Category:Ancient Greek painting
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Greek painting.|
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Greek painting.|
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Alexander Mosaic – The Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC, is a Roman floor mosaic originally from the House of the Faun in Pompeii. It depicts a battle between the armies of Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia and measures 2.72 by 5.13 metres, the original is preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. The mosaic is believed to be a copy of an early 3rd-century BC Hellenistic painting, the mosaic illustrates a battle in which Alexander faced and attempted to capture or kill Darius. Alexander defeated him at the Battle of Issus and two years later at the Battle of Gaugamela, the work is traditionally believed to show the Battle of Issus. Since the mosaic emulates the appearance of a painting so accurately, the mosaic is held to be a copy either of a painting by Aristides of Thebes, or of a lost late 4th-century BC fresco by the painter Philoxenus of Eretria. The latter is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a commission for the Macedonian king Cassander, despite being damaged, the two main figures are easy to recognize. The portrait of Alexander is one of his most famous, Alexanders breastplate depicts Medusa, the famous Gorgon, and his wavy hair is typical of royal portraiture as established in Greek art of the fourth century BC. He is portrayed sweeping into battle at the left, on his famous horse, Bucephalus, Darius is shown in a chariot. He seems to be commanding his frightened charioteer to flee the battle, while stretching out his hand either as a mute gesture to Alexander. He has an expression on his face. The charioteer is whipping the horses as he tries to escape, the Persian soldiers behind him have expressions of determination and consternation. Dariuss brother Oxyathres is also portrayed, sacrificing himself to save the King, radical foreshortening – as in the central horse, seen from behind – and the use of shading to convey a sense of mass and volume enhance the naturalistic effect of the scene. Repeated diagonal spears, clashing metal, and the crowding of men, at the same time, action is arrested by dramatic details such as the fallen horse and the Persian soldier in the foreground who watches his own death throes reflected in a shield. The mosaic is made of one and a half million tiny colored tiles called tesserae. The color scale of Roman mosaics are extremely rich in gradation, the process of gathering materials for mosaics was a complex undertaking since the color scale was based solely off of the pieces of marble that could be found in nature. The mosaic is a detailed work for a private residence and was likely commissioned by a wealthy person or family. The fact that this scene was made to be viewed in the house of a Roman civilian reveals that Alexander the Great was more than just an image to the Romans. Because Roman leaders followed after Alexanders image, Roman civilians also aspired to emulate the power he represented, since the mosaic was arranged on the floor where the patron would receive his guests, it was the first decorative object a visitor would see upon entering the home
2. Fayum mummy portraits – Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits is the modern term given to a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Egyptian mummies from the Coptic period. They belong to the tradition of painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. In fact, the Fayum portraits are the large body of art from that tradition to have survived. Mummy portraits have been found across Egypt, but are most common in the Faiyum Basin, particularly from Hawara in the Fayum Basin, Faiyum Portraits is generally thought of as a stylistic, rather than a geographic, description. While painted cartonnage mummy cases date back to times, the Faiyum mummy portraits were an innovation dating to the Coptic period at the time of the Roman occupation of Egypt. They date to the Roman period, from the late 1st century BC or the early 1st century AD onwards and it is not clear when their production ended, but recent research suggests the middle of the 3rd century. The portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial, extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies. Almost all have now been detached from the mummies and they usually depict a single person, showing the head, or head and upper chest, viewed frontally. In terms of tradition, the images clearly derive more from Graeco-Roman traditions than Egyptian ones. Two groups of portraits can be distinguished by technique, one of encaustic paintings, the former are usually of higher quality. About 900 mummy portraits are known at present, the majority were found in the necropoleis of Faiyum. Due to the hot dry Egyptian climate, the paintings are very well preserved. The Italian explorer Pietro della Valle, on a visit to Saqqara-Memphis in 1615, was the first European to discover and he transported some mummies with portraits to Europe, which are now in the Albertinum. Although interest in Ancient Egypt steadily increased after that period, further finds of