Category:American anthropology writers
Pages in category "American anthropology writers"
The following 40 pages are in this category, out of 40 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 40 pages are in this category, out of 40 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. David Crockett Graham – From 1932 to 1942 he was curator of the Museum of Art, Archeology and Ethnology at the West China Union University, which still stands as part of Sichuan University, in Chengtu. There, he taught comparative religions at the Theological College, and he wrote extensively and spent his retirement years, from 1950 to 1961, in Englewood, Colorado compiling his writings and research into three books that were published by the Smithsonian Institution. Graham was born in Green Forest, Arkansas on March 21,1884 to William Edward Graham and his family moved to Walla Walla, Washington when he was a small child, and he grew up there. When he was 4 years old, his mother died of TB, and his older sister Elmina Elizabeth Graham, Elmina was a strong believer in education and supported David through his education. Graham entered Whitman College in 1904 and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1908 and he then entered Rochester Theological Seminary where he studied under and was influenced by Walter Rauschenbusch. He completed his studies for the Bachelor of Divinity in 1911, Graham was ordained at the First Baptist Church in Fairport, New York, joined the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, and sailed for China in September 1911 with his wife Alicia Morey Graham. He spent the next 37 years in China with periodic returns to the U. S. on furlough to further his education, on his return from 1918 to 1919, he entered the School of Divinity at the University of Chicago and completed a Master of Arts. His thesis reflected his growing interest in the Chinese and their religions and was influenced by Eustace Haydon who was head of the Department of Comparative Religions and it was also during this trip that he began correspondence with, and then visited, the United States National Museum. There he received training and made arrangements to collect natural history specimens for them, Graham returned to the U. S. again from 1926 to 1927 to complete a Ph. D. at the University of Chicago. This time his dissertation reflected his research and studies in China and was subsequently published by the Smithsonian Institution. Graham returned to the U. S. again at the end of 1930 and he spent 1931 studying archeology with Fay-Cooper Cole at the University of Chicago and in the same year received an honorary Doctor of Science from Whitman College. He then went on to Harvard University where he studied anthropology and archaeology theory under Alfred Tozzer, on his return to China in September,1932, Graham moved from Suifu to Chengtu and joined the faculty of the West China Union University. There he taught anthropology and archaeology and served as curator of the Museum of Archaeology, Art and he also taught comparative religions at the Theological Seminary. It is neither possible nor appropriate to all of Chinese history here. The years that Graham was in China, 1911-1948, were marked by instability, Szechwan Province in West China was remote from the central government, and required a two-month trip up the Yangtze River to reach Suifu. The Western Provinces were ruled by warlords and were rife with bandits in the countryside, there were revolts in the West when Yuan Shikai declared himself emperor in 1915, and Yunnan Province invaded Szechwan. Suifu is on the Yangtze river near the border of Yunnan and was occupied by Yunnan troops, throughout most of this period of time, there were conflicts with the Japanese. The Japanese declared war on Germany early in World War I and had a contingent in Versailles to participate in treaty negotiations
2. Margaret Mead – Margaret Mead was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelors degree at Barnard College in New York City and her M. A. Mead was a respected and often controversial academic who popularized the insights of anthropology in modern American and Western culture. Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution and she was a proponent of broadening sexual mores within a context of traditional Western religious life. Margaret Mead, the first of five children, was born in Philadelphia and her father, Edward Sherwood Mead, was a professor of finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and her mother, Emily Mead, was a sociologist who studied Italian immigrants. Her sister Katharine died at the age of nine months and this was a traumatic event for Mead, who had named the girl, and thoughts of her lost sister permeated her daydreams for many years. Her family moved frequently, so her early education was directed by her Grandmother until, at age 11, she was enrolled by her family at Buckingham Friends School in Lahaska and her family owned the Longland farm from 1912 to 1926. Born into a family of various religious outlooks, she searched for a form of religion that gave an expression of the faith that she had been acquainted with. In doing so, she found the rituals of the Episcopal Church to fit the expression of religion she was seeking, Margaret studied one year,1919, at DePauw University, then transferred to Barnard College where she earned her bachelors degree in 1923. She studied with professor Franz Boas and Dr. Ruth Benedict at Columbia University before earning her masters degree in 1924, Mead set out in 1925 to do fieldwork in Samoa. In 1926, she joined the American Museum of Natural History, New York City and she received her Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1929. Before departing for Samoa, Mead had an affair with the linguist Edward Sapir. But Sapirs conservative ideas about marriage and the role were anathema to Mead. Mead received news of Sapirs remarriage while living in Samoa, where, on a beach and her first husband was American Luther Cressman, a theology student at the time who eventually became an anthropologist. Mead dismissively characterized their union as my student marriage in Blackberry Winter and her second husband was New Zealander Reo Fortune, a Cambridge graduate and fellow anthropologist. Meads third and longest-lasting marriage was to the British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson and she readily acknowledged that Gregory Bateson was the husband she loved the most. She was devastated when he left her, and she remained his friend ever after, keeping his photograph by her bedside wherever she traveled. Mead also had a close relationship with Ruth Benedict, one of her instructors. In her memoir about her parents, With a Daughters Eye, Mead never openly identified herself as lesbian or bisexual
3. Ruth Behar – Ruth Behar is a Cuban-American anthropologist and writer. Her work includes studies, as well as poetry, memoir. As an anthropologist, she has argued for the adoption and acknowledgement of the subjective nature of research. Behar was born in Havana, Cuba in 1956 to a Jewish-Cuban family of Sephardic Turkish and she was four when her family immigrated to the US following Fidel Castros gaining power in the revolution of 1959. More than 94% of Cuban Jews left the country at that time, together with many others of the middle and upper classes. Behar attended local schools and studied as an undergraduate at Wesleyan University and she studied cultural anthropology at Princeton University, earning her doctorate in 1983. She travels regularly to Cuba and Mexico to study aspects of culture and she has specialized in studying the lives of women in developing societies. Since 1991 her research and writing have focused on her native country, Cuba. Her research on the dwindling Jewish community in Cuba is also the focus of her film and it featured camera work and editing by her son Gabriel Frye-Behar. Behar is a professor at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and her literary work is featured in the Michigan State Universitys Michigan Writers Series. A writer of anthropology, essays, poetry and fiction, Behar focuses on issues related to women and her personal life experiences as a Jewish Cuban-American woman are frequently an important part of her writing. Her dissertation, based on her first fieldwork in northern Spain and her second book, Translated Woman, was based on ten years of fieldwork in a rural town in Mexico. Her book, The Vulnerable Observer, Anthropology That Breaks Your Heart, examines the role that the personal can play in ethnographic writing and generated controversy. Jewish Cuba is the topic of her book, An Island Called Home, Returning to Jewish Cuba, as well as her latest book, Traveling Heavy, A Memoir in between Journeys. Traveling Heavy is a memoir about her Cuban-American family, descended from both Askenazi and Sephardic Jews in Cuba, as well as the strangers who ease her journey in life and her probings about her complicated Jewish Cuban ancestry and family’s immigration to America explore issues about identity and belonging. Kirkus Reviews described her book as A heartfelt witness to the political and emotional landscape of the Cuban-American experience. ”An Island Called Home was written in Behars quest for a better understanding of Jewish Cuba. She noted, “I knew the stories of the Jews in Cuba, Traveling the island, Behar becomes the confidante to a host of Jewish strangers, building connections for further anthropological research. Conducting one-on-one interviews, combined with photography, she builds readers an image of the diasporic thread connecting Cuban Jews to one another
4. Loren Eiseley – Loren Eiseley was an American anthropologist, educator, philosopher, and natural science writer, who taught and published books from the 1950s through the 1970s. He received many honorary degrees and was a fellow of multiple professional societies, at his death, he was Benjamin Franklin Professor of Anthropology and History of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. He was a “scholar and writer of imagination and grace, ” whose reputation, publishers Weekly referred to him as the modern Thoreau. The broad scope of his writing reflected upon such topics as the mind of Sir Francis Bacon, the prehistoric origins of man. Eiseley’s reputation was established primarily through his books, including The Immense Journey, Darwins Century, The Unexpected Universe, The Night Country, but a continuation of what the 18th and 19th century British naturalists and Thoreau had done. In praise of The Unexpected Universe, Ray Bradbury remarked, is every writers writer, and every humans human. One of us, yet most uncommon. ”Shortly before his death he received an award from the Boston Museum of Science for his contribution to the public understanding of science”. Humane Society for his “significant contribution for the improvement of life and environment in this country. ”Born in Lincoln, Nebraska, Eiseley lived his childhood with a hardworking father and deaf mother who may have suffered from mental illness. His autobiography, All the Strange Hours, begins with his experiences as a sickly afterthought. His father, Clyde, was a salesman who worked long hours for little pay. However, as an amateur Shakespearean actor, he was able to give his son a love for beautiful language and his mother, Daisey Corey, was a self-taught prairie artist who was considered a beautiful woman. She lost her hearing as a child and sometimes exhibited irrational and this left Eiseley feeling distant from her and may have contributed to his parents unhappy marriage. Living at the edge of town, however, led to Eiseleys early interest in the natural world, There, he would play in the caves and creek banks nearby. Fortunately, there were others who opened the door to a happier life and his half-brother, Leo, for instance, gave him a copy of Robinson Crusoe, with which he taught himself to read. Thereafter, he managed to find ways to get to the public library, Eiseley later attended the Lincoln Public Schools, in high school, he wrote that he wanted to be a nature writer. But, disturbed by his situation and the illness and recent death of his father, he dropped out of school. Eiseley enrolled in the University of Nebraska, where he wrote for the newly formed journal, Prairie Schooner, in 1927, however, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and left the university to move to the western desert, believing the drier air would improve his condition. While there, he became restless and unhappy, which led him to hoboing around the country by hopping on freight trains
5. Kristen R. Ghodsee – She was critical of the role of Western feminist nongovernmental organizations doing work among East European women in the 1990s. She examined the gender relations of Muslim minorities after communism. Ghodsee received her B. A. from the University of California at Santa Cruz and her Ph. D. from the University of California, in 2012, she was elected president of the Society for Humanistic Anthropology. In 2004, Ghodsee published one of the first articles considering the gendered aspects of the nostalgia for the communist era in Eastern Europe. In contrast, her concept of red nostalgia considered how individual men and women experienced the loss of the material benefits of the socialist past. Rather than just a glance back at a lost youth, red nostalgia formed the basis of an emerging critique of the political. More recently, Ghodsee has explored the politics of memory about communism, World War II. Inspired by the work of Clifford Geertz and the conventions of “thick description”, she is a proponent of “literary ethnography. ”This genre uses narrative tension, dialogue and lyrical prose in the presentation of ethnographic data. Outside of academia, however, one claimed that Lost in Transition is very easy to read and is, in fact, impossible to put down. Ghodsee also won the from the Society for Humanistic Anthropology for the short story Tito Trivia, included in her book, Lost in Transition, Ethnographies of Everyday Life After Communism. ”In 2012, she won a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship for her work in anthropology and cultural studies. Ghodsee’s scholarly work on gender and everyday life during and after socialism has drawn criticism from