Category:American modernist poets
Pages in category "American modernist poets"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. William Bronk – William Bronk was an American poet. For the 1981 collection Life Supports he won the National Book Award for Poetry, William Bronk was born in a house on Lower Main Street in Fort Edward, New York. He had a brother, Sherman, who died young. William attended Dartmouth College, arriving there at the age of 16, Bronk served in World War II first as a draftee but later, after attending OCS, as an officer. He was discharged from the Army in October 1945 and started teaching English at Union College, Schenectady and he left Union in June 1946 and returned to Hudson Falls. There, during the half of 1946, he completed work on The Brother in Elysium. In January 1947 Bronk took over management of the Bronk Coal, after his one semester of graduate school at Harvard, Bronk “decided I couldnt take any more of that. ”He taught English at Union College. After his father died in 1941, he decided to return to the business temporarily. He ended up staying more than 30 years and he retired from the business in 1978. Bronk said that the poems were created in his mind as he went through the business of the day, when one was ready, he put it on paper, working in longhand rather than at a typewriter. As his manuscripts attest, he rewrote, or even modified. William Bronk died Monday, February 22,1999, Poetry Light and Dark, Origin Press,1956, 2nd edition, Elizabeth Press,1975. The World, the Worldless, New Directions,1964, the Empty Hands, Elizabeth Press,1969. Utterances, The Loss of Grass, Trees, Water, The Unbecoming of Wanted and Wanter, to Praise the Music, Elizabeth Press,1972. Looking at It, Sceptre Press,1973, a Partial Glossary, Two Essays, Elizabeth Press,1974. Silence and Metaphor, Elizabeth Press,1975 and my Father Photographed with Friends and Other Pictures, Elizabeth Press,1976. That Beauty Still, Burning Deck,1978, Life Supports, New and Collected Poems, North Point Press,1981. —winner of the National Book Award Light in a Dark Sky, careless Love and Its Apostrophes, Red Ozier Press,1985
2. E. E. Cummings – Edward Estlin E. E. Cummings, often styled as e e cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, author, and playwright. He wrote approximately 2,900 poems, two novels, four plays and several essays. He is remembered as an eminent voice of 20th-Century English literature, Edward Estlin Cummings was born on October 14,1894, to Edward Cummings and Rebecca Haswell Clarke who were Unitarian. They were a family in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His father was a professor at Harvard University and later the nationally known minister of Old South Church in Boston and his mother, who loved to spend time with her children, played games with Cummings and his sister, Elizabeth. From an early age, Cummingss parents supported his creative gifts, Cummings wrote poems and also drew as a child, and he often played outdoors with the many other children who lived in his neighborhood. He also grew up in the company of family friends as the philosophers William James. He graduated from Harvard University in 1915 and then received a degree from Harvard in 1916. Many of Cummings summers were spent on Silver Lake in Madison, the family ultimately purchased the nearby Joy Farm where Cummings had his primary summer residence. He exhibited transcendental leanings his entire life, as he matured, Cummings moved to an I, Thou relationship with God. His journals are replete with references to le bon Dieu, as well as prayers for inspiration in his poetry, Cummings also prayed for strength to be his essential self, and for relief of spirit in times of depression. Cummings wanted to be a poet from childhood and wrote poetry daily aged 8 to 22 and he went to Harvard and developed an interest in modern poetry which ignored conventional grammar and syntax, aiming for a dynamic use of language. Upon graduating, he worked for a book dealer, in 1917, with the First World War ongoing in Europe, Cummings enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps, along with his college friend John Dos Passos. Due to an administrative mix-up, Cummings was not assigned to a unit for five weeks. He fell in love with the city, to which he would throughout his life. The two openly expressed anti-war views, Cummings spoke of his lack of hatred for the Germans. On September 21,1917, just five months after his assignment, he. They were held for 3½ months in a detention camp at the Dépôt de Triage, in La Ferté-Macé, Orne
