Category:Anti-Jewish pogroms by Muslims
Pages in category "Anti-Jewish pogroms by Muslims"
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1838 Druze attack on Safed – The 1838 Druze attack on Safed began on July 5,1838, during the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Tensions had mounted as the Druze captured an Egyptian garrison outside of Safed, some Jews ended up leaving the town, moving south to Jerusalem and Acre. Among them was Israel Beck, whose printing press had been destroyed a second time by the ruffians, by the 19th-century, the Galilean city of Safed comprised a major Jewish center. It had become a centre during the 16th-century, reaching a size of about 15,000 at its peak. Despite the decline through the 17th and 18th centuries, by the 1830s there were still around 3, 500-4,000 Jews living there, comprising at least half the population. After several months, the Egyptians managed to crush the rebellion and regain control of the county, not long after, Safed was again the scene of devastation when in 1837 a strong earthquake resulted in thousands of deaths and the destruction of many buildings. The northern, Jewish section of the town was almost entirely destroyed, by 1838, the tense relationship between the fellahin and the Egyptian overlords was again mounting and a full-scale Druze revolt erupted in January. In summer of 1838, the Druze captured a heavily outnumbered Egyptian garrison outside Safed, the Jewish population relied on the protection of an Arab governor against the Druze. Dr. Elizer Loewe wrote in his diary, We huddled together in Rebbe Avraham Dovs house, the women were hysterical and the children crying. The Rebbe asked me to write a note in Arabic to the mayor, I did so, but his answer was mere lip service. According to Loewe, the mayor and his militia fled the city, the Druze rebels were joined by Muslim mob and they looted the Jewish quarters, as the Druze rebels thought the Jews possessed hidden treasures and local Muslims encouraged them to attack. The plunder lasted for 3 days, during the course of the attack, some Jews were assisted by friendly Arabs. One Arab by the name of Muhammed Mustafa, had helped them, lending them money and providing them with food. This time, Ibrahim Pashas response was swift, and after a few days things returned to normal. 1660 destruction of Safed 1929 Safed riots
2. 1947 Aden riots – The riots were a significant embarrassment for the British government, particularly given that the British-raised Aden Protectorate Levies were blamed for causing many unnecessary deaths. By the mid-20th century, Aden was under British rule and had a community of around 5,000 Jews living alongside the Muslim population, sixty persons, including 25 Jews, were injured but there were no fatalities. In the 1940s, visits of Palestinian Arabs to Aden and expressions of Anti-Jewish sentiments became common and this was an attempt to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict by partitioning Mandatory Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Following the vote by the UN on partition of Mandatory Palestine, wide scale protests took place across the Arab countries and communities, on 2 December, the Arabs of Aden proclaimed a comprehensive three-day solidarity strike. Shortly after their beginning, the protests in Aden erupted into an outbreak of violence against the Jews. According to a news account, the rioting began on 2 December. Jewish shops were looted and burned, the rioting resumed the following day, and British army units from the Suez Canal Zone and navy forces were brought in to restore order. The Selim Girls School in 1929 which was located next to King George V Jewish Boys School and was gutted in the 1947 riots. Overall 82 Jews were killed and 76 wounded, in Shaykh Uthman,61 houses were damaged and looted,12 more houses were burnt,5 shops,1 school and 1 synagogue, as well as Jewish-owned distillery were burnt as well. A subsequent British commission of inquiry found that trigger happy firing by Aden Protectorate Levies had resulted in casualties of 82 Jews and 38 Arabs. Sir Harry Trusted, who was sent to Aden as Commissioner to investigate the riots, the official casualty count was 76–82 Jews and 38 Arabs killed, and 76 Jews wounded. At least 87 Arabs were known to have been wounded but many others failed to report their condition, the dead included one Indian Medical Officer and one Levy. More than 100 Jewish shops were looted and 30 houses burned, an official enquiry conducted by Sir Harry Trusted determined that many individual Levies were sympathetic to the rioters and did not act to control them. Nine Levies were imprisoned for looting, Trusted put most of the blame on Yemeni coolies, workers temporarily in the country who have a low standard of life, are illiterate, fanatical and, when excited, may be savage. Jewish leaders acknowledged many instances of Arabs and Indians sheltering and otherwise befriending their Jewish neighbours, the British government was severely embarrassed by the riots, noting privately that they were urging the Arab states to protect their Jews when they themselves were unable to. Shortly after the riots, Adens Jewish community almost entirely emptied, farhud 1945 Tripoli pogrom 1945 Cairo pogrom