both Western feminists and communists, Kristen Ghodsee, The Left Side of History, World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe, Durham, Duke University Press,2015. ISBN 978-0822358350 Kristen Ghodsee, Lost in Transition, Ethnographies of Everyday Life After Communism, Durham, ISBN 978-0822351023 Kristen Ghodsee, Muslim Lives in Eastern Europe, Gender, Ethnicity and the Transformation of Islam in Postsocialist Bulgaria. ISBN 978-0691139555 Kristen Ghodsee, The Red Riviera, Gender, Tourism and Postsocialism on the Black Sea, Durham, ISBN 978-0822336624 Rachel Connelly and Kristen Ghodsee, Professor Mommy, Finding Work/Family Balance in Academia, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.2011. ISBN 978-1442208582 Pressuring the Politburo, The Committee of the Bulgarian Womens Movement and State Socialist Feminism, Slavic Review, Volume 73, Number 2, on feminism, philosophy and politics in Post-communist Romania, An interview with Mihaela Miroiu. 5, 6-27 Revisiting the United Nations decade for women, Brief reflections on feminism, capitalism, Womens Studies International Forum, special issue, Compliance Without Commitment. The EUs Gender Equality Agenda in the Central and Eastern Europe States, minarets after Marx, Islam, Communist Nostalgia, and the Common Good in Postsocialist Bulgaria. Communism, Womens Emancipation, and Economic Transformation in Bulgaria, LHomme, Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft, and if the Shoe Doesnt Fit. Η αριστερή πλευρά της ιστορίας, Η κληρονομιά που άφησε η Elena Lagadinova της Βουλγαρίας
6. Caroline Furness Jayne – Caroline Furness Jayne was an American ethnologist. She wrote the book on string figures, String Figures and How to Make Them. Her brother, William Henry Furness III, received his M. D. from the university and was an extensive traveler. Her string figure mentor was Alfred Haddon, a Cambridge ethnologist who began the introduction to her book by noting that in ethnology, nothing is too insignificant to receive attention. He then goes on to defend the research invested in the amusement of string figures. It included figures illustrating every game and 16 portraits of players, the Jaynes lived in Philadelphia in a city house at 19th & Delancey Sts. designed by her uncle, the architect Frank Furness. List of string figures Caroline Furness Jayne Tiffany stained glass image of C. F. Jayne at the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia Coates, in Memory of Caroline Furness Jayne
7. Donald Johanson – Donald Carl Johanson is an American paleoanthropologist. He is known for discovering - with Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb - the fossil of a female hominin australopithecine known as Lucy in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Johanson was born in Chicago, Illinois to Swedish parents, and is the nephew of wrestler Ivar Johansson. He earned a degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1966. At the time of the discovery of Lucy, he was a professor of anthropology at Case Western Reserve University. In 1981, he established the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley, Johanson holds an honorary doctorate from Case Western Reserve University, and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Westfield State College in 2008. Forty percent of the skeleton was recovered, and was later described as the first known member of Australopithecus afarensis. Johanson was astonished to find so much of her skeleton all at once, pamela Alderman, a member of the expedition, suggested she be named Lucy after the Beatles song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds which was played repeatedly during the night of the discovery. A bipedal hominin, Lucy stood about three and a half tall, her bipedalism supported Raymond Darts theory that australopithecines walked upright. Johanson and his team concluded from Lucys rib that she ate a plant-based diet and they did not immediately see Lucy as a separate species, but considered her an older member of Australopithecus africanus. The discovery, however, of several more skulls of similar morphology persuaded most palaeontologists to classify her as a species called afarensis. Johanson and Maitland A. Edey won a 1982 U. S. National Book Award in Science for the first popular book about this work, Lucy, The Beginnings of Humankind. AL333, commonly referred to as the First Family, is a collection of prehistoric hominin teeth, generally thought to be members of the species Australopithecus afarensis, the fossils are estimated to be about 3.2 million years old. In 1991, the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry awarded Johanson their highest honor, Johanson accepted the Emperor Has No Clothes award at the Freedom From Religion Foundation 37th annual convention on October 24,2014. Lucys Child, The Discovery of a Human Ancestor, ecce Homo, Writings in Honour of Third Millennium Man. Lucys Legacy, The Quest for Human Origins, - Academy of Achievement In Search of Human Origins - PBS Lucys Legacy, The Quest for Human Origins - Video NPR. Human Origins - May 9,1997 interview with Johanson, Lucys Relative - December 1,2006 interview with Johanson. Lucys Legacy - March 6,2009 interview with Johanson, Origins of Modern Humans, Multiregional or Out of Africa