3. Michael John Fles – Michael John Fles, known both as John Fles and Michael Fles, is an American poet, editor, musician and film personality. Professor David James referred to him as the single most important promoter of underground film in Los Angeles, Michael John Fles was born to a Dutch father, George Fles, and a British mother, Pearl Rimel. As conscious communists, his parents had moved to the Soviet Union, the mother, pregnant with Michael John, left the Soviet Union to give birth in London. Mother and son later emigrated to the United States, where Pearl Rimel found employment in the aircraft industry, Michael John grew up in Los Angeles and Ojai, California, where he graduated from the Ojai Valley School in 1951. Fles studied at the University of Chicago, but did not graduate, while a student, he became the managing editor of the Chicago Review. In 1959 Fles was involved in the founding of the literary magazine Big Table. In 1960 and 1961 he was a managing and contributing editor of Kulchur, during all these years he published his poetry far and wide. In 1963 he founded the Movies Round Midnight program with Mike Getz and he ran the program until 1965. From 1962 and into the 1980s he wrote over a dozen movie scripts, over the last several decades, Fles has been active as a musician and music therapist. 1960 - The Root, Kulchur 1960, 39-421961 - The Great Chicago Poetry Reading,1961 - Uncle Bill Burroughs Guided Tour, Naked Lunch, Swank 8,50. 1995 - Sound Wave Mirror, chapter 11 in Kenny CB, Listening, Playing, Creating, albany, New York, State University of New York Press. Sahaja musical video of Michael Fles by Shody Ryon
4. H.D. – Doolittle was an American poet, novelist, and memoirist known for her association with the early 20th century avant-garde Imagist group of poets such as Ezra Pound and Richard Aldington. She published under the pen name of H. D, H. D. was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1886 and moved to London in 1911, where her publications earned her a central role within the then emerging Imagist movement. A charismatic figure, she was championed by the modernist poet Ezra Pound, from 1916–17, she acted as the literary editor of the Egoist journal, while her poetry appeared in the English Review and the Transatlantic Review. During the First World War, H. D. suffered the death of her brother and the breakup of her marriage to the poet Richard Aldington, glenn Hughes, an authority on Imagism, wrote that her loneliness cries out from her poems. She had a deep interest in Ancient Greek literature, and her poetry often borrowed from Greek mythology and her work is noted for its incorporation of natural scenes and objects, which are often used to emote a particular feeling or mood. She befriended Sigmund Freud during the 1930s, and became his patient in order to understand, H. D. married once, and undertook a number of relationships with both men and women. H. D. was born into the Moravian community in Bethlehem and her father, Charles Doolittle, was professor of astronomy at Lehigh University and her mother, Helen, was a Moravian with a strong interest in music. H. D. was their only surviving daughter in a family of five sons, in 1896, Charles Doolittle was appointed Flower Professor of Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania, and the family moved to a house in Upper Darby. She attended Philadelphias Friends Central High School, at Fifteenth and Race streets, in 1901, she met and befriended Ezra Pound, who was to play a major role both in her private life and her emergence as a writer. In 1905, Pound presented her with a sheaf of poems under the collective title Hildas Book. That year, H. D. attended Bryn Mawr College to study Greek literature, while at the college, she met poets Marianne Moore and William Carlos Williams. Her first published writings, stories for children, were published in The Comrade, in 1907, she became engaged to Pound. Her father disapproved of Pound, and by the time Pound left for Europe in 1908, around this time, H. D. started a relationship with a young female art student at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Frances Josepha Gregg. After spending part of 1910 living in Greenwich Village, she sailed to Europe with Gregg, in Europe, H. D. began a more serious career as a writer. Her relationship with Gregg cooled, and she met a writing enthusiast named Brigit Patmore with whom she involved in an affair. Patmore introduced H. D. to another poet, Richard Aldington, soon after arriving in England, H. D. showed Pound some poems she had written. Pound had already begun to meet with other poets at the Eiffel Tower restaurant in Soho and he was impressed by the closeness of H. D. In summer 1912, the three poets declared themselves the three original Imagists, and set out their principles as, Direct treatment of the thing whether subjective or objective, to use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation
5. Marianne Moore – Marianne Craig Moore was an American Modernist poet, critic, translator, and editor. Her poetry is noted for innovation, precise diction, irony. Moore was born in Kirkwood, Missouri, in the manse of the Presbyterian church where her grandfather, John Riddle Warner. Her parents separated before she was born after her father, John Milton Moore and she and her older brother, John Warner Moore, were reared by their mother, Mary Warner Moore. The family wrote letters to one another throughout their lives, often addressing each other by playful nicknames. She thought it was not possible to live without religious faith, Moore lived in the St. Louis area until she was 16. In 1905, Moore entered Bryn Mawr College, and she graduated four years later with an A. B. having majored in history, economics, the poet H. D. was among her classmates during their freshman year. At Bryn Mawr, Moore started writing stories and poems for Tipyn OBob, the campus literary