Pages in category "American phycologists"
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
2. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque – Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe, was a nineteenth-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France. He traveled as a man in the United States, ultimately settling in Ohio in 1815, where he made notable contributions to botany, zoology. He also contributed to the study of ancient Mesoamerican linguistics, in addition to work he had completed in Europe. Rafinesque was eccentric, and is portrayed as an erratic genius. He was an autodidact who excelled in fields of knowledge, as a zoologist, botanist, writer. He wrote prolifically on such topics as anthropology, biology, geology, and linguistics. Today, scholars agree that he was far ahead of his time in many areas, among his theories was that ancestors of Native Americans had migrated by the Bering Sea from Asia to North America. Rafinesque was born on October 22,1783 in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople and his father F. G. Rafinesque was a French merchant from Marseilles, his mother M. Schmaltz was of German descent and born in Constantinople. His father died in Philadelphia about 1793, Rafinesque spent his youth in Marseilles, and was mostly self-educated, he never attended university. By the age of twelve, he had begun collecting plants for a herbarium, by fourteen, he taught himself perfect Greek and Latin because he needed to follow footnotes in the books he was reading in his paternal grandmothers libraries. In 1802, at the age of nineteen, Rafinesque sailed to Philadelphia in the United States with his younger brother and they traveled through Pennsylvania and Delaware, where he made the acquaintance of most of the young nations few botanists. In 1805 Rafinesque returned to Europe with his collection of specimens, and settled in Palermo, Sicily. He became so successful in trade that he retired by age twenty-five, for a time Rafinesque also worked as secretary to the American consul. During his stay in Sicily, he studied plants and fishes and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1808. After their son died in 1815, he left her and returned to the United States, when his ship Union foundered near the coast of Connecticut, he lost all his books and all his specimens. Settling in New York, Rafinesque became a member of the newly established Lyceum of Natural History. In 1817 his book Florula Ludoviciana or A Flora of the State of Louisiana was strongly criticized by fellow botanists, by 1818, he had collected and named more than 250 new species of plants and animals. Slowly he was rebuilding his collection of objects from nature, in 1819 Rafinesque became professor of botany at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, where he also gave private lessons in French, Italian and Spanish
3. Josephine Tilden – Josephine Elizabeth Tilden was an American expert on algae. She was the first woman scientist employed by the University of Minnesota, Tilden established a research station in British Columbia which lasted only until 1906. Tilden traveled widely and particularly around the Pacific Ocean to collect samples of flora. Tilden also created an important collection of algae which she took from the university, Tilden was born in Davenport, Iowa and grew up in Minneapolis. She showed an early interest in plants and she had published a paper on the local botany before she began her association with the University of Minnesota, in 1895, she earned a bachelors degree followed by a masters the following year from the university. In 1897 she wrote a paper on algal stalactites, a phenomenon that she had discovered near a geyser in Yellowstone Park and she became an instructor at her alma mater, where she took a peculiar interest in algology, becoming the first woman scientist on the staff. Her superiors at the university were concerned, but they agreed to fund this interest in return for her promise to commit to the subject for at least five years, in fact, Tilden gave a commitment that would last until she died. Her first trip to the Pacific was a journey to Vancouver Island, on many of these journeys she was accompanied by her mother. Tilden was the force of the establishment of the Minnesota Seaside Station in Canada. She discovered an area of land in British Columbia which had a good environment for observing and collecting algae. The land owner gave her the area for free, and she chose four acres that were ideal to create a research station. The area was known as Botanical Beach in what is now Juan de Fuca Provincial Park in British Columbia, Tilden used her own funds to build the research station. Tilden became an assistant Professor in 1903, she was the first female scientist employed by the University of Minnesota, Tilden in turn offered this land and the buildings that were on it to her university. Despite the entreaties of Professor Conway MacMillan and herself the university refused to take responsibility for land in a different country, the Minnesota Seaside Station was replaced by the more local Lake Itasca Forestry and Biological Station in 1909. The following year, and despite not having a doctorate, Tilden was made a professor of the University of Minnesota. She also published the Algae of Minnesota in 1910 which covered The Myxophyceae of North America and adjacent regions including Central America, Greenland, Bermuda, Tilden traveled widely especially around the Pacific Ocean to gather dried plants. She organized a trip around the world for ten students whose sole purpose was to gather algae, Tilden charged the students to accompany her and even obtained loans and grants to fund the travel. The trip caused Tilden to gain a reputation for a lack of integrity and she never obtained formal permission for the trip and although she directed unbudgeted items to the university, one of the loans she undertook was never repaid