3. 1947 anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo – The 1947 Anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo were an attack against Jews in Aleppo, Syria in December 1947, following the United Nations vote in favour of partitioning Palestine. The attack, a part of wave of unrest across Middle East and North Africa, resulted in some 75 Jews murdered. In the aftermath of the riots, half the citys Jewish population fled the city, Syria gained independence from France in April 1946. At the time of the United Nations vote on November 29,1947, after the vote in favour of the partition of Palestine, the Syrian Government abetted and organised Aleppos Arab inhabitants to attack the citys Jewish population. The exact number of those killed remains unknown, but estimates of those killed are put at around 75, ten synagogues, five schools, an orphanage and a youth club, along with various Jewish shops and 150 houses were set ablaze and destroyed. Damaged property was estimated to be valued at US$2. 5m, during the pogrom the Aleppo Codex, an important medieval manuscript of the Torah was lost and feared destroyed. The book reappeared in Israel in 1958, following the attack, the Jewish community went into a steep decline. The wealthy Jews escaped the day after the pogrom and many fled in small groups in subsequent months. Their property was forfeited and on December 22 the Syrian Government enacted a law forbidding Jews from selling their property, within years after the pogroms, most Jews left Aleppo, a large majority of them to Israel. By 1959, about 2,000 Jews remained in Aleppo, as of 2012, no Jews live in Aleppo. 1945 Tripoli pogrom Farhud Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries Menarsha synagogue attack Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine war
4. 1948 Cairo bombings – The 1948 bombings in Cairo, which targeted Jewish areas, took place between June and September 1948 killing 70 Jews and wounding nearly 200. The first bomb was planted on June 20,1948, in Harat Al-Yahud Al-Qara’In,22 Jews were killed and 41 wounded. A spontaneous demonstration march to the Jewish quarter took place following the attacks, two days later the Egyptian authorities reported a potential Israeli bombing attack on Cairo, although it was a false alarm. A further two days after, on July 19, bombs exploded in the Jewish-owned Cicurel and Oreco department stores, and on July 28 and August 1 the Adès and Gattegno department stores were bombed. On September 22, five days after the assassination of United Nations mediator Bernadotte in Jerusalem,19 Jews were killed and 62 injured in an explosion in the Jewish quarter in Cairo. On November 12, shortly after the Egyptian defeat in Operation Shmone a bomb destroyed the premises of the Société Orientale de Publicité, the governments response was muted due to the growing influence and strength of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts, the government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhoods secret apparatus, at this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathisers. On December 8,1948, Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha officially dissolved the Society, in succeeding months Egypts prime minister was assassinated by Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In a 1950 trial, members of the Society were charged with carrying out all the bombings against the Jews of Cairo from June to November 1948, the prosecution argued that the bombings were part of a strategy to exploit the issue of Palestine to destabilise and undermine the regime. Helwan Riots 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania
5. 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt – The Balfour Day riots, also known as the 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt, took place between 2 and 3 November 1945. The riots began as anti-Zionist demonstrations on the 28th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, rallies were organised by the right-wing Young Egypt Party and Hassan al-Bannas Muslim Brotherhood. Five Egyptian Jews and one Muslim policeman were killed in Alexandria, the Greek Orthodox patriarchate, Catholic churches and a Coptic school were also damaged in the riot. The police reacted quickly but were unable to prevent much of the violence, however further demonstrations planned for the following day were largely suppressed. In 1949, a bombing in the Cairo Jewish quarter killed 34, during the 1950s, the Jews of Egypt were subjected to political instability due to ongoing Israeli-Egyptian conflict and suffered sporadic violence, leading to the exodus of most of the community. 1945 Tripoli pogrom Antisemitism in the Arab world#Egypt
6. Damascus affair – The Damascus affair of 1840 refers to the arrest of thirteen notable members of the Jewish community of Damascus who were accused of murdering a Christian monk for ritual purposes. The anti-semitic blood libel resulted in the accused being imprisoned and tortured by the Ottoman authorities, the affair drew widespread international attention which resulted in negotiations conducted in Alexandria from August 4 till August 28. Under Ottoman Islamic rule, Christians and Jews were considered dhimmis—a class of non-Muslims possessing some limited rights under Muslim rule—and were allowed to practice their religious precepts. In return, they had to pay a tax, or jizya, in 1831-32, Syria came under the rule of the Egyptians under Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali was said to have ruled at the sufferance of the European powers, led by France, and under his rule and this aroused a grudge among the Muslim majority toward its non-Muslim population. In the economic struggle between the Jews and the Christians, each side needed the backing and support of the Muslim majority, the Christians in Damascus complained about their cruel treatment by the Muslim judges. These priests reportedly brought the previously European blood libel myth with them, on February 5,1840, Father Thomas, a French citizen originally from Sardinia, and the superior of a Franciscan convent at Damascus, disappeared along with his servant. Their teeth and beards were pulled out, they were burned, lañado, a feeble old man, died under this treatment. Moses Abulafia became a Muslim in order to escape the torture, in spite of the stoic courage displayed by the sufferers, Sherif Pasha and Ratti-Menton agreed to the trumped up charges. While Ratti-Menton published libels against the Jews in French and in Arabic, Sherif Pasha wrote to his master, Muhammad Ali, in the meantime the populace fell upon the synagogue in the suburb of Jobar, pillaged it, and destroyed the scrolls of the Law. While occasional outbreaks of violence erupted during this time, far more serious outbreaks of violence occurred between Muslims and Christians and Christians and Druze. In 1840, G. W. Pieritz also exposed the matter in the Times to public indignation, negotiations in Alexandria continued from August 4 to August 28 and secured the unconditional release and recognition of innocence of the nine prisoners still remaining alive. Later in Constantinople, Montefiore persuaded Sultan Abdülmecid I to issue a firman intended to halt the spread of blood libel accusations in the Ottoman Empire. In a new and groundbreaking effort, the American Jewish community of 15,000 protested in six American cities on behalf of their Syrian brethren, for the first time in American Jewish life, Jews. Organized themselves politically to help Diaspora Jewry in distress, the United States consul in Egypt expressed the protest. The incident and its repercussions were considerable, according to Johannes Valentin Schwarz, the events also encouraged the growth of the modern Jewish press. As a result, a sense of solidarity was evoked among the Jewish communities of Europe they had never experienced before, one major repercussion of the 1840 Damascus Affair was the introduction in the Middle East of the French education system later integrated into Alliance Israélite Universelle. Accusations of the affair were published in the Egyptian daily Al Akhbar in 2000, in 2002, the Middle East Media Research Institute reported that some of the 1840 accusations emerged in a 1983 book The Damascus Blood Libel by the Syrian Minister of Defense, Mustafa Tlass
