Pages in category "Anti-natalists"
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Antinatalism – Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth. The term is in opposition to the term natalism, antinatalists argue that people should refrain from procreation because it is immoral. Different ethical foundations can lead to this conclusion, władysław Tatarkiewicz writes about antinatalist views expressed by Sophocles and by some ancient Greeks before him, Not to exist, Mὴ φῦναι, is the best that can meet a man. This conviction was given expression by Sophocles in his great lamentation about life, chorus of Oedipus at Colonus, Not to be born, O man, is the highest, the greatest word. But if you have seen the light of day, then consider it best to depart as quickly as possible to whence you came. It was not Sophocles, however, who invented the idea, not to exist, and he was not the one to voice it. Tradition placed the thought already in the mouth of Homer, in response to the question and he is reputed to have said, It is best not to be born or, failing that, it is best to pass as soon as possible through the gates of Hades. The teaching of the Buddha is interpreted by Hari Singh Gour, in The Spirit of Buddhism, Buddha states his propositions in the pedantic style of his age. If he would realize what suffering he would add to by his act, he would desist from the procreation of children. In the Bibles book of Ecclesiastes, dating from c, wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive. Yea, better is he than both they, which not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun. The Marcionites believed that the world is an evil creation of a crude, cruel, jealous, angry demiurge. According to this teaching, people should oppose him, abandon his world, not create people, the Encratites observed that birth leads to death. In order to conquer death, people should desist from procreation, the Manichaeans, the Bogomils and the Cathars believed that procreation sentences the soul to imprisonment in evil matter. They saw procreation as an instrument of a god, demiurge, or of Satan that imprisons the divine element in matter. The essence of ethical conduct is compassion and the denial of the will to live, once one denies the will to live, placing a human being in the world is a superfluous, senseless, and morally very questionable act. Peter Wessel Zapffe viewed humans as a biological paradox, consciousness has become over-evolved in humans, therefore making us incapable of functioning normally like other animals, cognition gives us more than we can carry. We want to live, and yet because of how we have evolved and we are able to analyze the past for broad expectations of the future, both our situation and situations of others, we expect justice and meaning in a world where neither occur
2. Djuna Barnes – Djuna Barnes was an American writer and artist best known for her novel Nightwood, a cult classic of lesbian fiction and an important work of modernist literature. In 1913, Barnes began her career as a freelance journalist, by early 1914, Barnes was a highly sought feature reporter, interviewer, and illustrator whose work appeared in the city’s leading newspapers and periodicals. In 1921, a commission with McCall’s magazine took Barnes to Paris. During the 1930s, Barnes spent time in England, Paris, New York and it was during this restless time that she wrote and published Nightwood. In October 1939, after two decades living mostly in Europe, Barnes returned to New York. She published her last major work, the verse play The Antiphon, in 1958, Barnes was born in a log cabin on Storm King Mountain, near Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Her paternal grandmother Zadel Barnes was a writer, journalist, and her father, Wald Barnes, was an unsuccessful composer, musician, and painter. An advocate of polygamy, he married Barness mother Elizabeth in 1889, his mistress Fanny Clark moved in with them in 1897 and they had eight children, whom Wald made little effort to support financially. As the second oldest child, Barnes spent much of her childhood helping care for siblings and half-siblings and she received her early education at home, mostly from her father and grandmother, who taught her writing, art, and music but neglected subjects such as math and spelling. She claimed to have had no schooling at all, some evidence suggests that she was enrolled in public school for a time after age ten. At the age of 16 she was raped, apparently by a neighbor with the knowledge and consent of her father and she referred to the rape obliquely in her first novel Ryder and more directly in her furious final play The Antiphon. Shortly before her 18th birthday she reluctantly married Fanny Clarks brother Percy Faulkner in a ceremony without benefit of clergy. The match had been promoted by her father, grandmother, mother, and brother. In 1912 Barness family, facing financial ruin, split up, Elizabeth moved to New York City with Barnes and three of her brothers, then filed for divorce, freeing Wald to marry Fanny Clark. Upon arriving at the Daily Eagle, Barnes declared, “I can draw and write and she also published short fiction in the New York Morning Telegraphs Sunday supplement and in the pulp magazine All-Story Cavalier Weekly. Much of Barness journalism was subjective and experiential, writing about a conversation with James Joyce, she admitted to missing part of what he said because her attention had wandered, though she revered Joyces writing. For a 1914 New York World magazine article she submitted to force-feeding and she concluded, I had shared the greatest experience of the bravest of my sex. It was their mistreatment which motivated Barnes to experience for herself the torture of being force-fed, Barnes immersed herself in risky situations in order to access experiences that a previous generation of homebound women had been denied
3. Samuel Beckett – Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. He is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century, Becketts work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour, and became increasingly minimalist in his later career. He is considered one of the last modernist writers, and one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the Theatre of the Absurd. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and he was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland, the family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court built in 1903 by Samuels father, William. Samuel Beckett was born on Good Friday,13 April 1906, to William Frank Beckett, a quantity surveyor and descendant of the Huguenots, and Maria Jones Roe, a nurse, Beckett had one older brother, Frank Edward Beckett. At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool, where he started to learn music, in 1919, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman, later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel literature laureate to have played first class cricket, Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. He was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926, Beckett graduated with a BA and, after teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast, took up the post of lecteur danglais at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris from November 1928 to 1930. