Category:Anti-Jewish pogroms by Muslims
Pages in category "Anti-Jewish pogroms by Muslims"
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1838 Druze attack on Safed – The 1838 Druze attack on Safed began on July 5,1838, during the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Tensions had mounted as the Druze captured an Egyptian garrison outside of Safed, some Jews ended up leaving the town, moving south to Jerusalem and Acre. Among them was Israel Beck, whose printing press had been destroyed a second time by the ruffians, by the 19th-century, the Galilean city of Safed comprised a major Jewish center. It had become a centre during the 16th-century, reaching a size of about 15,000 at its peak. Despite the decline through the 17th and 18th centuries, by the 1830s there were still around 3, 500-4,000 Jews living there, comprising at least half the population. After several months, the Egyptians managed to crush the rebellion and regain control of the county, not long after, Safed was again the scene of devastation when in 1837 a strong earthquake resulted in thousands of deaths and the destruction of many buildings. The northern, Jewish section of the town was almost entirely destroyed, by 1838, the tense relationship between the fellahin and the Egyptian overlords was again mounting and a full-scale Druze revolt erupted in January. In summer of 1838, the Druze captured a heavily outnumbered Egyptian garrison outside Safed, the Jewish population relied on the protection of an Arab governor against the Druze. Dr. Elizer Loewe wrote in his diary, We huddled together in Rebbe Avraham Dovs house, the women were hysterical and the children crying. The Rebbe asked me to write a note in Arabic to the mayor, I did so, but his answer was mere lip service. According to Loewe, the mayor and his militia fled the city, the Druze rebels were joined by Muslim mob and they looted the Jewish quarters, as the Druze rebels thought the Jews possessed hidden treasures and local Muslims encouraged them to attack. The plunder lasted for 3 days, during the course of the attack, some Jews were assisted by friendly Arabs. One Arab by the name of Muhammed Mustafa, had helped them, lending them money and providing them with food. This time, Ibrahim Pashas response was swift, and after a few days things returned to normal. 1660 destruction of Safed 1929 Safed riots
2. 1947 Aden riots – The riots were a significant embarrassment for the British government, particularly given that the British-raised Aden Protectorate Levies were blamed for causing many unnecessary deaths. By the mid-20th century, Aden was under British rule and had a community of around 5,000 Jews living alongside the Muslim population, sixty persons, including 25 Jews, were injured but there were no fatalities. In the 1940s, visits of Palestinian Arabs to Aden and expressions of Anti-Jewish sentiments became common and this was an attempt to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict by partitioning Mandatory Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Following the vote by the UN on partition of Mandatory Palestine, wide scale protests took place across the Arab countries and communities, on 2 December, the Arabs of Aden proclaimed a comprehensive three-day solidarity strike. Shortly after their beginning, the protests in Aden erupted into an outbreak of violence against the Jews. According to a news account, the rioting began on 2 December. Jewish shops were looted and burned, the rioting resumed the following day, and British army units from the Suez Canal Zone and navy forces were brought in to restore order. The Selim Girls School in 1929 which was located next to King George V Jewish Boys School and was gutted in the 1947 riots. Overall 82 Jews were killed and 76 wounded, in Shaykh Uthman,61 houses were damaged and looted,12 more houses were burnt,5 shops,1 school and 1 synagogue, as well as Jewish-owned distillery were burnt as well. A subsequent British commission of inquiry found that trigger happy firing by Aden Protectorate Levies had resulted in casualties of 82 Jews and 38 Arabs. Sir Harry Trusted, who was sent to Aden as Commissioner to investigate the riots, the official casualty count was 76–82 Jews and 38 Arabs killed, and 76 Jews wounded. At least 87 Arabs were known to have been wounded but many others failed to report their condition, the dead included one Indian Medical Officer and one Levy. More than 100 Jewish shops were looted and 30 houses burned, an official enquiry conducted by Sir Harry Trusted determined that many individual Levies were sympathetic to the rioters and did not act to control them. Nine Levies were imprisoned for looting, Trusted put most of the blame on Yemeni coolies, workers temporarily in the country who have a low standard of life, are illiterate, fanatical and, when excited, may be savage. Jewish leaders acknowledged many instances of Arabs and Indians sheltering and otherwise befriending their Jewish neighbours, the British government was severely embarrassed by the riots, noting privately that they were urging the Arab states to protect their Jews when they themselves were unable to. Shortly after the riots, Adens Jewish community almost entirely emptied, farhud 1945 Tripoli pogrom 1945 Cairo pogrom
3. 1947 anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo – The 1947 Anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo were an attack against Jews in Aleppo, Syria in December 1947, following the United Nations vote in favour of partitioning Palestine. The attack, a part of wave of unrest across Middle East and North Africa, resulted in some 75 Jews murdered. In the aftermath of the riots, half the citys Jewish population fled the city, Syria gained independence from France in April 1946. At the time of the United Nations vote on November 29,1947, after the vote in favour of the partition of Palestine, the Syrian Government abetted and organised Aleppos Arab inhabitants to attack the citys Jewish population. The exact number of those killed remains unknown, but estimates of those killed are put at around 75, ten synagogues, five schools, an orphanage and a youth club, along with various Jewish shops and 150 houses were set ablaze and destroyed. Damaged property was estimated to be valued at US$2. 5m, during the pogrom the Aleppo Codex, an important medieval manuscript of the Torah was lost and feared destroyed. The book reappeared in Israel in 1958, following the attack, the Jewish community went into a steep decline. The wealthy Jews escaped the day after the pogrom and many fled in small groups in subsequent months. Their property was forfeited and on December 22 the Syrian Government enacted a law forbidding Jews from selling their property, within years after the pogroms, most Jews left Aleppo, a large majority of them to Israel. By 1959, about 2,000 Jews remained in Aleppo, as of 2012, no Jews live in Aleppo. 1945 Tripoli pogrom Farhud Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries Menarsha synagogue attack Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine war