8. Elsie Clews Parsons – Elsie Worthington Clews Parsons was an American anthropologist, sociologist, folklorist, and feminist who studied Native American tribes—such as the Tewa and Hopi—in Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico. She helped found The New School and she earned her bachelors degree from Barnard College in 1896. She received her master’s degree and Ph. D. from Columbia University, every other year, the American Ethnological Society awards the Elsie Clews Parsons Prize for the best graduate student essay, in her honor. Parsons was the daughter of Henry Clews, a wealthy New York banker and her brother, Henry Clews, Jr. was an artist. On September 1,1900, in Newport, Rhode Island, she married future three-term progressive Republican congressman Herbert Parsons, when her husband was a member of Congress, she published two then-controversial books under the pseudonym John Main. She became interested in anthropology in 1910 and her work Pueblo Indian Religion is considered a classic, here she gathered all her previous extensive work and that of other authors. It is, however, marred by intrusive and deceptive research techniques, the Family Religious Chastity The Old-Fashioned Woman Fear and Conventionality Parsons, Elsie Clews. Folk-Lore of the Antilles, French and English Parsons, Elsie Clews, north American Indian Life, Customs and Traditions of 23 Tribes. Introductions by Ramon Gutierrez and Pauline Turner Strong, lincoln and London, University of Nebraska Press. Elsie Clews Parsons, Inventing Modern Life, a Womans Quest for Science, A Portrait of Anthropologist Elsie Clews Parsons. Wealth and Rebellion, Elsie Clews Parsons, Anthropologist and Folklorist, review of Desley Deacon, Elsie Clews Parsons, Inventing Modern Life, H-Women, H-Net Reviews, November,1998. Working Woman by Tanya Luhrmann, The New York Times
9. Ian Tattersall – Ian Tattersall is a British-born American paleoanthropologist and a curator emeritus with the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, New York. In addition to evolution, Tattersall has worked extensively with lemurs. Tattersall is currently working with The Templeton Foundation, Tattersall was born in 1945 in the United Kingdom, and grew up in eastern Africa. He trained in archaeology and anthropology at the University of Cambridge, Tattersall believed that existing literature was not an adequate resource for comparing human fossils because of the many terminological variations. As a result, Tattersall and research associate Jeffrey Schwartz set out to document major fossils in the fossil record. Tattersall maintains that the notion of evolution as a linear trudge from primitivism to perfection is incorrect. Whereas the Darwinian approach to evolution may be viewed as a fine-tuning of characteristics guided by natural selection, Tattersall claims that individual organisms are mind-bogglingly complex and integrated mechanisms, they succeed or fail as the sum of their parts, and not because of a particular characteristic. Yet as a result of experimentation, only one species has prospered and survived. One human species is now the only twig on what was once a big branching bush of different species and this idea differs from the typical view that homo sapiens is the pinnacle of an evolutionary ladder that humanitys ancestors laboriously climbed. Tattersall is also continuing his independent inquiries into the nature and emergence of human cognition. He serves on the Executive Board of the Institute of Human Origins, the Brain, Big Bangs, Behaviors, and Beliefs. Masters of the Planet, The Search for Our Human Origins, the Monkey in the Mirror, Essays on the Science of What Makes Us Human. Paleoanthropology, The Last Half-Century Evolutionary Anthropology 9, no, the Human Chin Revisited, What Is It and Who Has It. Journal of Human Evolution 38, 367-409, hominids and Hybrids, The Place of Neanderthals in Human Evolution. Tattersall & J. Schwartz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, becoming Human, Evolution and Human Uniqueness. The Last Neanderthal, The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relative, the Fossil Trail, How We Know What We Think We Know About Human Evolution. Ian Tattersall at the AMNH Ian Tattersall at Citizendium