slavery was abolished throughout the District on April 16,1862 — eight months before Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation — with the passage of the Compensated Emancipation Act.
Washington became a place for freed slaves to congregate. At the beginning of the war, Washingtons only defense was one old fort, when Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan assumed command of the Department of the Potomac on August 17,1861, he became responsible for the capitals defense. McClellan began by laying out lines for a ring of entrenchments. In between these batteries interconnected rifle pits were dug, allowing highly effective co-operative fire and this layout, once complete, would make the city one of the most heavily defended locations in the world, and almost unassailable by nearly any number of men
Missouri in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries, only Virginia, Missouri was initially settled by Southerners traveling up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The compromise was that Maine would enter the Union as a state to balance Missouri. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state. The violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, and indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott and therefore that African-Americans could not initiate legal action in any court, even when they clearly had what would otherwise be a valid claim. The decision calmed the skirmishes between Missouri and Kansas partisans, but its publicity enraged abolitionists nationwide and contributed to the rhetoric that led to the Civil War.
In 1860, it took 25 days for a message to reach the Pacific coast from what was the westernmost railroad terminus at St. Joseph, the firm of Russell and Waddell proposed to do it in 10 days using a relay system of horses. The resulting Pony Express began operations on April 3,1860, Ulysses S. Grants first commission in the Civil War was to protect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, which delivered its mail. Scarcely a year after the ride from Missouri to San Francisco. By 1860, Missouris initial southern settlers had been supplanted with a more diversified non-slave-holding population, including former northerners, particularly German, the policy was first put forth in 1860 by outgoing Governor Robert Marcellus Stewart, who had Northern leanings. It was notionally reaffirmed by incoming Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, who had Southern leanings, however, stated in his inaugural address that in case of federal coercion of southern states, Missouri should support and defend her sister southern states.
A Constitutional Convention to discuss secession was convened with Sterling Price presiding, the delegates voted to stay in the Union and supported the neutrality position. At the time of the 1860 U. S. Census, Missouris total population was 1,182,012, most of the slaves lived in rural areas rather than cities. Of the 299,701 responses to Occupation,124,989 people listed Farmers and 39,396 listed Farm Laborers, the next highest categories were Laborers and Merchants. Less than half the population was listed as native-born. Those who had migrated from other states were predominantly from Kentucky, Virginia, Indiana,906,540 people were listed as born in the United States. Of the 160,541 foreign-born residents of Missouri, most came from the German states, England, France, in the election of 1860, Missouris newly elected governor was Claiborne Fox Jackson, a career politician and an ardent supporter of the South
Virginia in the American Civil War
The Commonwealth of Virginia was a prominent part of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. As a slave-holding state, it held a convention to deal with the secession crisis. Opinion shifted after 15 April, when U. S, in May, it was decided to move the Confederate capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, in part because the defense of Virginias capital was deemed vital to the Confederacys survival. On 24 May, the U. S. Army moved into northern Virginia, the successes of Robert E. Lee in defending Richmond is a central theme of the military history of the war. The White House of the Confederacy, located a few north of the State Capitol, was home to the family of Confederate leader Jefferson Davis. On October 16,1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a group of 22 men in a raid on the Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, U. S. troops, led by Robert E. Lee and quelled the raid. Subsequently, John Brown was tried and executed by hanging in Charles Town on December 2,1859, breckinridge as their party candidate for President.
When Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected as U. S. president, while a majority of the state would look for compromises to the sectional differences, most people opposed any restrictions on slaveholders rights. As the state watched to see what South Carolina would do, many Unionists felt that the greatest danger to the state came not from the North but from rash secession by the lower South. On November 15,1860 Virginia Governor John Letcher called for a session of the Virginia General Assembly to consider, among other issues. The legislature convened on January 7 and approved the convention on January 14, the election of convention delegates drew 145,700 voters who elected, by county,152 representatives. Thirty of these delegates were secessionists, thirty were unionists, advocates of immediate secession were clearly outnumbered. Simultaneous to this election, six slave states formed the Confederate States on February 4. According to one Virginian teacher, William M, one of the conventions first actions was to create a 21-member Federal Relations Committee charged with reaching a compromise to the sectional differences as they affected Virginia.