7. Farhud – Farhud refers to the pogrom or violent dispossession carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad, Iraq, on June 1–2,1941, immediately following the British victory in the Anglo-Iraqi War. The riots occurred in a vacuum following the collapse of the pro-Nazi government of Rashid Ali. Over 180 Jews were killed and 1,000 injured, looting of Jewish property took place and 900 Jewish homes were destroyed. According to Hayyim Cohen, the Farhud was the known to the Jews of Iraq. The Jews lived in the land of Babylon for more than 2,500 years following the Babylonian captivity, there had been at least two earlier comparable pogroms in the modern history of Iraqi Jews, in Basra in 1776 and in Baghdad in 1828. After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the First World War, after King Ghazi who inherited the throne of Faisal I, died in a 1939 car accident, Britain installed Abd al-Ilah as Iraqs governing regent. By 1941, the approximately 150,000 Iraqi Jews played active roles in many aspects of Iraqi life, including farming, banking, commerce and the government bureaucracy. Iraqi nationalist Rashid Ali al-Gaylani was appointed Prime Minister again in 1940, in addition, between 1932 and 1941, the German embassy in Iraq, headed by Dr. Fritz Grobba, significantly supported antisemitic and fascist movements. Intellectuals and army officers were invited to Germany as guests of the Nazi party, the German embassy purchased the newspaper Al-alam Al-arabi which published, in addition to antisemitic propaganda, a translation of Mein Kampf in Arabic. The German embassy also supported the establishment of Al-Fatwa, a organization based upon the model of the Hitler Youth. In 1941, a group of pro-Nazi Iraqi officers, known as the Golden Square and led by General Rashid Ali, the coup had significant popular support, particularly in Baghdad. Bashkin writes that All, apparently, yearned for the departure of the British after two decades of interference in Iraqi affairs. Iraqs new government then was involved in confrontation with the British over the terms of the military treaty forced on Iraq at independence. The treaty gave the British unlimited rights to base troops in Iraq, the British arranged to land large numbers of soldiers from India in Iraq to force the country to show its intentions. Iraq refused to let them land and confrontations afterward occurred both near Basra in the south and to the west of Baghdad near the British base complex and airfield. The Germans dispatched a group of 26 heavy fighters to aid in an air attack on the British airbase at Habbaniya which accomplished nothing. The telegram dealt with the issues of war in the middle east rather than Iraq exclusively. On May 25, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations, in this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq
8. 1929 Hebron massacre – The event also left scores seriously wounded or maimed. Jewish homes were pillaged and synagogues were ransacked, some of the 435 Jews who survived were hidden by local Arab families, although the extent of this phenomenon is debated. Soon after, all Hebrons Jews were evacuated by the British authorities, many returned in 1931, but almost all were evacuated at the outbreak of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine. The massacre formed part of the 1929 Palestine riots, in which a total of 133 Jews and 110 Arabs were killed, the massacre, together with that of Jews in Safed, sent shock waves through Jewish communities in Palestine and around the world. It led to the re-organization and development of the Jewish paramilitary organization, the Haganah, the city of Hebron holds special significance in Islam and Judaism, it being the site of the Tomb of the Patriarchs. In 1929, the population numbered around 20,000, the majority of whom were Muslim Arabs, a small community of around 700 Jews, consisting of a few dozen inside Hebron and a majority that rented houses from Arab proprietors on the outskirts, also lived there. The Jewish community was divided between recent Ashkenazi immigrants and a population of descendants of Sephardim who had inhabited the town for centuries. Ashkenazi Jews had been established in the town for at least a century, the two communities, Sephardim and Ashkenazi, maintained separate schools, worshipped in separate synagogues, and did not intermarry. Since the Balfour Declaration of 1917, tensions had been growing between the Arab and Jewish communities in Palestine, the Muslim community of Hebron had a reputation for being highly conservative in religion. Though Jews had suffered numerous vexations in the past, and this hostility was to take an anti-Zionist turn after the Balfour Declaration, during the riots of 1920 and 1921, Hebrons Jews had been spared the violence that broke out elsewhere. In mid-August 1929, hundreds of Jewish nationalists marched to the Western Wall in Jerusalem shouting slogans such as The Wall is Ours, rumours spread that Jewish youths had also attacked Arabs and had cursed Muhammad. Following an inflammatory sermon the next day, hundreds of Muslims converged on the Western Wall, burning prayer books, the rioting soon spread to the Jewish commercial area of town and the next day, August 17, a young Jew was stabbed to death. The authorities failed to quell the violence, rumours that Jews had massacred Arabs in Jerusalem then reached Hebron by that evening. Hillel Cohen frames his recent narrative of the incident in terms of the murder of the Jaffa Awan family by a Jewish police constable called Simcha Hinkis. Former Haganah member, Baruch Katinke, recalled that he had been informed by his superiors that 10–12 fighters were needed to protect the Jews in Hebron. On August 20, a group travelled to Hebron in the middle of the night, Katinke said that Slonim was adamant that no protection was needed as he was on good terms with the local Arabs and he trusted the ayan to protect the Jews. According to Katinke, Slonim postulated that the sight of the Haganah might instead cause a provocation, the group was soon discovered and Police Superintendent Raymond Cafferata, an officer recruited from the Black and Tans, ordered them to return to Jerusalem. Two others remained in Slonims house, but the day after, Hebrons police force was headed by Superintendent Raymond Cafferata of the Palestine Police Force and consisted of two Arab officers and another 40 policemen, only one of whom was Jewish
9. 1517 Hebron attacks – 1517 Hebron attacks occurred in the final phases of the 1513-17 Ottoman–Mamluk War, when Turkish Ottomans had ousted the Mamluks and taken Palestine. The massacre targeted the Jewish population of the city and is referred to as a pogrom. An account of the event, recorded by Japheth ben Manasseh in 1518, mentions how the onslaught was initiated by Turkish troops led by Murad Bey, Jews were attacked, beaten and raped, and many were killed as their homes and businesses were looted and pillaged. It has been suggested that the financial position of the Hebronite Jews at the time was what attracted the Turkish soldiers to engage in the mass plunder. Others suggest the pogrom could have in fact taken place in the midst of a localised conflict and those who survived the calamity fled to Beirut and Jews only returned to Hebron 16 years later in 1533. 1834 Hebron massacre List of massacres in Ottoman Syria
10. 1947 Jerusalem riots – The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the vote in the UN General Assembly in favour of the 1947 UN Partition Plan on 29 November 1947. The Arab Higher Committee declared a strike and public protest to begin on 2 December 1947. Violence continued for two days, with a number of Jewish neighborhoods being attacked. A consequence of the violence was the decision by the Haganah Jewish paramilitary organization to use force to stop attacks on Jews. The Irgun had conducted armed attacks aimed against population of nearby Arab villages, on December 12, Irgun militants placed a bomb at the Damascus Gate that killed 20 people. 1947 Aleppo pogrom 1947 Manama pogrom December 2,1947 – Arabs Attack Jewish Commercial Center
11. 1947 Manama riots – In the wake of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a riot against the Jewish community of Manama, in the British Protectorate of Bahrain, on December 5,1947. A mob of Iranian and Trucial States sailors ran through the Manama Souq looted Jewish homes and shops, one Jewish woman died, she was either killed or died from fright. Bahrains tiny Jewish community, mostly the Jewish descendants of immigrants who entered the country in the early 1900s from Iraq, in the wake of the November 29,1947 U. N. Partition vote, demonstrations against the vote in the Arab world were called for December 2–5. The first two days of demonstrations in Bahrain saw rock throwing against Jews, but on December 5, mobs in the capital of Manama looted Jewish homes and shops in the citys Jewish district. The riots led to the sacking of the synagogue in Bahrain. Local Jews blamed the riots on foreign Arabs, after the riots, Bahraini Jews left en masse, some emigrating to Israel, others to England or America. They were allowed to leave with their property, although they were forced to give up their citizenship, an estimated 500 to 600 Jews remained in Bahrain until riots broke out after the Six Day War in 1967, as of 2006 only 36 remained. Houda Nonoo told The Independent newspaper, I dont think it was Bahrainis who were responsible, many Bahrainis looked after Jews in their houses. Most of them, when possible, had given shelter and protection to their Jewish neighbours, had one surprising effect, it put an end to any active aggression by the Bahrain Arabs against the Bahrain Jews. − Farhud 1945 Tripoli pogrom 1945 Cairo pogrom
