Pages in category "Ancient Koans"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Kos – Kos or Cos is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos, it has a population of 33,388, making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes. The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres, and is 4 km from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey, administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos town, the name Kos is first attested in the Iliad, and has been in continuous use since. Other ancient names include Meropis, Cea, and Nymphaea, the similar Istanbul, and Stimpoli, Crete. Under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes, it was known as Lango or Langò, in The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, the author misunderstands this, and treats Lango and Kos as distinct islands. In Italian, the island is known as Coo, a person from Kos is called a Koan in English. The word is also an adjective, as in Koan goods, Kos is in the Aegean Sea. Its coastline is 112 kilometres long and it extends from west to east, in addition to the main town and port, also called Kos, the main villages of Kos island are Kardamena, Kefalos, Tingaki, Antimachia, Mastihari, Marmari and Pyli. Smaller ones are Zia, Zipari, Platani, Lagoudi and Asfendiou, tourism is the main industry in Kos, the islands beaches being the primary attraction. The seaside village of Kardamena is a resort for young holidaymakers and has a large number of bars. Farming is the principal occupation, with the main crops being grapes, almonds, figs, olives. Cos lettuce may be here, but the name is unrelated. In Homers Iliad, a contingent of Koans fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War, in classical mythology, the island was visited by Heracles. The island was colonised by the Carians. The Dorians invaded it in the 11th century BC, establishing a Dorian colony with a contingent of settlers from Epidaurus. The other chief sources of the islands lay in its wines and, in later days. Its early history–as part of the religious-political amphictyony that included Lindos, Kamiros, Ialysos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus, at the end of the 6th century, Kos fell under Achaemenid domination but rebelled after the Greek victory at the Battle of Mycale in 479
2. Apelles – Apelles of Kos was a renowned painter of ancient Greece. Pliny the Elder, to whom we owe much of our knowledge of this artist, rated him superior to preceding and he dated Apelles to the 112th Olympiad, possibly because he had produced a portrait of Alexander the Great. Much of what we know of Apelles is derived from Pliny the Elder and his skill at drawing the human face is the point of a story connecting him with Ptolemy I Soter. Ptolemys jester was suborned by Apelles rivals to convey to the artist a spurious invitation to dine with Ptolemy, apelless unexpected arrival enraged the king. Apelles was a contemporary of Protogenes, whose reputation he advocated, arriving at Protogenes studio, he encountered an old woman who told him that Protogenes was out and asked for his name so she could report who had enquired after him. On seeing this, Protogenes admitted defeat, and went out to seek Apelles, Pliny claims that this very painting had been part of the collection of Julius Caesar, but was destroyed when Caesars mansion on the Palatine Hill burned down. While sketching one of Alexander the Greats concubines, Campaspe, Apelles fell in love with her, as a mark of appreciation for the great painters work, Alexander presented her to him. Apelles is said to have been working on a painting of Aphrodite of Kos when he died, the story occasioning the painting was alleged to have been false accusations by a rival artist that Apelles took part in a conspiracy against Ptolemy. This almost led to the artists execution, in the Renaissance the exemplar of the poetic painting which was invariably cited whenever the art-poetry question was discussed was the Calumny of Apelles, known through Lucians description. Sandro Botticellis panel of Calumny of Apelles was painted in conscious striving to equal the painting in Lucians ekphrasis, the physician and philosopher Sextus Empiricus used Apelles in an analogy for Ataraxia. The skeptical acquisition of ataraxia was likened to the process where Apelles was trying to paint a horse and he wished to represent its foam. He was so unsuccessful that, in a rage, he gave up and threw the sponge he was using to clean his brushes with at the medium, the portraits of Clitus the Black and Archelaus I of Macedon. The procession of the high priest of Artemis at Ephesus, few things are more hopeless than the attempt to realize the style of a painter whose works have vanished. But a great wealth of stories, true or invented, clung to Apelles in antiquity and we are told, for example, that he attached great value to the drawing of outlines, practising every day. The tale is known of his visit to Protogenes. The power of drawing such lines is conspicuous in the decoration of red-figured vases of Athens. Apelles is said to have treated his rival with generosity, for he increased the value of his pictures by spreading a report that he meant to buy them and it was especially in that undefinable quality grace that Apelles excelled. He probably used but a variety of colours, and avoided elaborate perspective, simplicity of design, beauty of line