The committee was made up of 4 secessionists,10 moderates and 7 unionists, at first there was no urgency to the conventions deliberations as all sides felt that time only aided their cause. With the failure of the Peace Conference at the end of February, Unionist support by many was further eroded for many Virginians by Lincolns March 4 First Inaugural address which they felt was argumentative, if not defiant. Throughout the state there was evidence that support for secession was growing, the fourteen proposals defended both slavery and states rights while calling for a meeting of the eight slave states still in the Union to present a united front for compromise. From March 15 through April 14 the convention debated these proposals one by one, during the debate on the resolutions, the sixth resolution calling for a peaceful solution and maintenance of the Union came up for discussion on April 4
Georgia in the American Civil War
Georgia was one of the original seven slave states that formed the Confederate States in February 1861, triggering the U. S. Civil War. There was not much fighting in Georgia until September 1863, when Confederates under Braxton Bragg defeated William S. Rosecrans at Chickamauga Creek. In May 1864, William T. Sherman started pursuing the Confederates towards Atlanta and this six-week campaign destroyed much of the civilian infrastructure of Georgia, decisively shortening the war. When news of the march reached Robert E. Lees army in Virginia, whole Georgian regiments deserted, the Battle of Columbus, fought on the Georgia-Alabama border on April 16,1865, is reckoned by some criteria to have been the last battle of the war. The ordinance cited the views of U. S. William L, contemporary Georgian religious leaders supported slavery. Governor Joseph E. Brown was a leading secessionist and led efforts to remove the state from the Union, a firm believer in states rights, he defied the Confederate governments wartime policies.
He resisted the Confederate military draft and tried to keep as many soldiers at home as possible to fight invading forces, Brown challenged Confederate impressment of animals and slaves. Several other governors followed his lead, during the war, Georgia sent nearly 100,000 men to battle for the Confederacy, mostly to the Virginian armies. Despite secession, many southerners in North Georgia remained loyal to the Union, approximately 5,000 Georgians served in the U. S. Army in units such as the 1st Georgia Infantry Battalion, the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, and a number of East Tennessean regiments. Georgias Rabun County in particular, which did not declare secession from the Union, was highly Unionist, the dividing lines were often not as clear as they are sometimes viewed in Rabun county during this period. In A Separate Civil War, Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South, within these two counties and Confederate leaning factions fought brutally directly within the home front between 1861 and 1865.
The Madden Branch Massacre in Fannin county was one of several atrocities that occurred as the mountain counties divided into pro and anti-Confederate factions. On November 29,1864, six Georgians trying to enlist in the U. S. Army - Thomas Bell, Harvey Brewster, James T. Hughes, James B. Nelson, Elijah Robinson, Peter Parris, and Wyatt J. Parton - were executed by the notorious Confederate guerilla John P. Gatewood, the long-haired, red-bearded beast from Georgia. While concentrated in the mountains and large cities, Unionism in Georgia was not confined to those areas, by summer 1861, the Union naval blockade virtually shut down the export of cotton and the import of manufactured items. Food that normally came by rail from the Northern states were halted, the governor and legislature pleaded with planters to grow less cotton and more food. The planters refused because at first, they thought the Union would not or could not fight, the planters saw cotton prices in Europe soared and they expected Europe to soon intervene and break the blockade.
The legislature imposed cotton quotas and made it a crime to grow an excess, in more than a dozen instances across the state, poor white women raided stores and captured supply wagons to get such necessities as bacon, corn and cotton yarn
Kentucky in the American Civil War
Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln recognized the importance of the Commonwealth when he declared I hope to have God on my side, in a September 1861 letter to Orville Browning, Lincoln wrote, I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor Maryland and these all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capitol, being a border state, was among the chief places where the Brother against brother scenario was prevalent. After early 1862 Kentucky came largely under Union control, Kentucky was the site of several fierce battles, including Mill Springs and Perryville. Forrest proved to be a scourge to the Union Army in western Kentucky, kentuckian John Hunt Morgan further challenged Union control, as he conducted numerous cavalry raids through the state. Kentucky was the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, his wife Mary Todd, Kentuckys citizens were split regarding the issues central to the Civil War.
In 1860, slaves composed 19. 5% of the Commonwealths population, the ancestors of many Kentuckians hailed from Southern states like Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, but many Kentucky children were beginning to migrate toward the North. Kentucky, along with North Carolina, boasted the best educational systems in the South, the Commonwealth had produced some of the countrys best known leaders. Breckinridge and Richard M. Johnson both hailed from the state, as did Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden, U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, however, by the time of the Civil War, Kentucky was in a politically confused state. The decline of the Whig Party, which Clay had founded, had left many politicians looking for an identity. Many joined the Democratic Party, a few joined the newly formed Republican Party, the party was composed mainly of former Whigs and Know-Nothings. Kentucky was strategically important to both the North and South, the Commonwealth ranked ninth in population by 1860, and was a major producer of such agricultural commodities as tobacco, wheat and flax.
Geographically, Kentucky was important to the South because the Ohio River would provide a boundary along the entire length of the state. Kentucky governor Beriah Magoffin believed that the rights of the Southern states had been violated and favored the right of secession, Magoffin proposed a conference of slave states, followed by a conference of all the states to secure these concessions. Due to the pace of events, neither conference was ever held. Magoffin called a session of the Kentucky General Assembly on December 27,1860. The majority of the General Assembly had Unionist sympathies, when the General Assembly convened again on March 20, it called for a convention of the border states in the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on May 27,1861
Utah in the American Civil War
Although no battles were fought in the territory, the withdrawal of Union forces at the beginning of the war allowed the Indian tribes to start raiding the trails passing through Utah. As a result, units from California and Utah were assigned to protect against these raids, mineral deposits found in Utah by California soldiers encouraged the immigration of non-Mormon settlers into Utah. However, the void in military presence allowed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to regain control over the territory, although the Mormons were the majority of settlers in the Great Salt Lake basin, the western area of the territory began to attract many non-Mormon settlers. Partly as a result of this, in March the Nevada Territory was created out of the part of the territory. Earlier in the year, a portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory. In October 1861, the First Transcontinental Telegraph was completed, with Salt Lake City being the last link, Mormon leader Brigham Young was among the first to send a message, along with President Lincoln and other officials.
In 1862, with the ranks of the Union army swelled by more than 100,000 volunteers, in addition, it was important to protect the overland mail route and telegraph lines along what became known as the California Trail. Col. Patrick E. Connor marched into Utah with a regiment of California volunteers and his soldiers, of the 3rd California Infantry, constructed a small garrison just three miles east of the Mormon stronghold of Salt Lake City. The post, named Camp Douglas for former Illinois presidential candidate, Connor at once engaged in an acrimonious and bitter cold war with Brigham Young and the Mormon people, whom he accused of being disloyal and immoral. During the rest of the war, the served as the headquarters of the District of Utah in the Department of the Pacific. The District of Utah was organized on August 1, covering the territories of Utah and Nevada, one incident in particular involving miners from Montana traveling through Cache Valley was enough to justify an expedition to investigate the situation further.
Eager for combat, Connor marched his regiment 140 miles over the winter landscape to deal with the Indians. On January 29,1863, Connors troops encountered the Shoshoni encampment along the Bear River and his men massacred the Indian encampment and marched back to Utah. Connor encouraged his men to explore the Utah region for mineral deposits and his men discovered gold, silver and zinc deposits in Tooele County in 1864. As Connor hoped, miners began to flock to the territory, the Rush Valley Mining District was established by soldiers in the western Oquirrh Mountains and more than 100 claims were staked in the first year. Before the Civil War, John F. Kinney had been named as Chief Justice of the Territory of Utah by President Buchanan and he served from June 26,1860, until March 1863. Kinney was elected as the Territory of Utahs Democratic delegate to the 38th Congress, in 1861, President Lincoln had appointed James Duane Doty to the position of Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Utah Territory.