magazine. After graduation, she worked briefly at Melvil Dewey’s Lake Placid Club, Moores first professionally published poems appeared in The Egoist and Poetry in the spring of 1915. Harriet Monroe, the editor of the latter, would describe them in her biography as possessing an elliptically musical profundity, the innovative poems she was writing at that time received high praise from Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, H. D. T. S. Eliot, and later Wallace Stevens, Moores first book, Poems, was published in 1921 by the Imagist poet H. D. and her partner, the British novelist Bryher, without Moores permission. Moores later poetry shows some influence from the Imagists principles and her second book, Observations, won the Dial Award in 1924. She worked part-time as a librarian during these years, then from 1925 to 1929, she edited The Dial magazine, when The Dial ceased publication in 1929, she moved to 260 Cumberland Street in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, where she remained for thirty-six years. She continued to write while caring for her mother, who died in 1947. For nine years before and after her mother’s death, Moore translated the Fables of LaFontaine, in 1933, Moore was awarded the Helen Haire Levinson Prize by Poetry magazine. In 1951, her Collected Poems won the National Book Award, the Pulitzer Prize, and the Bollingen Prize. In the books introduction, T. S. Eliot wrote, after years of seclusion, she emerged as a celebrity, speaking at college campuses across the country and appearing in photo essays in Life and Look magazines. Moore became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1955 and she was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1962
6. Frank O'Hara – Francis Russell Frank OHara was an American writer, poet and art critic. Because of his employment as a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, OHaras poetry is personal in tone and in content and has been described as sounding like entries in a diary. OHaras writing sought to capture in his poetry the immediacy of life, the Collected Poems of Frank OHara edited by Donald Allen, the first of several posthumous collections, shared the 1972 National Book Award for Poetry. Frank OHara, the son of Russell Joseph OHara and Katherine, was born on March 27,1926, at Maryland General Hospital, Baltimore and grew up in Grafton and he attended St. Johns High School. He grew up believing he had born in June, but in fact had been born in March. He studied piano at the New England Conservatory in Boston from 1941 to 1944 and served in the South Pacific, with the funding made available to veterans he attended Harvard University, where artist and writer Edward Gorey was his roommate. OHara was heavily influenced by art and by contemporary music. His favorite poets were Pierre Reverdy, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Boris Pasternak, while at Harvard, OHara met John Ashbery and began publishing poems in the Harvard Advocate. Despite his love of music, OHara changed his major and graduated from Harvard in 1950 with a degree in English and he then attended graduate school at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. While at Michigan, he won a Hopwood Award and received his M. A. in English literature in 1951 and that autumn OHara moved into an apartment in New York City with Joe LeSueur, who would be his roommate and sometime lover for the next 11 years. It was during this time that he began teaching at The New School, known throughout his life for his extreme sociability, passion, and warmth, OHara had hundreds of friends and lovers throughout his life, many from the New York art and poetry worlds. Soon after arriving in New York, he was employed at the Museum of Modern Art, selling postcards at the admissions desk, and began to write seriously. OHara was active in the art world, working as a reviewer for Artnews and he was also a friend of the artists Willem de Kooning, Norman Bluhm, Larry Rivers and Joan Mitchell. In the early morning hours of July 24,1966, OHara was struck by a jeep on the Fire Island beach and he died the next day of a ruptured liver. OHara was buried in Green River Cemetery on Long Island, the painter Larry Rivers, a longtime friend and lover of OHaras, delivered one of the eulogies, along with Bill Berkson, Edwin Denby and René dHarnoncourt. While OHaras poetry is generally autobiographical, it tends to be based on his observations of New York life rather than exploring his past. In his introduction to The Collected Poems of Frank O’Hara, Donald Allen says that Frank O’Hara tended to think of his poems as a record of his life is apparent in much of his work. ”OHara discussed this aspect of his poetry in a statement for Donald Allens New American Poetry, What is happening to me, allowing for lies and exaggerations which I try to avoid, goes into my poems. Or each on specific occasions, or both all the time, immersed in regimented daily routine, first Catholic school then the Navy, he was able to separate himself from the situation and make witty and often singular studies