3. Philitas of Cos – Philitas of Cos, sometimes spelled Philetas, was a scholar and poet during the early Hellenistic period of ancient Greece. A Greek associated with Alexandria, he flourished in the half of the 4th century BC and was appointed tutor to the heir to the throne of Ptolemaic Egypt. He was thin and frail, Athenaeus later caricatured him as an academic so consumed by his studies that he wasted away, Philitas was the first major Greek writer who was both a scholar and a poet. His reputation continued for centuries, based on both his pioneering study of words and his verse in elegiac meter and his vocabulary Disorderly Words described the meanings of rare literary words, including those used by Homer. His poetry, notably his elegiac poem Demeter, was respected by later ancient poets. However, almost all his work has since been lost, little is known of Philitas life. Ancient sources refer to him as a Coan, a native or long-time inhabitant of Cos and his student Theocritus wrote that Philetas father was Telephos and his mother, assuming the manuscript is supplemented correctly, Euctione. From a comment about Philitas in the Suda, a 10th-century AD historical encyclopedia, it is estimated he was born c. 340 BC, and that he might have established a reputation in Cos by c. It was a favorite retreat for men of letters weary of Alexandria. Philetas was appointed Philadelphus tutor, which suggests he moved to Alexandria c. 297/6 BC and he may also have tutored Arsinoe II, Philadelphus older sister and eventual wife. Later tutors of royal offspring in Ptolemaic Egypt generally headed the Library of Alexandria, Hermesianax wrote of Philitas, singing of nimble Bittis, and Ovid twice calls her Battis. Philitas was thin and frail, and may have suffered and died from a wasting disease and he seems to have died in Cos sometime in the 280s BC. His pupil Hermesianax wrote that a statue of him was erected under a tree by the people of Cos. His contemporary Posidippus wrote that Philadelphus commissioned a bronze of Philitas in old age from the sculptor Hecataeus, no. he cast the old man full of cares. The 3rd century AD Roman author Aelian skeptically passed along a story that Philitas was so thin that he put weights in the soles of his shoes to avoid being blown away by a stiff wind. The vocabulary, called Disorderly Words, has been lost, with only a few fragments quoted by later authors. One example, quoted in Athenaeus, is that the word πέλλα meant wine cup in the ancient Greek region of Boeotia, hermeneia, another scholarly work, probably contained Philitas versions and critical interpretations of Homer and other authors. About thirty fragments of Philitas poetry are known, along with four titles, Demeter, Philitas most famous work, consisted of elegiac couplets. Its few surviving fragments suggest that it narrated the grain goddess Demeters hunt for her daughter Persephone and it is also possible that Hermes was a collection of such stories, with the patronage of Hermes himself as the common thread
4. Hippocrates – Hippocrates of Kos, also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the Father of Modern Medicine in recognition of his contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, historians agree that Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC on the Greek island of Kos, other biographical information, however, is likely to be untrue. Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek gynecologist, was Hippocrates first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him, later biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, and in the works of John Tzetzes, which date from the 12th century AD. Hippocrates is mentioned in passing in the writings of two contemporaries, Plato, in Protagoras and Phaedrus, and, Aristotles Politics, which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates father was Heraclides, a physician, and his mother was Praxitela, the two sons of Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were his students. According to Galen, a physician, Polybus was Hippocrates true successor, while Thessalus. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, Hippocrates was probably trained at the asklepieion of Kos, and took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly, Thrace, several different accounts of his death exist. He died, probably in Larissa, at the age of 83,85 or 90, Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy, indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, ancient Greek schools of medicine were split on how to deal with disease. The Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis, Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew almost nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans. The Knidian school consequently failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms, the Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments. Its focus was on patient care and prognosis, not diagnosis and it could effectively treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice. Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine, now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school. S. Houdart called the Hippocratic treatment a meditation upon death, after a crisis, a relapse might follow, and then another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, if a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected
5. Pamphile – Pamphile, Plateae filia or Latoi filia, was the daughter of Platea, a woman of the Greek island of Kos. It is said that silk was first spun by her and she also invented the technique of preparing a thread from cotton wool for spinning on a distaff. She developed the technique of weaving from cotton thread, pliny the Elder described in 70 BC, Silk was obtained by removing the down from the leaves with the help of water. He also recounted the legend of Pamphile, who invented silk weaving on the Greek island of Kos. He said that Pamphile discovered the technique of weaving like a spiders web, aristotle also associated Pamphile with inventing the concept of weaving silk