4. Joseph Rock – Joseph Francis Charles Rock was an Austrian-American explorer, geographer, linguist and botanist. He was born in Vienna, Austria, went to Egypt at the age of 10 with his father, and later wandered about in Europe. But on an impulse, he emigrated to the United States in 1905 and moved to Honolulu, Hawaii in 1907 and he first taught full-time at Mills College, and was placed on leave in Sept.1908 for health reasons. During the Ngolok rebellions Rock witnessed repeated battles by the Ma Cliques Chinese Muslim army against the Ngolok Tibetans in Xiahe County, the Ma Muslim army left Tibetan skeletons scattered over a wide area, and the Labrang monastery was decorated with decapitated Tibetan heads. After the 1929 battle of Xiahe near Labrang, decapitated Tibetan heads were used as ornaments by Chinese Muslim troops in their camp,154 in total, Rock described young girls and childrens heads staked around the military encampment. Ten to fifteen heads were fastened to the saddle of every Muslim cavalryman, the heads were strung about the walls of the Moslem garrison like a garland of flowers. In March 2009, the University of Hawaii at Manoa named its herbarium after him, works and collections by and from Rock are held in the Library of Congress. These books are out-of-print and, consequently, command very high prices in the rare book markets, the most important of his written works are, The Ancient Nakhi Kingdom of Southwest China. His National Geographic magazine articles, Hunting the Chaulmoogra tree 3, gongga Shan, a mountain in Sichuan which Rock erroneously thought for a time to be the highest in the world. Michael Aris Lamas, Princes, and Brigands, Joseph Rocks Photographs of the Tibetan Borderlands of China, China Institute in America, New York City Sutton, S. B. In Chinas Border Provinces, The Turbulent Career of Joseph Rock, Botanist Explorer, New York Gore, R. Joseph Rock, Our Man in China National Geographic Magazine 191, 62-81 Goodman, Jim Joseph F
5. Horatio C Wood Jr. – Horatio C Wood Jr. was an American physician and biologist. Horatio C Wood was part of the illustrious Wood family of Pennsylvania, many of his relatives share similar names, and there is some confusion over Woods own middle name. This was a compromise between Woods parents, his mother preferring the middle name Charles and his father, Horatio Curtis Wood, the family were Philadelphia Quakers descended from Richard Wood who sailed from Bristol with William Penn. Later in life, Wood also signed himself Horatio C Wood, Wood started studying medicine at the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1859, and graduated in 1862, having presented a thesis on enteric fever. While still a student, Wood wrote his first scientific paper and he served several internships in hospitals, and acted as a surgeon for the Northern army during the American Civil War, including a spell at the front-line Fairfax Seminary General Hospital. After the Civil War, Wood supplemented his income by teaching privately at the medical school and he was awarded the chair of botany at the university, and was elected Clinical Lecturer in Nervous Diseases at the medical school in 1873, later rising to Clinical Professor. He was made Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in 1876, upon his retirement in 1907, Wood was granted the title of Emeritus Professor of Therapeutics. He was awarded honorary degrees by Lafayette College, Yale University, Woods fame was established by his 1874 work Treatise on Therapeutics, which became the principal textbook in materia medica and therapeutics for 30 years. Wood published fourteen botanical papers between 1860 and 1877, including a 270-page monograph on freshwater algae, in his earlier years, Wood also studied myriapods and arachnids, his 1865 The Myriapoda of North America included the first complete list of North American millipedes. Species named by Wood include Scolopendra polymorpha, the giant desert centipede, and Harpaphe haydeniana, Woods arachnological papers concerned whip scorpions and harvestmen. Three of Woods papers were awarded prizes, Wood was the editor of several scientific journals, including New Remedies, Philadelphia Medical Times, The Therapeutic Gazette and the U. S. Dispensatory. Lippincott Co.128 pp.1872 A Treatise on Therapeutics Philadelphia, Lippincott Co.578 pp.1874 Brain-Work and Overwork. 126 pp.1880 The Dispensatory of the United States of America, with Joseph P. Remington and Samuel P. Sadtler. 15th ed.1928 pp.1883 Nervous Diseases and Their Diagnosis, Lippincott Co.501 pp.1887 Syphilis of the Nervous System. 135 pp.1890 The Practice of Medicine, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co.1088 pp.1896 Wood died of pneumonia on January 3,1920, and was buried in Philadelphia. Works by or about Horatio C Wood Jr
6. Phycology – Phycology is the scientific study of algae. Also known as algology, phycology is a branch of life science, algae are important as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Most algae are eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms that live in a wet environment and they are distinguished from the higher plants by a lack of true roots, stems or leaves. Many species are single-celled and microscopic, many others are multicellular to one degree or another, phycology includes the study of prokaryotic forms known as blue-green algae or cyanobacteria. A number of algae also occur as symbionts in lichens. Harvey has been called the father of modern phycology in part for his division of the algae into four divisions based upon their pigmentation. It was in the late 19th and early 20th century, that became a recognized field of its own. Men such as Friedrich Traugott Kützing continued the descriptive work, in Japan, beginning in 1889, Kintarô Okamura not only provided detailed descriptions of Japanese coastal algae, he also provided comprehensive analysis of their distribution. As early as 1803 Jean Pierre Étienne Vaucher had published on the isogamy in the algae, the 1935 and 1945 comprehensive volumes of Felix Eugen Fritsch consolidated what was then known about the morphology and reproduction of the algae. This was followed in the 1950s by the development of area checklists, the continent with the richest diversity of seaweeds is Australia, which has 2,000 species. Elsie M. Burrows Blackler, Margaret Constance Helen Elsie Conway Phillips) FRSE Visited University of British Columbia in 1969–1970, president of the British Phycological Society 1965–1967