4. 1948 Cairo bombings – The 1948 bombings in Cairo, which targeted Jewish areas, took place between June and September 1948 killing 70 Jews and wounding nearly 200. The first bomb was planted on June 20,1948, in Harat Al-Yahud Al-Qara’In,22 Jews were killed and 41 wounded. A spontaneous demonstration march to the Jewish quarter took place following the attacks, two days later the Egyptian authorities reported a potential Israeli bombing attack on Cairo, although it was a false alarm. A further two days after, on July 19, bombs exploded in the Jewish-owned Cicurel and Oreco department stores, and on July 28 and August 1 the Adès and Gattegno department stores were bombed. On September 22, five days after the assassination of United Nations mediator Bernadotte in Jerusalem,19 Jews were killed and 62 injured in an explosion in the Jewish quarter in Cairo. On November 12, shortly after the Egyptian defeat in Operation Shmone a bomb destroyed the premises of the Société Orientale de Publicité, the governments response was muted due to the growing influence and strength of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts, the government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhoods secret apparatus, at this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathisers. On December 8,1948, Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha officially dissolved the Society, in succeeding months Egypts prime minister was assassinated by Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In a 1950 trial, members of the Society were charged with carrying out all the bombings against the Jews of Cairo from June to November 1948, the prosecution argued that the bombings were part of a strategy to exploit the issue of Palestine to destabilise and undermine the regime. Helwan Riots 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania
5. 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt – The Balfour Day riots, also known as the 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt, took place between 2 and 3 November 1945. The riots began as anti-Zionist demonstrations on the 28th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, rallies were organised by the right-wing Young Egypt Party and Hassan al-Bannas Muslim Brotherhood. Five Egyptian Jews and one Muslim policeman were killed in Alexandria, the Greek Orthodox patriarchate, Catholic churches and a Coptic school were also damaged in the riot. The police reacted quickly but were unable to prevent much of the violence, however further demonstrations planned for the following day were largely suppressed. In 1949, a bombing in the Cairo Jewish quarter killed 34, during the 1950s, the Jews of Egypt were subjected to political instability due to ongoing Israeli-Egyptian conflict and suffered sporadic violence, leading to the exodus of most of the community. 1945 Tripoli pogrom Antisemitism in the Arab world#Egypt
6. Damascus affair – The Damascus affair of 1840 refers to the arrest of thirteen notable members of the Jewish community of Damascus who were accused of murdering a Christian monk for ritual purposes. The anti-semitic blood libel resulted in the accused being imprisoned and tortured by the Ottoman authorities, the affair drew widespread international attention which resulted in negotiations conducted in Alexandria from August 4 till August 28. Under Ottoman Islamic rule, Christians and Jews were considered dhimmis—a class of non-Muslims possessing some limited rights under Muslim rule—and were allowed to practice their religious precepts. In return, they had to pay a tax, or jizya, in 1831-32, Syria came under the rule of the Egyptians under Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali was said to have ruled at the sufferance of the European powers, led by France, and under his rule and this aroused a grudge among the Muslim majority toward its non-Muslim population. In the economic struggle between the Jews and the Christians, each side needed the backing and support of the Muslim majority, the Christians in Damascus complained about their cruel treatment by the Muslim judges. These priests reportedly brought the previously European blood libel myth with them, on February 5,1840, Father Thomas, a French citizen originally from Sardinia, and the superior of a Franciscan convent at Damascus, disappeared along with his servant. Their teeth and beards were pulled out, they were burned, lañado, a feeble old man, died under this treatment. Moses Abulafia became a Muslim in order to escape the torture, in spite of the stoic courage displayed by the sufferers, Sherif Pasha and Ratti-Menton agreed to the trumped up charges. While Ratti-Menton published libels against the Jews in French and in Arabic, Sherif Pasha wrote to his master, Muhammad Ali, in the meantime the populace fell upon the synagogue in the suburb of Jobar, pillaged it, and destroyed the scrolls of the Law. While occasional outbreaks of violence erupted during this time, far more serious outbreaks of violence occurred between Muslims and Christians and Christians and Druze. In 1840, G. W. Pieritz also exposed the matter in the Times to public indignation, negotiations in Alexandria continued from August 4 to August 28 and secured the unconditional release and recognition of innocence of the nine prisoners still remaining alive. Later in Constantinople, Montefiore persuaded Sultan Abdülmecid I to issue a firman intended to halt the spread of blood libel accusations in the Ottoman Empire. In a new and groundbreaking effort, the American Jewish community of 15,000 protested in six American cities on behalf of their Syrian brethren, for the first time in American Jewish life, Jews. Organized themselves politically to help Diaspora Jewry in distress, the United States consul in Egypt expressed the protest. The incident and its repercussions were considerable, according to Johannes Valentin Schwarz, the events also encouraged the growth of the modern Jewish press. As a result, a sense of solidarity was evoked among the Jewish communities of Europe they had never experienced before, one major repercussion of the 1840 Damascus Affair was the introduction in the Middle East of the French education system later integrated into Alliance Israélite Universelle. Accusations of the affair were published in the Egyptian daily Al Akhbar in 2000, in 2002, the Middle East Media Research Institute reported that some of the 1840 accusations emerged in a 1983 book The Damascus Blood Libel by the Syrian Minister of Defense, Mustafa Tlass