Pages in category "Anti-natalists"
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Antinatalism – Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth. The term is in opposition to the term natalism, antinatalists argue that people should refrain from procreation because it is immoral. Different ethical foundations can lead to this conclusion, władysław Tatarkiewicz writes about antinatalist views expressed by Sophocles and by some ancient Greeks before him, Not to exist, Mὴ φῦναι, is the best that can meet a man. This conviction was given expression by Sophocles in his great lamentation about life, chorus of Oedipus at Colonus, