Pages in category "Ancient wine"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ancient Greece and wine – The influence of wine in ancient Greece helped Ancient Greece trade with neighboring countries and regions. Many mannerisms and cultural aspects were associated with wine and it led to great change in Ancient Greece as well. Along the way, they influenced the ancient European winemaking cultures of the Celts, Etruscans, Scythians. Viticulture has existed in Greece since the late Neolithic period, with domestic cultivation becoming widespread by the early Bronze Age, through trade with ancient Egypt, the Minoan civilization on Crete was introduced to Egyptian winemaking methods, an influence most likely imparted to Mycenaean Greece. Along with olives and grain, grapes were an important agricultural crop vital to sustenance and community development, in the Mycenaean period, wine took on greater cultural, religious and economic importance. Records inscribed on tablets in Linear B include details of wine, vineyards and wine merchants, as well as an allusion to Dionysus. Greeks embedded the arrival of winemaking culture in the mythologies of Dionysus, early remnants of amphoras show that the Mycenaeans actively traded wine throughout the ancient world in places such as Cyprus, Egypt, Palestine, Sicily and southern Italy. As the Greek city-states established colonies throughout the Mediterranean, the settlers brought grapevines with them and were active in cultivating the wild vines they encountered, Sicily and southern Italy formed some of the earliest colonies, as they were areas already home to an abundance of grapevines. The Greeks called the part of the Italian Peninsula Oenotria. Athens itself provided a large and lucrative market for wine, with significant vineyard estates forming in the Attican region and on the island of Thasos to help satisfy demand. Wine historians have theorized that the Greeks may have introduced viticulture to Spain and Portugal, the grape clusters, vines and wine cups that adorn Greek coins from classical times bear witness to the importance of wine to the ancient Greek economy. With every major trading partner, from the Crimea, Egypt, Scythia, Etruria and beyond, millions of amphora pieces bearing the unique seals of various city-states and Aegean islands have been uncovered by archaeologists, demonstrating the scope of Greek influence. It is estimated that the Greeks shipped nearly 10 million liters of wine into Gaul each year through Massalia, in 1929, the discovery of the Vix Grave in Burgundy included several artifacts demonstrating the strong ties between Greek wine traders and local Celtic villagers. The most notable of these was a large Greek-made krater, designed to hold over 1,000 litres of wine, Ancient Greeks called the cultivated vine hemeris, after their adjective for tame, differentiating it from its wild form. A massive rootstock was carved into an image of the Great Goddess. He also wrote that Laertes, father of Odysseus, had over 50 grape varieties planted in different parts of his vineyard, another innovation was the minimization of yields for more intense concentration of flavors and quality, rather than increased quantity. The economics of the time favored high yields for most crops, theophrastus also detailed the practice of using suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings. The Greeks also employed vine training with stacked plants for cultivation and harvesting
2. Ancient Rome and wine – Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of wine. The earliest influences on the viticulture of the Italian peninsula can be traced to ancient Greeks, the rise of the Roman Empire saw both technological advances in and burgeoning awareness of winemaking, which spread to all parts of the empire. Romes influence has had an effect on the histories of todays major winemaking regions in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal. The Roman belief that wine was a daily necessity made the democratic and ubiquitous, in various forms, it was available to slaves, peasants, women. To ensure the supply of wine to Roman soldiers and colonists, viticulture. Many of the techniques and principles first developed in ancient Roman times can be found in modern winemaking, though wild grapevines have grown on the Italian peninsula since prehistory, historians are unable to determine precisely when domestic viticulture and winemaking first occurred. It is possible that the Mycenaean Greeks had some influences through early settlements in southern Italy, viticulture was widely entrenched in Etruscan civilization, which was centered around the modern winemaking region of Tuscany. Southern Italys abundance of indigenous vines provided an opportunity for wine production, giving rise to the Greek name for the region. The Greek settlements of southern Italy were completely under Roman control by 270 BC, the Etruscans, who had already established trade routes into Gaul, were completely conquered by the 1st century BC. The Punic Wars with Carthage had a marked effect on Roman viticulture. In addition to broadening the horizons of the Roman citizenry, Carthaginians also introduced them to advanced viticultural techniques. Although his work did not survive to the era, it has been extensively quoted in the