7. George Oppen – George Oppen was an American poet, best known as one of the members of the Objectivist group of poets. He abandoned poetry in the 1930s for political activism and later moved to Mexico to avoid the attentions of the House Un-American Activities Committee and he returned to poetry — and to the United States — in 1958, and received the Pulitzer Prize in 1969. Oppen was born in New Rochelle, New York into a Jewish family and his father, a successful diamond merchant, was George August Oppenheimer, his mother Elsie Rothfeld. His father changed the name to Oppen in 1927. But his mother committed suicide when he was four, his father remarried three years later and the boy and his stepmother, Seville Shainwald, apparently could not get along. Oppen developed a skill for sailing at an age and the seascapes around his childhood home left a mark on his later poetry. He was taught carpentry by the butler, Oppen, as an adult. In 1917, the moved to San Francisco where Oppen attended Warren Military Academy. It is speculated that during this time Oppens early traumas led to fighting and drinking, so that, while reaching maturity, by 1925, this period of personal and psychic transition culminated in a serious car wreck in which George was driver and a young passenger was killed. Ultimately, Oppen was expelled from school just before he graduated. After this period, he traveled to England and Scotland by himself, visiting his stepmothers relative, mace, professor in philosophy at St. Andrews. In 1926, Oppen started attending Oregon State Agricultural College, here he met Mary Colby, a fiercely independent young woman from Grants Pass, Oregon. On their first date, the couple stayed out all night with the result that she was expelled and they left Oregon, married, and started hitch-hiking across the country working at odd jobs along the way. Mary documents these events in her memoir, Meaning A Life, while living on the road, Oppen began writing poems and publishing in local magazines. In 1929 and 1930 he and Mary spent some time in New York, where they met Louis Zukofsky, Charles Reznikoff, musician Tibor Serly, in 1929, George came into a small inheritance and relative financial independence. The short-lived publishing venture managed to launch works by William Carlos Williams, Oppen had begun working on poems for what was to be his first book, Discrete Series, a seminal work in early Objectivist history. Some of these appeared in the February 1931 Objectivist issue of Poetry, in 1933, the Oppens returned to New York. George Oppen, William Carlos Williams, Louis Zukofsky and Charles Reznikoff set up the Objectivist Press, the press published books by Reznikoff and Williams, as well as Oppens first book Discrete Series, which included a preface by Ezra Pound
8. Ezra Pound – Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision and his best-known works include Ripostes, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. This included arranging for the publication in 1915 of Eliots The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in England and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism. Deemed unfit to stand trial, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, while in custody in Italy, Pound had begun work on sections of The Cantos. These were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, triggering enormous controversy. Largely due to a campaign by his writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958. Hemingway wrote, The best of Pounds writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature, Pound was born in a small, two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office, both parents ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mothers side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, the Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York. Harding Weston and Mary Parker were the parents of Isabel Weston, harding apparently spent most of his life without work, with his brother, Ezra Weston, and his brothers wife, Frances, looking after Mary and Isabels needs. On his fathers side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker, Ezras grandfather, Thaddeus Coleman Pound, was a Republican Congressman from northwest Wisconsin who had made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Thaddeuss son Homer, Pounds father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business, Homer and Isabel married the following year, and Homer built a home in Hailey. Isabel was unhappy in Hailey and took Ezra with her to New York in 1887, Homer followed them, and in 1889 he found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint. The family moved to Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, and in 1893 bought a house in Wyncote. Between 1897 and 1900 Pound attended Cheltenham Military Academy, sometimes as a boarder, the boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and besides Latin were taught English, history, arithmetic, marksmanship, military drilling and the importance of submitting to authority. After the academy he may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for one year and it was at Pennsylvania in 1901 that Pound met Hilda Doolittle, his first serious romance, according to Pound scholar Ira Nadel. In 1911 she followed Pound to London and became involved in developing the Imagism movement, Pound was seeing two other women at the same time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore—later dedicating a book of poetry, Personae, to the latter. He asked Moore to marry him too, but she turned him down and his parents and Frances Weston took Pound on another three-month European tour in 1902, after which he transferred, in 1903, to Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, possibly because of poor grades
