Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Graeco-Roman world, particularly of its languages, and literature but it encompasses the study of Graeco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and it has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education. The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning belonging to the highest class of citizens, the word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality, for example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts classicus and proletarius writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a meaning, referring to pupils at a school. Thus the two meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum.
In the Middle Ages and education were tightly intertwined, according to Jan Ziolkowski, while Latin was hugely influential, Greek was barely studied, and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. The works of even major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages. Catullus, for instance, was almost entirely unknown in the medieval period, the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe. This reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems, the late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history which is most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models.
Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became increasingly important relative to that of Latin, in this period Johann Winckelmanns claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement, in the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century. The poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the world, and the value of a classical education, especially in the US
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It is currently divided between the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece and the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, the largest city in Epirus is Ioannina, seat of the region of Epirus, with Gjirokastër the largest city in the Albanian part of Epirus. A rugged and mountainous region, Epirus was the north-west area of ancient Greece. It was inhabited by the Greek tribes of the Chaonians and Thesprotians, and home to the sanctuary of Dodona, the oldest ancient Greek oracle, and the most prestigious one after Delphi. Unified into a state in 370 BC by the Aeacidae dynasty, Epirus achieved fame during the reign of Pyrrhus of Epirus. Epirus subsequently became part of the Roman Empire along with the rest of Greece in 146 BC, following the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade, Epirus became the center of the Despotate of Epirus, one of the successor states to the Byzantine Empire. Conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, Epirus became semi-independent during the rule of Ali Pasha in the early 19th century, but the Ottomans re-asserted their control in 1821.
Following the Balkan Wars and World War I, southern Epirus became part of Greece, the name Epirus is derived from the Greek, Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros, meaning mainland or terra firma. It is thought to come from an Indo-European root *apero- coast, and was applied to the mainland opposite Corfu. The local name was stamped on the coinage of the unified Epirote commonwealth, the Albanian name for the region, which derives from the Greek, is Epiri. The historical region of Epirus is generally regarded as extending from the end of the Ceraunian mountains, located just south of the Bay of Aulon. The northern boundary of ancient Epirus is alternatively given as the mouth of the Aoös river, epiruss eastern boundary is defined by the Pindus Mountains, that form the spine of mainland Greece and separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly. To the west, Epirus faces the Ionian Sea, the island of Corfu is situated off the Epirote coast but is not regarded as part of Epirus. The definition of Epirus has changed over time, such that modern administrative boundaries do not correspond to the boundaries of ancient Epirus, the region of Epirus in Greece only comprises a fraction of classical Epirus and does not include its easternmost portions, which lie in Thessaly.
Epirus is a rugged and mountainous region. It is largely made up of the Pindus Mountains, a series of limestone ridges that are a continuation of the Dinaric Alps. The Pindus mountains form the spine of mainland Greece and separate Epirus from Macedonia, the ridges of the Pindus are parallel to the sea and generally so steep that the valleys between them are mostly suitable for pasture rather than large-scale agriculture. Altitude increases as one moves east, away from the coast, reaching a maximum of 2, 637m at Mount Smolikas, most of Epirus lies on the windward side of the Pindus, and the prevailing winds from the Ionian Sea make the region the rainiest in mainland Greece
Pella, is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in the time of Alexander the Great. On the site of the ancient city is the Archaeological Museum of Pella, a common folk etymology is traditionally given for the name Pella, deriving it from the Ancient Macedonian word pélla, and it appears in some toponyms in Greece like Pallini (Παλλήνη. With the prefix a- it forms the Doric apella, meaning in this case fence, the word apella originally meant fold, fence for animals, and assembly of people into the limits of the square. Τhe original meaning was wooden bowl, and it meant stone, according to Xenophon, in the beginning of the 4th century BC it was the largest Macedonian city. It was probably built as the capital of the kingdom by Archelaus I, in antiquity, Pella was a strategic port connected to the Thermaic Gulf by a navigable inlet, but the harbour and gulf have since silted up, leaving the site landlocked. Archelaus invited the painter Zeuxis, the greatest painter of the time and he later hosted the poet Timotheus of Miletus and the Athenian playwright Euripides who finished his days there writing and producing Archelaus.