influential writings of Romans Pliny, Columella, Varro. For most of Romes winemaking history, Greek wine was the most highly prized, the 2nd century BC saw the dawn the golden age of Roman winemaking and the development of grand cru vineyards. The famous vintage of 121 BC became known as the Opimian vintage, remarkable for its abundant harvest and the unusually high quality of wine produced, some of the vintages best examples were being enjoyed over a century later. Pliny the Elder wrote extensively about the first growths of Rome—most notably Falernian, Alban and Caecuban wines, around Rome itself were the estates of Alban, Sabinum, Tiburtinum, Setinum and Signinum. Southward to Naples were the estates of Caecuban, Falernian, Caulinum, Trebellicanum, Massicum, Gauranium, in Sicily was the first-growth estate of Mamertinum. At this high point in the history of wine, it was estimated that Rome was consuming over 180 million litres of wine annually. One of the most important wine centres of the Roman world was the city of Pompeii, the area was home to a vast expanse of vineyards, serving as an important trading city with Roman provinces abroad and the principal source of wine for the city of Rome
3. Conditum – Conditum, piperatum, or konditon is a family of spiced wines in ancient Roman and Byzantine cuisine. The Latin name translates roughly as spiced, recipes for conditum viatorium and conditum paradoxum are found in De re coquinaria. This conditum paradoxum includes wine, honey, pepper, mastic, laurel, saffron, date seeds, andrew Dalby, Food in the Ancient World from A to Z,2003 ISBN 0-415-23259-7
4. History of wine – The earliest archaeological evidence of wine consumption yet found has been at sites in China, Georgia, Iran, and Greece. The oldest evidence of production has been found in Armenia. The altered consciousness produced by wine has been considered religious since its origin, the Greeks worshiped Dionysus or Bacchus and the Romans carried on his cult. Consumption of ritual wine was part of Jewish practice since Biblical times and, as part of the eucharist commemorating Jesuss Last Supper, Wine production and consumption increased, burgeoning from the 15th century onwards as part of European expansion. Despite the devastating 1887 phylloxera louse infestation, modern science and technology adapted and industrial wine production, the origins of wine predate written records, and modern archaeology is still uncertain about the details of the first cultivation of wild grapevines. It has been hypothesized that early humans climbed trees to pick berries, liked their sugary flavor, after a few days with fermentation setting in, juice at the bottom of any container would begin producing low-alcohol wine. According to this theory, things changed around 10. 000-8000 BC with the transition from a nomadic to a style of living. Wild grapes grow in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the northern Levant, coastal and southeastern Turkey, the fermenting of strains of this wild Vitis vinifera subsp. Sylvestris would have become easier following the development of pottery during the later Neolithic, however, the earliest evidence so far discovered dates from millennia afterwards. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine production yet found has been at sites in China, Georgia, Iran, Greece, the Iranian jars contained a form of retsina, using turpentine pine resin to more effectively seal and preserve the wine. Production spread to sites in Greater Iran and Grecian Macedonia by c. 4500 BC. The Greek site is notable for the recovery at the site of the remnants of crushed grapes, the oldest-known winery was discovered in the Areni-1 cave in Vayots Dzor, Armenia. Dated to c. 4100 BC, the site contained a press, fermentation vats, jars. Archaeologists also found V. vinifera seeds and vines, commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier. The seeds were from Vitis vinifera vinifera, a still used to make wine. The cave remains date to about 4000 BC -900 years before the earliest comparable wine remains and this is what CNN wrote, Forget France. It turns out, the birthplace of wine may be in a cave in Armenia. Wine found in Armenia is considered to be at least 6100 years old, the fame of Persian wine has been well known in Ancient times
5. Persian wine – Persian wine, also called Mey and Badeh, is a cultural symbol and tradition in Persia, and has a significant presence in Persian mythology, Persian poetry and Persian miniatures. Recent archaeological research has pushed back the date of the origin of wine making in Persia far beyond that which writers earlier in the 20th century had envisaged. Excavations at the Godin Tepe site in the Zagros mountains, have revealed pottery vessels dating from c, 3100–2900 BC containing tartaric acid, almost certainly indicating the former presence of wine. Even earlier evidence was found at the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, as book of Immortal Land Persian, سرزمین جاوید or SarZamin e Javid] says Ramian wines were world-famous in the Parthian Empire. Ramian Wine is now a California wine brand but Shiraz wines are famous across the globe, according to Iranian legend, wine was discovered by a girl despondent over her rejection by the king. The girl decided to commit suicide