mummy portraits did not become known before the early 19th century, the provenance of these first new finds is unclear, they may come from Saqqara as well, or perhaps from Thebes. In 1820, the Baron of Minotuli acquired several mummy portraits for a German collector, in 1827, Léon de Laborde brought two portraits, supposedly found in Memphis, to Europe, one of which can today be seen at the Louvre, the other in the British Museum. Ippolito Rosellini, a member of Jean-François Champollions 1828/29 expedition to Egypt and it is so similar to de Labordes specimens that it is thought to be from the same source. During the 1820s, the British Consul General to Egypt, Henry Salt, sent several further portraits to Paris and London. Some of them were long considered portraits of the family of the Theban Archon Pollios Soter, a character known from written sources
3. Pinacotheca – A pinacotheca was a picture gallery in either ancient Greece or ancient Rome. The name is used for the building containing pictures which formed the left wing of the Propylaea on the Acropolis at Athens. The Pinacotheca was located right by the Nike Athena temple, the Romans adopted the term for the room in a private house containing pictures, statues, and other works of art. In Brazil, there is the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, in Paris, the Pinacothèque de Paris. In Munich the three galleries are called the Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek and Pinakothek der Moderne. At Hallbergmoos, near Munich Airport, there was the Pinakothek Hallbergmoos between 2010 and 2014 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed
4. Pitsa panels – The Pitsa panels or Pitsa tablets are a group of painted wooden tablets found near Pitsa, Corinthia. They are the earliest surviving examples of Greek panel painting, the four panels, two of them highly fragmentary, were discovered during the 1930s in a cave near the village of Pitsa, in the vicinity of Sicyon. They can be dated to circa 540–530 BC, i. e. to the Archaic period of Greek art. The tablets are thin wooden boards or panels, covered with stucco and their bright colours are surprisingly well preserved. Only eight colours are used, with no shading or gradation of any sort, probably, the black contour outlines were drawn first and then filled in with colours. The tablets depict religious scenes connected with the cult of the nymphs, one of the two near-complete examples shows a sacrifice to the nymphs. Three or more females, dressed in chiton and peplos, are approaching an altar to the right and they are accompanied by musicians playing the lyra and aulos. The person nearest the altar appears to be pouring a libation from a jug, a small figure behind her, perhaps a slave, is leading a lamb, the sacrificial victim. An inscription in the Corinthian alphabet names two woman dedicators, Euthydika and Eucholis and states that the tablet, or the offering, is dedicated to the nymphs. The second well-preserved tablet also has a dedication to the nymphs. The tablets are votive offerings, connected with the cult of the nymphs. Stylistically and technically, they represent rather low quality panel paintings of their time. Most ancient paintings that survived are either frescoes or vase paintings and it is known that panel paintings were held in much higher regard, but very few of them have survived. The best known examples of ancient panel painting, the Fayum mummy portraits, the Pitsa panels, probably preserved due to the unusual climatic conditions inside the cave, are by far the earliest examples of this technique to survive. As the only pre-Roman specimens, they represent virtually all the evidence for a style of art. Incidentally, the ancient Greeks believed that painting was invented in Sicyon. Panel painting Archaic Greece Art in ancient Greece Ancient Greek religion Larson, J. Greek Nymphs — Myth, Cult, oxford University Press,2001, pp. 232–233. Page about Pitsa on a dedicated to ancient Sicyon Pitsa panels on Foundation for the Hellenic World website
5. Tomb of Aline – The Tomb of Aline is an ancient Egyptian grave from the time of Tiberius or Hadrian, excavated at Hawara in 1892. In this general context, the German archaeologist Richard von Kaufmann undertook a campaign of excavations at Haware in March 1892. A shaft led to a simple mud-brick-lined pit of 2.8 by 3.5 m which contained eight mummies, three were undecorated, two had paper masks and three were adorned with mummy portraits. The three mummies with painted portraits lay at the bottom, they were those of the woman Aline, the two masked mummies lay at right angles on top of them, they were those of a man and of a somewhat older girl. The two undecorated mummies, in turn, lay on top, again at right angles, on the mummies of the man, the woman and the three girls, the wrapping had been additionally secured with clay sealings, using different sealstones. One depicted Heracles fighting the Nemean lion, the others heads, the gravegoods included a clay pot with a spray of flowers, as is typical for such graves. There was also a roughly hewn stele bearing the following Greek inscription, scholarship assumes that Aline is the woman buried in the tomb and equipped with a mummy portrait. Further, it is believed that the man was her husband, as the