9. Gertrude Stein – Gertrude Stein was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and raised in Oakland, California, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, in 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of her partner, Alice B. Toklas, an American-born member of the Parisian avant-garde, the book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention. Her books include Q. E. D. about a romantic affair involving several of Steins female friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a romantic affair, Three Lives. In Tender Buttons, Stein commented on lesbian sexuality and her activities during World War II have been the subject of analysis and commentary. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, some have argued that certain accounts of Steins wartime activities have amounted to a witch hunt. Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3,1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania to upper-middle-class Jewish parents, Daniel and her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home, when Stein was three years old, she and her family moved to Vienna, and then Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the sensibilities of European history. Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oaklands Sabbath school, during their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, and Stein built many memories of California there. She would often go on excursions with her brother, Leo, Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read often, Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Scott, Burns, Smollett, Fielding, and more. When Stein was 14 years old, her mother died, Three years later, her father died as well. Steins eldest brother, Michael Stein, then took over the family holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha. Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, who in 1877 had married Gertrudes maternal aunt, in Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would later emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it, Stein attended Radcliffe College, then an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner interpreted Steins difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism. In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of writing, here can be automatic movements
10. Wallace Stevens – Wallace Stevens was an American Modernist poet. He was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, educated at Harvard and then New York Law School and he won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his Collected Poems in 1955. The son of a lawyer, Stevens attended Harvard as a non-degree special student, after which he moved to New York City. He then attended New York Law School, graduating in 1903, on a trip back to Reading in 1904 Stevens met Elsie Viola Kachel, a young woman who had worked as a saleswoman, milliner, and stenographer. After a long courtship, he married her in 1909 over the objections of his parents, as The New York Times reported in an article in 2009, Nobody from his family attended the wedding, and Stevens never again visited or spoke to his parents during his father’s lifetime. A daughter, Holly, was born in 1924 and she later edited her fathers letters and a collection of his poems. In 1913, the Stevenses rented a New York City apartment from sculptor Adolph A. Weinman and her striking profile was later used on Weinmans 1916–1945 Mercury dime design and possibly for the head of the Walking Liberty Half Dollar. In later years Elsie Stevens began to exhibit symptoms of illness and the marriage suffered as a result. After working for several New York law firms from 1904 to 1907, he was hired on January 13,1908, by 1914 he had become the vice-president of the New York office of the Equitable Surety Company of St. Louis, Missouri. His first residence was located at 594 Prospect Avenue, but he remained there for one year. In 1917 Stevens and his moved to 210 Farmington Avenue where they remained for the next seven years. From 1924 to 1932 he resided at 735 Farmington Avenue, in 1932 he purchased a 1920s Colonial at 118 Westerly Terrace where he resided for the remainder of his life. By 1934, he had been named vice-president of the company, after he won the Pulitzer Prize in 1955, he was offered a faculty position at Harvard but declined since it would have required him to give up his vice-presidency of The Hartford. From 1922 to 1940, Stevens made numerous visits to Key West, Florida, where he lodged at the Casa Marina. He first visited in January 1922, while on a business trip, the place is a paradise, he wrote to Elsie, midsummer weather, the sky brilliantly clear and intensely blue, the sea blue and green beyond what you have ever seen. The influence of Key West upon Stevenss poetry is evident in many of the published in his first two collections, Harmonium and Ideas of Order. In February 1935, Stevens encountered the poet Robert Frost at the Casa Marina, the two men argued, and Frost reported that Stevens had been drunk and acted inappropriately. The following year, Stevens allegedly assaulted Ernest Hemingway at a party at the Waddell Avenue home of an acquaintance in Key West
11. David Thorburn (scholar) – David Thorburn is an American professor of literature at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who is notable for media studies, literary criticism, and teaching. He has published poetry in Slate Magazine, Threepenny Review, and he was one of the first academics to study the medium of television as an academic field of inquiry. He is the director of MITs Communications Forum and he is regarded as an authority on modernist literature, and he was selected by the Teaching Company to teach a course on entitled Masterworks of Early 20th-Century Literature. Thorburn received a degree from Princeton and an MA and PhD from Stanford. After ten years at Yale, he joined the faculty of MIT in the literature department and his research interests included modernist writers such as Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence, and James Joyce as well as later writers such as John Updike. His fiction anthology entitled Initiation, stories and short novels on three themes became a source for high school and college students. He was the founder and first director of the MIT Film and he brought television writer David Milch, who served as a writer and producer on Hill Street Blues, to a class he taught on the media. He suggested in a 1977 critique in the Georgia Review that television drama should be studied with the care and attentiveness we bring to the study of literature, music. So, one of the things that we are learning about the new technologies is how they exponentially enlarge the principle of unexpected outcomes of unintended results. Thorburn is regarded as an authority on how media influences politics, in 2008, he described the world wide web as not as powerful as traditional media such as television, although it was increasingly a major source of fund-raising for candidates. Through its power to confer anonymity, it feeds instincts for scandal, revenge, name-calling, surveillance, Thorburn was awarded Fulbright, Woodrow Wilson, and Rockefeller foundation fellowships. He won MITs highest teaching award, the MacVicar Faculty Fellow, Thorburn is a critic of over-analysis of literature with excessive focus on trivia. It is dispiriting to realize how swiftly Cliffs Notes principles have been diffused across the Web, henry Jenkins and David Thorburn, Democracy and New Media, MIT Press,2004 Rethinking Media Change, anthology, David Thorburn editor-in-chief, MIT Press. The Film Experience, MIT OpenCourseWare, lectures and teaching insights
12. William Carlos Williams – William Carlos Williams was a Puerto Rican-American poet closely associated with modernism and imagism. His work has an affinity with painting, in which he had a lifelong interest. In addition to his writing, Williams had a career as a physician practicing both pediatrics and general medicine. He was affiliated with what was known as Passaic General Hospital in Passaic, New Jersey. The hospital, which is now known as St. Marys General Hospital, Williams was born in Rutherford, New Jersey. His grandmother, an Englishwoman deserted by her husband, had come to the United States with her son, remarried and her son, Williamss father, married a Puerto Rican woman of French Basque and Dutch Jewish descent. Williams received his primary and secondary education in Rutherford until 1897, upon leaving University of Pennsylvania, Williams did internships at both French Hospital and Childs Hospital in New York before going to Leipzig for advanced study of pediatrics. He published his first book, Poems, in 1909, Williams married Florence Herman in 1912, after he returned from Germany. They moved into a house in Rutherford, New Jersey, which was their home for many years. Shortly afterward, his book of poems, The Tempers, was published by a London press through the help of his friend Ezra Pound. Around 1914, Williams had his first son, William E. Williams, followed by his son, Paul H. Williams. His first son would grow up to follow Williams in becoming a doctor, although his primary occupation was as a family doctor, Williams had a successful literary career as a poet. In addition to poetry, he wrote short stories, plays, novels, essays. He practiced medicine by day and wrote at night, in 1920, Williams was sharply criticized by many of his peers when he published one of his most experimental books, Kora in Hell, Improvisations. Pound called the work incoherent and H. D. thought the book was flippant. Three years later, Williams published one of his books of poetry, Spring and All. However, in 1922, the year it was published, the appearance of T. S. Eliots The Waste Land became a literary sensation and overshadowed Williamss very different brand of poetic Modernism. In his Autobiography, Williams would later write, I felt at once that The Waste Land had set me back twenty years, instead, Williams preferred colloquial American English