by drinking the spoiled residue left by rotting table grapes, instead of poisoning the girl, the fermented must caused her to pass out to awaken the next morning with the realization that life was worth living. She reported back to the king her discovery of the qualities of the spoiled grape juice and was rewarded for her find. Miniature painting in Persia developed into an art in which the most important element that all these paintings share is their subjects. The subjects that are chosen from Hafez’s “Ghazaliyat” or Khayyam’s Rubaiyat. Therefore, the Persian wine, Mey, and Persian wine server, in Persian poetry, grapes and wine appear frequently with symbolic, metaphorical, and actual meanings. Persian culture Shirazi wine Beer in Iran Persian wine tradition and symbolism, Evidence from the poetry of Hafiz The History of Wine. Depiction of Wine in Persian Miniature
6. Phoenicians and wine – The culture of the ancient Phoenicians was one of the first to have had a significant effect on the history of wine. Phoenicia was a civilization centered in the reaches of Canaan along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Between 1550 BC and 300 BC, the Phoenicians developed a maritime trading culture that expanded their influence from the Levant to North Africa, the Greek Isles, Sicily, and the Iberian Peninsula. They either introduced or encouraged the dissemination of knowledge to several regions that today continue to produce wine suitable for international consumption. These include modern-day Lebanon, Syria, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Spain, France, the Phoenicians and their Punic descendants of Carthage had a direct influence on the growing winemaking cultures of the ancient Greeks and Romans that would later spread viticulture across Europe. The agricultural treatises of the Carthaginian writer Mago were among the most important early texts in the history of wine to ancient knowledge of winemaking. The Phoenicians also spread the use of amphoras for the transport, historians think it was shortly after the discovery of wine itself, the alcoholic product of fermented grape juice, that cultures realized its value as a trade commodity. Although wild grapes of the Vitis genus could be throughout the known world and all could be fermented, it took some degree of knowledge. This knowledge was passed along the routes that emerged from the Caucasus and Zagros Mountains down through Mesopotamia and to the Mediterranean. Specific varieties of grapevines of the V. vinifera species were identified as especially favorable for winemaking, in addition to being a valuable trade commodity for personal consumption, wine also began to take on religious and cultural significance. Wine, or chemer as the Phoenicians called it, was associated with various Levantine deities—most notably El, Wine was considered an acceptable offering to both gods and kings, increasing its trade value in the ancient world. Around 1000 BC, the Mediterranean wine trade exploded, making the Phoenicians, the Phoenicians not only traded in wine produced in Canaan but also developed markets for wine produced in colonies and port cities around the Mediterranean Sea. From their principal settlements in cities like Byblos, Tyre and Sidon, from there they expanded from beyond mere trading to establishing colonies of trading cities throughout the Mediterranean. They continued along the shores to found Carthage in 814 BC in northern Africa, and from there to the Balearic Islands. The Phoenicians were the founders of Málaga and Cádiz in present-day Spain sometime in the 9th century, the Phoenicians traveled the peninsulas interior, establishing trading routes along the Tagus, Douro, Baetis and Iberus rivers. In Portugal, however, the Phoenicians were known to trade amphoras of wine for local silver, a recent discovery in the modern-day winemaking region of Valdepeñas in the south central part of what is now Spain, suggests that the Phoenicians brought viticulture further inland. Excavation in Valdepeñas has revealed the remnants of the ancient Iberian town of Cerro de las Cabezas, among the remnants were several examples of Phoenician ceramics, pottery and artifacts, including winemaking equipment. Beyond the Phoenicians own expansion and colonization, the civilization did much to influence the Greek, the wines of Phoenicia had such an enduring presence in the Greek and Roman world that the adjective Bybline became a byword denoting wine of high quality
7. Retsina – Retsina is a Greek white resinated wine, which has been made for at least 2000 years. Its unique flavor is said to have originated from the practice of sealing wine vessels, particularly amphorae, before the invention of impermeable glass bottles, oxygen caused many wines to spoil within the year. Pine resin helped keep air out, while at the same time infusing the wine with resin aroma. The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, removing any oenological necessity for resin and he recommended, however, that the very best wines should not be mixed with resin because of the unpleasant flavor introduced thereby. By the 3rd century, barrel making was prevalent throughout the Roman Empire, the exception was the eastern empire regions of Byzantium which had developed a taste for the strong, pungent wine