ages and sexes of the undecorated mummies are not known, they cannot be similarly attributed. The separation of the date in the inscription in two parts, resulting from the insertion of Alines age in the middle, is unusual and it is usually taken to be from the tenth year of the reign of Tiberius, i. e.24 AD. The same hairstyle became popular once more a century later, so that the 10th year of Hadrians reign is also a possibility and it remains unclear when the mummies were deposited and whether all died within the same generation. Today, the finds from the Grave are at the Egyptian Museum, part of them is on display in the Altes Museum. The portrait of Aline was painted in tempera on linen, as were those of the two girls and it has a height of 40 cm and a width 32.5 cm. Below the painted cloth, scraps of linen pressed onto the face were used to provide an even surface. As is common for mummy portraits, the produces the impression of three-dimensional depth. Frontal depictions of human faces had also been unusual throughout most of the history of Egyptian art, the wavy hairstyle with a central parting is painted simply, but carefully. The small ringlets above the forehead are striking, the face appears full, but not fat. It conveys the impression that this woman, who belonged to the middle or upper levels of Egyptian society, had led a good life and her simple jewellery is carefully painted. The depiction of the made of gilded plaster, added to the portrait
6. Tomb of the Diver – The tomb is now displayed in the museum at Paestum. It is a made of five local limestone slabs forming the four lateral walls and the roof. The five slabs, accurately bonded with plaster, formed a chamber sized — roughly –215 ×100 ×80 cm, all five slabs forming the monument were painted on the interior sides using a true fresco technique. The paintings on the four walls depict a scene, while the cover slab shows the famous scene that gives the tomb its name. Two masters have been distinguished, the wall being by a less impressive artist than the others. Among the thousands of Greek tombs known from this time, this is the one to have been decorated with frescoes of human subjects. This was presumably inspired by the many Etruscan painted tombs, Paestum was at the time a few miles from the border of the Greek, wall-paintings in other types of building were common in the Greek world, but survivals are extremely rare. The local Campanians, who had control of Paestum by about 400 BC, left many painted tombs, mostly showing an obsession with horse. Several of these are also in the museum in Paestum, in the interior of the tomb, only a few objects were found, near the corpse were a turtle shell, two arýballoi and an Attic lekythos. This last object, in black-figure technique from about 480 BC, the Tomb of the Diver, in American Journal of Archaeology, Vol.110, n. Angela Pontrandolfo, Agnès Rouveret, Marina Cipriani, pandemos Editions, Paestum,2004 ISBN 88-87744-11-4, other versions, French ISBN 88-87744-13-0, German ISBN 88-87744-12-2, Italian ISBN 88-87744-10-6, Agnès Rouveret. La Tombe du Plongeur et les fresques étrusques, témoignages sur la peinture grecque, dans Revue Archéologique,1974, Fascicule 1, pp. 15–32. La tombe du plongeur à Paestum, dans Revue de lhistoire de Religions. Paris, PUF, Tome 196, fascicule 1, July 1979, la Tombe du Plongeur, Étude de la relation entre le symposion et le plongeon. Dans Revue de lhistoire de Religions, Paris, PUF, Tome 213, fascicule 2,1996, p. 143–60 – Abstract on line 23 August 2007. Que représente la fresque de la paroi Ouest de la tombe au plongeur de Poseidonia. in Kernos,1999, n
7. Wall Paintings of Thera – The wall paintings of ancient Thera are famous frescoes discovered by Spyridon Marinatos at the excavations of Akrotiri. Excavated from 1967 to 1974, the wall paintings provide a window into Santorinis history. Of all the findings unearthed at Akrotiri, these constitute the most significant contribution to present-day knowledge of Aegean art. In their technique, style, and thematic content, the paintings are invaluable objects of study for archaeologists, art historians, zoologists, botanists, originally displayed on the walls of ancient Theran aristocratic estates, the paintings render ancient figures, customs and historical events. To prepare the stone walls of the buildings for frescoes, the walls were first covered with a mixture of mud and straw, then coated with lime plaster. The palette of the consists of white, red, yellow, blue. The ancient Theran artists made use of their colors, yellow was used for the golden fur of lions or the skin of youths. Blue was used as a gray to indicate birds, animal pelts, fish scales. Deep blue was used to suggest the deep green of ivy, papyrus, lily, reeds. White indicated the pale skin of female figures while red was used for the darker, saffron gatherer in fresco from Akrotiri, Thera. 3-D reproductions of the paintings were sponsored by the Thera Foundation as a commission to Kodak Pathé of France, the Kodak Pathé technique has also been used in the reproductions of the Lascaux cave paintings and the Tomb of Sennefer. The reproductions are featured on the inner walls, presented as they were intended to be viewed in antiquity. Wall Paintings of Thera - The Thera Foundation Santozeum