In 1863, Utahs territorial governor, Stephen Harding, was removed from office after public backlash from his criticism of the LDS Church, Lincoln appointed Doty to the governorship shortly thereafter
Florida in the American Civil War
Florida joined the Confederate States of America at the beginning of the Civil War, as third of the original seven states to secede from the Union, following Lincolns 1860 election. With the smallest population, nearly half of them slaves, Florida could only send 15,000 troops to the Confederate States Army and its chief importance was in food-supply to the south, and support for blockade-runners, with its long coastline full of inlets, hard to patrol. On the outbreak of war, the Confederates seized many of the army camps. There was little fighting in Florida, the major conflict being the Battle of Olustee near Lake City in February 1864. However, wartime conditions made it easier for slaves to escape, as southern morale suffered, deserters from both sides took refuge in Florida, often attacking Confederate units and looting farms. Tallahassee became the second-last Confederate state capital to fall to the Union army, in May 1865, Federal control was re-established, slavery abolished, and the state governor John Milton shot himself, rather than submit to Union occupation.
Secession was declared January 10,1861, after less than a month, the first six states to secede had the largest population of slaves among the Southern states. Although the vote to secede passed 62-7, there was a pro-Union and anti-Confederate minority in the state, Florida sent a three-man delegation to the 1861-62 Provisional Confederate Congress, which first met in Montgomery, and in the new capital of Richmond, Virginia. The delegation consisted of Jackson Morton, James Byeram Owens, and James Patton Anderson, who resigned April 8,1861, Ward served from May 1861 until February 1862, when he resigned and was replaced by John Pease Sanderson. Davis, protection of slavery was the reason for Floridas declaring of secession. As Florida was an important supply route for the Confederate army, Union troops occupied major ports such as Cedar Key, Key West, and Pensacola early in the war. Governor John Milton, an ardent secessionist, throughout the war stressed the importance of Florida as a supplier of goods, Florida was a large provider of food and salt for the Confederate Army.
The 8, 436-mile coastline and 11,000 miles of rivers and waterways proved a haven for blockade runners, the states small population, relatively remote location, and meager industry limited its overall strategic importance. Milton worked to strengthen the state militia and to improve fortifications, since neither army aggressively sought control of Florida, many of Floridas troops were sent to serve in Virginia in the Army of Northern Virginia under Brig. Gen. Edward A. Perry and Col. David Lang. The Florida Brigade fought in many of Robert E. Lees campaigns and it sent them to the Western Theater for the remainder of the war. The only Confederate forces remaining in Florida at that time were a variety of independent companies, several battalions. They were reinforced in 1864 by troops from neighboring Georgia, by 1840 the Anglo-American population became the majority among people of European descent, influencing the development of the culture. It became more racist and based on a division of white and non-white, into which latter group the Muscogee
Maryland in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North. Lincolns suspension of habeas corpus in Maryland, and dismissal of the Supreme Court Chief Justices ruling that such suspension was unconstitutional, would leave lasting scars. Later, in July 1864, the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland in the third, across the state, nearly 85,000 citizens signed up for the military, with most joining the Union Army. Approximately one third as many enlisted to fight for the Confederacy, the end of the war would bring the abolition of slavery in Maryland, with a new constitution voted in 1864 by a small majority. Animosity against Lincoln would remain, and Marylander John Wilkes Booth would assassinate President Lincoln in April 1865, Maryland, as a slave-holding border state, was deeply divided over the antebellum arguments over states rights and the future of slavery in the Union. Culturally and economically, Maryland found herself neither one thing nor another, in the lead up to the American Civil War, it became clear that the state was bitterly divided in its sympathies.