12. 1517 Safed attacks – The Safed attacks were an incident that took place in Safed soon after the Turkish Ottomans had ousted the Mamluks and taken Levant during the Ottoman–Mamluk War in 1517. At the time the town had roughly 300 Jewish households, the severe blow suffered took place as Mamluks clashed bloodily with the new Ottoman authorities. The view that the impact on the Jews of Safed was severe is contested. Historians link the event to the conflict taking place in the country between the incoming Ottoman regime and its opponents and note that the Jews suffered maltreatment during the war. Accounts of the attack against the Jews in Safed were recorded by historian Rabbi Elijah Capsali of Candia, and Rabbi Joseph Garson, according to these reports, many Jews were killed and left injured. They were compelled to flee the city and their property was plundered, scholars debate whether or not the event led to a decline in the Jewish population of Safed, but all agree that a few years later, Jews had re-established a significant presence in the city. The attack may have been initiated by retreating Mamluk soldiers who accused the Jews of treacherously aiding the Turkish invaders, alternatively, the attack occurred during an attempt by local Mamluk sheikhs to reassert their control after being removed from power by the incoming Turks. Many Jews were reportedly killed while others were wounded or had their property pillaged, according to Garson, the Jews were evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages without any provisions. Many subsequently fled the city, but the community was rehabilitated with the financial help of Egyptian Jewry. The many Jews who had fled and sought refuge in neighbouring villages returned, the Ottoman overthrow of the Mamluks brought about important changes. Under the earlier dynasty, Egyptian Jews were guided by their nagid,1517 Hebron attacks 1834 looting of Safed 1838 Druze attack on Safed Ben-Ami, Shlomo, Mishal, Nissim. Demographic Changes in the Safed Jewish Community of the 16th Century, occident and Orient, A Tribute to the Memory of Alexander Scheiber. In Zion and Jerusalem, the itinerary of Rabbi Moses Basola, to Come to the Land, Immigration and Settlement in 16th-Century Eretz-Israel. Physician of the Soul, Healer of the Cosmos, Isaac Luria, eretz Yisrael Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1917. Tel Aviv, Am Oved and Dvir, Ottoman history and society, Jewish sources. Heavenly Powers, Unraveling the Secret of the Kabbalah, further data on the pogrom of 1517 against the Jews of Safed, Cathedra 8, p. 190-94. On the Jews of Safed in the Days of the Ottoman Conquest, Cathedra 11, p. 181-82
13. 1929 Safed riots – The 1929 Safed riots, during the 1929 Palestine riots, were the riots that took place in Safed culminating in the massacre of 18-20 Jewish residents of Safed on 29 August 1929. The Safed riot was part of wave of violence. Between eighteen and twenty Jews were killed and eighty wounded, the main Jewish street was looted and burned. The members of the Commission of Inquiry visited the town on 1 November 1929, david Hacohen, a resident of Safed, described the carnage in his diary, We set out on Saturday morning. I could not believe my eyes, I met some of the towns Jewish elders, who fell on my neck weeping bitterly. We went down alleys and steps to the old town, inside the houses I saw the mutilated and burned bodies of the victims of the massacre, and the burned body of a woman tied to the grille of a window. Going from house to house, I counted ten bodies that had not yet been collected, I saw the destruction and the signs of fire. Even in my grimmest thoughts I had not imagined that this was how I would find Safed where calm prevailed, the local Jews gave me a detailed description of how the tragedy had started. The pogrom began on the afternoon of Thursday, August 29, advancing on the street of the Sefardi Jews from Kfar Meron and Ein Zeitim, they looted and set fire to houses, urging each other on to continue with the killing. They slaughtered the schoolteacher, Aphriat, together with his wife and mother, bursting into the orphanages, they smashed the childrens heads and cut off their hands. Throughout the whole pogrom the police did not fire a single shot, a Scottish missionary working in Safed at the time stated, On Saturday August 24, there was a demonstration of Moslems along the road past the mission property. They came beating drums and breaking the windows of Jewish houses en route. On the afternoon of Thursday the 29th, one of our church members came running to tell us that all the Jews were being killed. Some escaped with injury only but 22 were killed outright in the town. The inhumanity of the attack was beyond conception, women were gashed in the chest, babies were cut on the hands and feet, old people were killed and plundered. List of massacres in Israel Timeline of Jewish History Riots in Palestine of May,1921 Minutes of the Seventeenth Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission
14. 1834 looting of Safed – The 1834 looting of Safed was prolonged attack against the Jewish community of Safed, Palestine, during the 1834 Peasants Revolt. It began on Sunday June 15, the day after the Jewish holiday of Shavuot, most contemporary accounts suggest it was a spontaneous attack which took advantage of a defenceless population in the midst of the armed uprising against Egyptian rule. The district governor tried to quell the violent outbreak, but failed to do so, the event took place during a power vacuum, whilst Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt was fighting to quell the wider revolt in Jerusalem. Accounts of the month-long event tell of large scale looting, as well as killing and raping of Jews, many Torah scrolls were desecrated and many Jews were left severely wounded. The event has been described as a pogrom or pogrom-like by some authors, hundreds fled the town seeking refuge in the open countryside or in neighbouring villages. The rioting was quelled by Lebanese Druze troops under the orders of Ibrahim Pasha following the intervention of foreign consuls, the instigators were arrested and later executed in Acre. By the 19th-century, Safed had long inhabited by Jews. It had become a centre during the 16th-century and by the 1830s there were around 4,000 Jews living there. Throughout their history, the Jews of Safed, though supported by the Porte, had been the target of oppressive exactions by corrupt local officials. In 1628 the Druze seized the city, and holding it for years, despoiled the local community. And again in the 1660 destruction of Safed, the 1831 annexation of Palestine to Egypt by Muhammad Ali rendered life relatively more secure than had been the case under the Ottomans. In 1833, however, at the approach of Ibrahim Pasha, Jews and Christians were to be exempted from the disarmament policy. The news was greeted by widespread anger and it resulted in a mass uprising by the fellahin which broke out in the spring. Safed had been damaged by an earthquake in May of that year. Kinglakes is the account which mentions the individual involvement of a local Muslim clergyman. Other reports suggest the attack was more violent in nature, Isaac Farhi described how several Jews were killed and raped in the attack. Men, women and children were robbed of their clothes and then beaten, some fled into the surrounding fields and remained there naked like wild animals until the danger passed. 12 year-old Jacob Saphir was among a number of refugees who found sanctuary in the adjacent village of Ein al-Zeitun assisted by a sympathetic Arab sheikh
15. 1938 Tiberias massacre – The Tiberias massacre took place on October 2,1938, during the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, in the city of Tiberias. Tiberias was then located in the British Mandate of Palestine and today is located in the State of Israel, after infiltrating the Jewish Kiryat Shmuel neighbourhood, Arab rioters killed 19 Jews in Tiberias,11 of whom were children. During the massacre,70 armed Arabs set fire to Jewish homes, in one house a mother and her five children were killed. The old beadle in the synagogue was stabbed to death, at the time of the attack there were only 15 Jewish guards in the neighborhood of over 2,000 people. The coast of the Sea of Galilee remained unguarded, for it was the least expected direction for an attack, two Jewish guards were killed in the attack. A representative of the British mandate reported that, It was systematically organized, of the nineteen Jews killed, including women and children, all save four were stabbed to death. That night and the day the troops engaged the raiding gangs. After the massacre, the Irgun wanted to make a joint retaliatory operation with Haganah to deter such events, shortly later Tiberian Arabs murdered the Jewish mayor, Isaac Zaki Alhadif, on October 27. The Haganah sent a party to investigate the failed defense of the city, led by Yosef Avidar, a Haganah leader who later became a general in the Israel Defense Forces