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy and this meeting had a profound effect on the young man. Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, one of which was research towards the book that became Finnegans Wake, in 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante. Becketts close relationship with Joyce and his family cooled, however, Becketts first short story, Assumption, was published in Jolass periodical transition. In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer, in November 1930, he presented a paper in French to the Modern Languages Society of Trinity on the Toulouse poet Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called le Concentrisme. It was a parody, for Beckett had in fact invented the poet and his movement that claimed to be at odds with all that is clear. Beckett later insisted that he had not intended to fool his audience, when Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, his brief academic career was at an end. He spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, two years later, following his fathers death, he began two years treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychoanalyst Dr. Wilfred Bion. Aspects of it became evident in Becketts later works, such as Watt, in 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon it
4. Emil Cioran – Emil Cioran was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French. Cioran was born in Resinár, Szeben County, which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time and his work has been noted for its pervasive philosophical pessimism, and frequently engaged with issues of suffering, decay, and nihilism. Among his best known works are On the Heights of Despair, Ciorans first French book, A Short History of Decay, was awarded the prestigious Rivarol Prize in 1950. The Latin Quarter of Paris was his permanent residence and he lived much of his life in isolation with his partner Simone Boué, Cioran was born in Resinár, Szeben County, which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time. His father, Emilian Cioran, was an orthodox priest, while his mother, Elvira, was originally from Veneția de Jos, Future Romanian philosopher Constantin Noica and future Romanian thinker Petre Țuțea, became his closest academic colleagues as all studied under Tudor Vianu and Nae Ionescu. Cioran, Eliade, and Țuțea became supporters of the ideas of Nae Ionescu, deemed Trăirism, Cioran had a good command of German. His early studies revolved around Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, and he became an agnostic, taking as an axiom the inconvenience of existence. Ciorans graduation thesis was on Henri Bergson whom he later rejected, in 1933, he received a scholarship to the University of Berlin, where he came into contact with Klages and Nicolai Hartmann. Cioran’s first book, On the Heights of Despair, was published in Romania in 1934 and it was awarded the Commission’s Prize and the Young Writers Prize for one of the best books written by an unpublished young writer. Successively, The Book of Delusions, The Transfiguration of Romania, Cioran revised The Transfiguration of Romania heavily in its second edition released in the 1990s, eliminating numerous passages he considered extremist or pretentious and stupid. Marta Petreus An Infamous Past, E. M. Cioran and his early call for modernization was, however, hard to reconcile with the traditionalism of the Iron Guard. In 1934, he wrote, I find that in Romania the sole fertile, creative, and invigorating nationalism can only be one which does not just dismiss tradition, but also denies and defeats it. Disapproval of what he viewed as specifically Romanian traits had been present in his works, after coming back from Berlin, Cioran taught philosophy at the Andrei Șaguna high school in Brașov for a year. In 1937, he left for Paris with a scholarship from the French Institute of Bucharest, after a short stay in his home country, Cioran never returned again. He later renounced not only his support for the Iron Guard, but also their nationalist ideas, in 1940, he started writing The Passionate Handbook, and finished it by 1945. It was to be the last book that he would write in Romanian, although not the last to deal with pessimism and misanthropy through delicate, from this point on Cioran only published books in French. In 1949 his first French book, A Short History of Decay, was published by Gallimard and was awarded the Rivarol Prize in 1950, later on, Cioran refused every literary prize with which he was presented. The Latin Quarter of Paris became Cioran’s permanent residence and he lived most of his life in isolation, avoiding the public
5. Gustave Flaubert – Gustave Flaubert was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary, his Correspondence, the celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert. Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department of Upper Normandy and he was the second son of Anne Justine Caroline and Achille-Cléophas Flaubert, director and senior surgeon of the major hospital in Rouen. He began writing at an age, as early as eight according to some sources. He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, and did not leave until 1840, in Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo, toward the end of 1840, he traveled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris, from 1846 to 1854, Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet, his letters to her have survived. After leaving Paris, he returned to Croisset, near the Seine, close to Rouen and he made occasional visits to Paris and England, where he apparently had a mistress. According to his biographer Émile Faguet, his affair with Louise Colet was his only serious romantic relationship, with his lifelong friend Maxime Du Camp, he traveled in Brittany in 1846. In 1849–50 he went on a journey to the Middle East, visiting Greece. He spent five weeks in Istanbul in 1850 and he visited Carthage in 1858 to conduct research for his novel Salammbô. Flaubert was very open about his activities with prostitutes in his writings on his travels. He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl and he also engaged in intercourse with male prostitutes in Beirut and Egypt, in one of his letters, he describes a pockmarked young rascal wearing a white turban. Flaubert was a worker and often complained in his letters to friends about the strenuous nature of his work. He was close to his niece, Caroline Commanville, and had a close friendship and he occasionally visited Parisian acquaintances, including Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Ivan Turgenev, and Edmond and Jules de Goncourt. The 1870s were a time for Flaubert. Prussian soldiers occupied his house during the War of 1870, after her death, he fell into financial difficulty due to business failures on the part of his nieces husband