Euripides Bacchae was first staged here, about 408 BC, Pella was the birthplace and seats of Philip II, in 382 BC and of Alexander the Great, his son, in 356 BC. It became the largest and richest city in Macedonia and flourished particularly under Cassanders rule, the reign of Antigonus most likely represented the height of the citys prosperity, as this is the period which has left us most archaeological remains. The famous poet Aratus died in Pella c.240 BC, Pella is further mentioned by Polybius and Livy as the capital of Philip V and of Perseus during the Macedonian Wars fought against the Roman Republic. It is situated on the south-west slope of a hill and surrounded by a marsh too deep to be crossed on foot either in summer or winter. At a distance it appears to be continuous with the city wall, but it is really separated by a channel which flows between the two walls and is connected with the city by a bridge. Thus it cuts off all means of access from a foe, and if the king shut anyone up there, there could be no possibility of escape except by the bridge.
Pella was declared capital of the 3rd administrative division of the Roman province of Macedonia, activity continued to be vigorous until the early 1st century BC and, crossed by the Via Egnatia, Pella remained a significant point on the route between Dyrrachium and Thessalonika. Cicero stayed there in 58 BC, though by the seat had already transferred to Thessalonika. Pella was promoted to a Roman Colony sometime between 45 and 30 BC and its currency was marked Colonia Iulia Augusta Pella, augustus settled peasants there whose land he had usurped to give to his veterans. But, unlike other Macedonian colonies such as Philippi, four pairs of colonial magistrates are known for this period. In fact, the Roman city was somewhat to the west of and distinct from the original capital, despite its decline, archaeology has shown that the southern part of the city near the lagoon continued to be occupied until the 4th century. In about 180 AD, Lucian of Samosata could describe it in passing as now insignificant, in the Byzantine period, the Roman site was occupied by a fortified village
Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC. This was a period of Athenian political hegemony, economic growth, Athens patron goddess was Athena, from whom they derived the name. These strategoi were given duties which included planning military expeditions, receiving envoys of other states, during the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, Pericles was his deputy. Pericles was a speaker, this quality brought him tremendous success in the Assembly. One of his most popular reforms was to allow thetes to occupy public office, another success of his administration was the creation of the misthophoria, a special salary for the citizens that attended the courts as jurors. This way, these citizens were able to dedicate themselves to service without facing financial hardship. With this system, Pericles succeeded in keeping the full of jurors. As Athens ruler, he made the city the first and most important polis of the Greek world, acquiring a resplendent culture, the sovereign people governed themselves, without intermediaries, deciding matters of state in the Assembly.
Athenian citizens were free and only owed obedience to their laws and they achieved equality of speech in the Assembly, the word of a poor person had the same worth as that of a rich person. The censorial classes did not disappear, but their power was limited, they shared the fiscal and military offices. The principle of equality granted to all citizens had dangers, since citizens were incapable of exercising political rights due to their extreme poverty or ignorance. To avoid this, Athenian democracy applied itself to the task of helping the poorest in this manner, to seek and supply work to the poor. To grant lands to dispossessed villagers, public assistance for war widows, invalids and indigents. Among those selected by lot to a body, specific office was always rotated so that every single member served in all capacities in turn. This was meant to ensure that political functions were instituted in such a way as to run smoothly, the magistrates were people who occupied a public post and formed the administration of the Athenian state.
They were submitted to public control. The magistrates were chosen by lot, using fava beans and white beans were put in a box and depending on which color the person drew out they obtained the post or not. This was a way of eliminating the influence of rich people and possible intrigues
Arcadia (ancient region)
Arcadia was a region in the central Peloponnese. It took its name from the mythological character Arcas and in Greek mythology, in European Renaissance arts, Arcadia was celebrated as an unspoiled, harmonious wilderness. There is a regional unit of Greece of the same name. Arcadia was gradually linked in a confederation that included all the Arcadian towns and was named League of the Arcadians. It successfully faced in 7th century BC the threat of Sparta and they participated in the Persian Wars alongside other Greeks by sending forces at Thermopylae and Plataea. During the Peloponnesian War Arcadia allied with Sparta and Corinth, in the following years, during the period of the Hegemony of Thebes, the Theban general Epaminondas reinforced the Arcadian federation in order to form a rival pole to the neighboring Sparta. Then he founded Megalopolis which became its new capital, over the next centuries Arcadia weakened. It initially subjugated to the Macedonians and the Arcadians joined the Achaean League, ancient Arcadia occupied the highlands at the centre of the Peloponnese.
To the north, it bordered Achaea along the ridge of ground running from Mount Erymanthos to Mount Cyllene. To the east, it had borders with Argolis and Corinthia along the ridge of ground running from Mount Cyllene round to Mount Oligyrtus. To the south-west, the border with Messania ran along the tops of Mount Nomia, and Mount Elaeum, most of the region of Arcardia was mountainous, apart from the plains around Tegea and Megalopolis, and the valleys of the Alpheios and Ladon rivers. The Arcadians were an ancient Greek tribe which was situated in the mountainous Peloponnese and it is considered one of the oldest Greek tribes which settled in Greece and it was probably a relative tribe of the proto-Greeks who are mentioned by the ancient authors as Pelasgians. Whilst Herodotus seems to have found the idea that the Arcadians were not Greek far-fetched and this is testified by ancient myths, like the myth of Arcas, the myth of Lycaon etc. Arcadia is one of the regions described in the catalogue of ships in the Iliad, agamemnon himself gave Arcadia the ships for the Trojan war because Arcadia did not have a navy.
Due to its remote, mountainous character, Arcadia seems to have been a cultural refuge, arcadocypriot never became a literary dialect, but it is known from inscriptions. Tsan is a letter of the Greek alphabet occurring only in Arcadia, shaped like Cyrillic И, of these the strongest were the cities which controlled the few fertile valleys, Mantinea and Orchomenos. The remaining towns were more mountainous or had smaller plains, some of these were Asea, Teuthis, Thyraion, Alea, Trikolonon, Caphyae, Feneos etc. From 370 BC the capital of Arcadia became Megalopolis
Bucephalus or Bucephalas was the horse of Alexander the Great, and one of the most famous actual horses of antiquity. Ancient accounts state that Bucephalus died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, in what is now modern Pakistan, another account states that Bucephalus is buried in Phalia, a town in Pakistans Mandi Bahauddin District, which is named after him. Bucephalus was named after a branding mark depicting an oxs head on his haunch, a massive creature with a massive head, Bucephalus is described as having a black coat with a large white star on his brow. He is supposed to have had an eye. However, Alexander was, and he offered to pay himself should he fail to tame it, Alexander was given a chance and surprised all by subduing it. He spoke soothingly to the horse and turned it towards the sun so that it could no longer see its own shadow, dropping his fluttering cloak as well, Alexander successfully tamed the horse. Plutarch says that the incident so impressed Philip that he told the boy, O my son, look out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself.
Philips speech strikes the only false note in the anecdote, according to AR Anderson, the Alexander Romance presents a mythic variant of Bucephaluss origin. In this tale, the colt, whose heroic attributes surpassed even those of Pegasus, is bred and presented to Philip on his own estates, as one of his chargers, Bucephalus served Alexander in numerous battles. The value which Alexander placed on Bucephalus emulated his hero and supposed ancestor Achilles, poseidon gave them to my father Peleus, who in his turn gave them to myself. Arrian states, with Onesicritus as his source, that Bucephalus died at the age of thirty. Other sources, give as the cause of death not old age or weariness, Alexander promptly founded a city, Bucephala, in honour of his horse. It lay on the west bank of the Hydaspes river, the modern-day town of Jalalpur Sharif, outside Jhelum, is said to be where Bucephalus is buried. The pair forged a sort of cult in that, after them, it was all, Bucephalus is referenced in art and literature.
Paintings of Charles Le Bruns Alexandrine subjects, including Bucephalus, survive today in the Louvre, one in particular, The Passage of the Granicus, depicts the warhorse battling the difficulties of the steep muddy river banks and kicking his foes. One interpretation of the ancient statue group The Horse Tamers in the Piazza del Quirinale in Rome is Alexander, Bucephalus Media related to Bucephalus at Wikimedia Commons
Doris, is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis, the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks. It lies between Mounts Oeta and Parnassus, and consists of the valley of the river Pindus, a tributary of the Cephissus, the Pindus is now called the Apostoliá. This valley is open towards Phocis, but it lies higher than the valley of the Cephissus, rising above the towns of Drymaea and Amphicaea, which are the last towns in Phocis. Doris is described by Herodotus as lying between Malis and Phocis, and being only 30 stadia in breadth, which agrees nearly with the extent of the valley of the Apostoliá in its widest part. In this valley there were four towns forming the Doric tetrapolis, Erineus, Cytinium, Erineus, as the most important, appears to have been called Dorium. The Dorians, did not confine themselves within these narrow limits, but occupied other places along Mount Oeta. Thus Strabo describes the Dorians of the tetrapolis as the part of the nation, and the Scholiast on Pindar speaks of six Doric towns, Cytinium, Lilaeum, Carphaea.
The Dorians would appear at one time to have extended across Mount Oeta to the sea coast, among the Doric towns Hecataeus mentioned Amphanae, called Amphanaea by Theopompus. Livy places in Doris Tritonon and Drymiae, which are evidently the Phocian towns elsewhere called Tithronium, there was an important mountain pass leading across Parnassus from Doris to Amphissa in the country of the Ozolian Locrians, at the head of this pass stood the Dorian town of Cytinium. Doris is said to have been originally called Dryopis from its inhabitants the Dryopes, who were expelled from the country by Heracles. It derived its name from the Dorians, who migrated from district to the conquest of Peloponnesus. The name Dorians is supposed to have derived from Dorus, the son of Hellen, according to one tradition, Dorus settled once in the country subsequently known as Doris, but other traditions represent them as more widely spread in earlier times. For this statement Herodotus could have had no other authority than tradition, in the Bibliotheca Dorus is represented as occupying the country across the Peloponnese, on the opposite side of the Corinthian gulf, and calling the inhabitants after himself Dorians.
By this description is meant the whole country along the northern shore of the Corinthian gulf, comprising Aetolia, Phocis. This statement, according to Smith, is at least more suitable to the facts attested by historical evidence than the legends given in Herodotus, in the historical period the whole of the eastern and southern parts of the Peloponnese were in the possession of the Dorians. In the Saronic gulf, Aegina was peopled by Dorians, the districts just mentioned are represented in the Homeric poems as the seats of the great Achaean monarchies, and there is no allusion in these poems to any Doric population in Peloponnesus. In fact the name of the Dorians occurs only once in Homer, from the Peloponnesus the Dorians spread over various parts of the Aegean and its connected seas. Doric colonies were founded in times in the islands of Crete, Thera, Cos
The Vergina Sun is a rayed solar symbol appearing in ancient Greek art of the period between the 6th and 2nd centuries BC. The Vergina Sun proper has sixteen rays, while comparable symbols of the same period variously have sixteen, twelve. The name Vergina Sun refers specifically to archaeological excavations in and around the town of Vergina, in northern Greece, during the late 1970s. In older references, the name Argead Star or Star of the Argeadai is used for the Sun as the symbol of the Argead dynasty of Macedon. It came to prominence following archaeological excavations in and around the town of Vergina. There it was depicted on a golden larnax found in a 4th-century BC royal tomb belonging to either Philip II or Philip III of Macedon, eventually, in 1995 and as a result of this dispute, the young republics flag was revised into a different rayed solar symbol. Manolis Andronikos found the symbol on the believed to belong to Philip II of Macedon. The sunburst symbol was already well-known as a symbol used both by the Macedonian royal dynasty as well as in Hellenistic civilization more generally.