and continued to produce resinated wine long after the western Roman empire stopped. The difference in taste between the two empires took center stage in the work of the historian Liutprand of Cremona and his Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana. In 968, Liutprand was sent to Constantinople to arrange a marriage between the daughter of the late Emperor Romanos II and the future Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. Pilgrims and Crusaders to the Holy Land during the Middle Ages recorded their experiences with the strong, pietro Casola, an Italian noble who traveled to Jerusalem in 1494, wrote about the wines and cuisines of the places he stopped at along the way. In one of his entries, about his visit to Modone on Peloponnese, he wrote about the bounty of good quality wines made from Malmsey, Muscatel, everything he tried was pleasing, except the strong, resinated wine with an unpleasant odor. Popular anecdotes about the evolution of retsina stem from the Roman conquest of Greece, stories claim that the Romans plundered the wines of Greece, angering the citizens who turned to pine resin as a way of extending their store of wine and as a deterrent to their thirsty conquerors. The harsh flavor was said to put off the Romans, who refused to drink the bitter ferment, another anecdote claims that an excess of undiluted retsina was lethal for King Eric I of Denmark and Sigurd I of Norway. In Greece, local Retsina is produced throughout the country, major production centers around Attica, Boeotia and Euboea. The European Union treats the name Retsina as a designation of origin and traditional appellation for Greece. An Australian wine style made in South Australia can be called resinated wine, today the traditional grape for Retsina is Savatiano with Assyrtiko and Rhoditis sometimes blended in, as well as other grape varieties throughout Greece. On the island of Rhodes, Athiri is the main grape, modern Retsina is made following the same winemaking techniques of white wine or rosé with the exception of small pieces of Aleppo pine resin added to the must during fermentation. The pieces stay mixed with the must, and elute an oily resin film on the surface, at racking the wine is clarified. Nowadays, protecting the new wine from oxidation is easy to do with far simpler means, media related to Retsina at Wikimedia Commons
8. Shiraz wine – Syrah, also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine. DNA profiling in 1999 found Syrah to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France, Dureza and Mondeuse blanche, Syrah should not be confused with Petite Sirah, a synonym for Durif, a cross of Syrah with Peloursin dating from 1880. In hot climates, Syrah is more consistently full-bodied with softer tannin, jammier fruit and spice notes of liquorice, anise, in many regions the acidity and tannin levels of Syrah allow the wines produced from the grape to have favorable aging potential. Syrah is used as a varietal and is also blended, following several years of strong planting, Syrah was estimated in 2004 to be the worlds 7th most grown grape at 142,600 hectares. Syrah has a documented history in the Rhône region of southeastern France. Dureza, a grape variety from the Ardèche region in France, has all but disappeared from the vineyards. Mondeuse blanche is a grape variety cultivated in the Savoy region. Thus, both of Syrahs parents come from an area in southeastern France, very close to northern Rhône. Based on these findings, the researchers have concluded Syrah originated from northern Rhône, instead, they seem to have been based primarily or solely on the name or synonyms of the variety. Because of varying orthography for grape names, especially for old varieties, despite this, origins such as Syracuse or the famous Iranian city of Shiraz have been proposed while the genomic studies yet to be done. The parentage information, however, does not reveal how old the grape variety is, i. e. when the pollination of a Mondeuse blanche vine by Dureza took place, leading to the original Syrah seed plant. Pliny called the vines of this wine Allobrogica, and it has been speculated that it could be todays Syrah. However, the description of the wine would also fit, for example, Dureza and it is called Syrah in its country of origin, France, as well as in the rest of Europe, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, New Zealand and South Africa. The name Shiraz became popular for this variety in Australia. Legends of Syrahs origins come from one of its homonyms, Shiraz, because Shiraz, Capital of the Persian Empire, produced the well-known Shirazi wine, legends claim the Syrah grape originated in Shiraz and then was brought to Rhône. In one version, the Phocaeans could have brought Syrah/Shiraz to their colony around Marseilles, the grape would then later have made its way to northern Rhône, which was never colonized by the Phocaeans. No documentary evidence exists to back up this legend, and it requires the variety to later vanish from the Marseilles region without leaving any trace. The legend connecting Syrah with the city of Shiraz in Iran may, however, another legend of the grape varietys origin, based on the name Syrah, is that it was brought from Syracuse by the legions of Roman Emperor Probus sometime after AD280