In the presidential election of 1860 Lincoln won just 2,294 votes out of a total of 92,421, only 2. 5% of the votes cast, in seven counties, Lincoln received not a single vote. Not all blacks in Maryland were slaves, the 1860 Federal Census showed there were nearly as many free blacks as slaves in Maryland. However, across the state, sympathies were mixed, many Marylanders were simply pragmatic, recognising that the states long border with pro-Union Pennsylvania would be almost impossible to defend in the event of war. Maryland businessmen feared the loss of trade that would be caused by war. After John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, many citizens began forming local militias, the first bloodshed of the Civil War occurred in Maryland. Panicked by the situation, several soldiers fired into the mob, whether accidentally, in a desultory manner, chaos ensued as a giant brawl began between fleeing soldiers, the violent mob, and the Baltimore police who tried to suppress the violence. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed in the riot, the disorder inspired James Ryder Randall, a Marylander living in Louisiana, to write a poem which would be put to music and, in 1939, become the state song, Maryland, My Maryland.
The songs lyrics urged Marylanders to spurn the Northern scum and burst the tyrants chain - in other words, Confederate States Army bands would play the song after they crossed into Maryland territory during the Maryland Campaign in 1862. After the April 19 rioting, skirmishes continued in Baltimore for the next month, Mayor George William Brown and Maryland Governor Thomas Hicks implored President Lincoln to reroute troops around Baltimore city and through Annapolis to avoid further confrontations. In a letter to President Lincoln, Mayor Brown wrote, It is my duty to inform you that it is not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore unless they fight their way at every step. I therefore hope and trust and most earnestly request that no more troops be permitted or ordered by the Government to pass through the city, if they should attempt it, the responsibility for the bloodshed will not rest upon me. The destruction was accomplished the next day, one of the men involved in this destruction would be arrested for it in May without recourse to habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman ruling
Arkansas in the American Civil War
Arkansas had initially voted to remain in the Union. Arkansas raised 48 infantry regiments for the Confederacy, mostly serving in the Western theatre, Major General Patrick Cleburne was the states most notable military leader. The state raised some Union regiments, though these were used for local anti-guerrilla patrols. The Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862 ensured Union control of Northern Arkansas, programs such as the draft, high taxes, and martial law led to a decline in enthusiasm for the Confederate cause. The state was readmitted to the Union in 1868, the slave state of Arkansas was a part of the Confederate States during the American Civil War, and provided a source of troops and military and political leaders. Arkansas had become the 25th state of the United States, on June 15,1836, antebellum Arkansas was still a wilderness in most areas and sparsely populated. As a result, it did not have military significance when states began declaring secession from the Union. State Militia forces seized the Federal Arsenal in Little Rock before Arkansas actually voted to secede, the small Federal garrison was forced to evacuate after a demand by Arkansas Governor Rector that the arsenal be turned over to state authority.
At the beginning of 1861, the population of Arkansas, like states of the Upper South, was not keen to secede on average. This was shown by the results of state referendum in February 1861. The referendum passed, but the majority of the elected were conditional unionist in sympathy. This changed after the Confederacy attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the move toward open war shifted public opinion into the secessionist camp. Arkansas declared its secession from the Union on May 6,1861, at the Arkansas secession convention in March 1861, Henry M. They stated that hostility to the institution of African slavery from the states was the primary reason why the state was declaring that it had seceded from the United States. It stated that the states support for equality with negroes. Arkansas formed some 48 infantry regiments for the Confederate Army in addition to numerous cavalry and artillery units to serve as part of the Confederate Army. The 1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles, and the 1st, 4th, one infantry regiment, the 3rd Arkansas, served in the East for the duration of the war, thus making it the states most celebrated Confederate military unit.
Though it was with the Confederacy that Arkansas sided as a state, none of those saw any heavy combat actions, and few took part in any major battles