7. Isabella Abbott – Isabella Aiona Abbott was an educator and ethnobotanist from Hawaii. The first native Hawaiian woman to receive a PhD in science, Abbott was born Isabella Kauakea Yau Yung Aiona in Hana, Maui, Territory of Hawaii, on June 20,1919. Her Hawaiian name means white rain of Hana and was known as Izzy and her father was ethnically Chinese while her mothers ancestry was predominantly Native Hawaiian. Her mother taught her about edible Hawaiian seaweeds and she grew up in Honolulu, and graduated from Kamehameha Schools in 1937. She married zoologist Donald Putnam Abbott, who had been a student at the University of Hawaii as well as Berkeley. The couple moved to Pacific Grove, California where her husband taught at the Hopkins Marine Station run by Stanford University. Since at that time women were considered for academic posts, she spent time raising her daughter Annie Abbott Foerster. She adapted recipes to use the local Bull Kelp in foods such as cakes and pickles, in 1960 she started teaching summer classes as a lecturer at Hopkins. She compiled a book on Marine algae of the Monterey peninsula, in 1972 Stanford took the unusual step of promoting her directly to a full professor. In 1982 both Abbotts retired and moved back to Hawaii, where she was hired by the University of Hawaii to study ethnobotany and she authored eight books and over 150 publications. She was considered the leading expert on Hawaiian seaweeds, known in the Hawaiian language as limu. She was credited with discovering over 200 species, with several named after her and this has earned her the nickname first lady of limu. In 1997 she received the Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal from the National Academy of Sciences, in 2008 she received a lifetime achievement award from the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources for her studies of coral reefs. She was the G. P. Wilder Professor of Botany from 1980 until her retirement and she served on the board of directors of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. In November 1997 she co-authored an essay in the Honolulu Star-Bulletin criticizing the trustees of Kamehameha Schools, in 2005, she was named a Living Treasure of Hawaii. Isabella Kauakea Aiona Abbott died at October 28,2010 at the age of 91 at her home in Honolulu, Abbotts surviving family includes a daughter who resides in Hawaii and a granddaughter who lives in Hawaii. To preserve Abbotts legacy and career as a botanist, the University of Hawaii established a foundation to support research on Hawaiian ethnobotany, on Schimmelmannia from California and Japan. Gilbert Morgan Smith, George J. Hollenberg, Isabella A. Abbott, Marine algae of the Monterey peninsula, California
8. George Thomas Moore – George Thomas Moore was a U. S. botanist, who specialised in phycology, the study of algae. Moore was the director of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Moore was born in on February 23,1871 in Indianapolis, Indiana. He was also the head of Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole and he also served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1921-1923. Data related to George Thomas Moore at Wikispecies
9. Ruth Patrick – Ruth Patrick was the daughter of Frank Patrick, a banker and lawyer. Frank had a degree in botany from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York and he often took Ruth and her sister on Sunday afternoons to collect specimens, especially diatoms, from streams. Ruth attended the Sunset Hill School in Kansas City, Missouri, when she graduated in 1929, she then enrolled in the University of Virginia, earning a masters degree in 1931, followed by a Ph. D. in 1934. Ruths research in fossilized diatoms showed that the Great Dismal Swamp between Virginia and North Carolina was once a forest, which had been flooded by seawater, similar research proved that the Great Salt Lake was not always a saline lake. During the Great Depression, she volunteered to work as a curator of microscopy for the Academy of Natural Sciences, in 1947, she formed and chaired the academys Department of Limnology. She continued to work there for years and was regarded as a talented. Redfield Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006, the Ruth Patrick Science Education Center in Aiken, South Carolina, is named after her. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation R. M. Patrick when citing a botanical name, on November 17,2007, a gala was held in honor of Dr. Patricks upcoming 100th birthday at The Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, PA. Notable guests included Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell and she retained her maiden name when writing scientific papers, at her fathers request. Her husbands were Charles Hodge IV and Lewis H. Van Dusen, with Charles Hodge IV she had one son. Charles was an entomologist and a descendent of Benjamin Franklin. Patrick died at a retirement home in 2013, Patrick Center for Environmental Research Ruth Patrick Science Education Center Ruth Myrtle Patrick,105, expert on water pollution The Academy of Natural Sciences, Dr