The symbol represents the Sun god, which was taken as the deity of the Argead dynasty based on the foundational legend about Perdiccas I of Macedon as told by Herodotus. In the early 1980s, following the discovery of the larnax, in 1977/8, archaeologist Manolis Andronikos led excavations of burial mounds at the small Central Macedonian town of Vergina in Greece. There, by the perimeter of a mound, the Great Tumulus. The tombs were subsequently identified as burial sites for members of the late 4th-century BC Argead dynasty. Tombs II and III, remained undisturbed, still containing many artefacts, among them were two gold ash coffins in Tomb II and a silver funerary urn in Tomb III. The coffin of Tomb IIs primary occupant, the Golden Larnax, featured the sixteen-rayed sun design and that of the wife, entombed in the antechamber. Andronikos variously described the symbol as a star, and he posited the tomb might belong to King Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great. Following the discovery at the Great Tumulus, there was debate over who had been buried there.
It dated to the half of the 4th century BC. On 21 April 2000, the AAAS journal Science published The Eye Injury of King Philip II, in it, Bartsiokas cited osteological analyses to contradict the determination of Philip II as the tombs occupant and made a case for Philip III
For the scallop genus, see Chlamys. The beetle genus described as Chlamys is now Neochlamisus, χλαμύδος was an ancient Greek type of rather short cloak. By the time of the Byzantine Empire it was, in a longer form, part of the state costume of the emperor and high officials. The ephaptis was a garment, typically worn by infantrymen. The chlamys was made from a rectangle of woolen material about the size of a blanket. It was normally pinned with a fibula at the right shoulder, originally it was wrapped around the waist like a loincloth, but by the end of the 5th century BC it was worn over the elbows. It could be worn over another item of clothing but was often the sole item of clothing for soldiers and messengers. As such, the chlamys is the garment of Hermes. The chlamys was typical Greek military attire from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, as worn by soldiers, it could be wrapped around the arm and used as a light shield in combat. The chlamys continued into the Byzantine period, when it was much larger and usually worn sideways, at least by emperors.
It was held on with a brooch at the wearers right shoulder and nearly reached the ground at front. With the even grander loros costume, the costume was the ceremonial wear of Byzantine emperors. The emperor alone could wear a purple chlamys with gold tablia, officials wore white with purple tablia. In the miniature shown below the 11th-century emperor wears his open to the side, presumably to access to his sword. By the Middle Byzantine period all parts of the chlamys were highly decorative, with bright patterned Byzantine silk and tablia and borders heavily embroidered and encrusted with gems. In the 12th century it seems to have begun to fall from favour, although it continued to be shown on coins until the 14th century, some high officials seem to have continued to wear a version of it long after the emperors had abandoned it. Among women only the empress is recorded as wearing a chlamys, in art it is much rarer to see an empress in it than in a loros, but in the well-known ivory Romanos ivory Eudokia Makrembolitissa wears one while her husband Constantine X Doukas wears the loros.
Clothing in ancient Greece Byzantine dress References Sources Parani, Maria G. Reconstructing the Reality of Images, Byzantine Material Culture, hellenistic Sculpture, The Styles of ca
Alexandria Prophthasia known as Alexandria in Drangiana was one of the seventy-plus cities founded or renamed by Alexander the Great. The town was founded by Alexander the Great during a stop between Herat, the location of another of Alexanders fortresses, and Kandahar. Alexander appointed a new satrap and renamed the city as Prophthasia, because Alexander had here discovered a conspiracy against his life. The location of Prophthasia is currently unknown, orthodox opinion is that Prophthasia was at Farah and that the citadel of Farah holds the remains of his fortress. However, taking distances given in Pliny and Strabo, Tarn believes Farah is too close to the city of Herat, others feel it was located at Nād-e Alī. The 1578 world map which Mercator constructed from Ptolemys map shows the city some distance to the north of the Zaranji lakes, similarly the 13th century copy of the 4th century Peutinger Map shows Zaranj and Prophthasia as distinct locations