16. 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania – The 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania was the most violent rioting against Jews in North Africa in modern times. From November 5 to November 7,1945, more than 140 Jews were killed,38 Jews were killed in Tripoli from where the riots spread. 40 were killed in Amrus,34 in Zanzur,7 in Tajura,13 in Zawia and 3 in Qusabat, the British Military Administration were heavily criticized for acting too slowly to stop the rioting. Hooliganism and fanaticism have played an important part in the disturbances together with a tendency to loot. Official British reports highlight background factors responsible for the tension at the time, such as economic hardship. However, American diplomats believed that the British had been caught unaware and were sincere in their desire to curb outbreaks promptly, in the late 1930s, the Fascist Italian regime in Italian Libya began passing anti-Semitic laws. As a result of laws, Jews were fired from government jobs, some were dismissed from government schools. Despite this repression, that was opposed by governor Italo Balbo. But in February 1942, German troops fighting the Allies in North Africa occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops, sent to work in labor camps, more than one-fifth of this group of Jews perished. Despite liberation from Fascist Italian and Nazi German influence in 1943, some of the worst anti-Jewish violence occurred following the liberation of North Africa by Allied troops. From November 5 to November 7,1945, more than 140 Jews were killed, the rioters looted nearly all of the citys synagogues and destroyed five of them, along with hundreds of homes and businesses. In the aftermath about 4,000 Jews were left homeless, five synagogues in Tripoli and four in provincial towns were destroyed, and over 1,000 Jewish residences and commercial buildings were plundered in Tripoli alone. As in the Iraqi case, the Tripoli massacre inaugurated a train of events that would demoralize, the event caused the beginning of the Libyan Jewish exodus. Thus, Jews began leaving Libya three years before the establishment of Israel and seven years before Libya gained independence, the situation of Libyan Jews further escalated with the eruption of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. In June 1948, anti-Jewish rioters in Libya killed another 12 Jews and this time, however, the Libyan Jewish community had prepared to defend itself. Jewish self-defense units fought back against the rioters, preventing dozens of more deaths, the insecurity which arose from these anti-Jewish attacks, as well as the founding of the state of Israel led many Jews to emigrate. From 1948 to 1951, and especially after immigration became legal in 1949,30,972 Jews moved to Israel, more violence erupted after the Six Days War, leaving 18 Jews dead and many more injured. Following this, the remaining Jewish community of Libya, numbering about 7,000 persons, was almost entirely evacuated to Italy, abandoning their property and homes
17. 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania – The 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania were riots between the Arab and Jewish communities of Tripoli and its surroundings in June 1948, during the British Military Administration in Libya. The events resulted in 13-14 Jews and 4 Arabs dead and destruction of 280 Jewish homes, the events occurred during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Jews of Libya had already suffered under Italian rule during World War II and shortly after it ended, the 1948 Arab–Israeli War had begun a month earlier following the proclamation of the State of Israel, although British-controlled Libya did not take part in the conflict. The proclamation of the State of Israel which began the war had aroused among the Arabs less interest then was expected in Tripoli according to the British authorities and this combined with the transiting volunteers possibly provided the fuel for the outbreak which followed. The rioting began on June 12 in Tripoli, Libya and this time, unlike the previous Tripoli pogrom, the Jewish community of Tripoli had prepared to defend itself. Jewish self-defense units fought back against the Muslim rioters, according to the British reports, the rioting broke out spontaneously. The rioting began with an argument between a Jew and an Arab in central Tripoli, in which other Jews and Arabs joined in. The rioting continued for the hour, during which Jews on rooftops retaliated. Jews in the countryside and in Benghazi were subjected to additional attacks. There is also reason to believe that the community here is receiving instructions, whether or not the change in attitude is the result of instructions or a progressive aggressiveness is hard to determine. The insecurity which arose from anti-Jewish attacks led many Jews to abandon Libya, the emigration, which was prompted by the 1945 Tripoli pogrom, had become a refugee flood with the ending of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. From 1948 to 1951, and especially after immigration became legal in 1949,30,972 Jews moved to Israel, which had gained independence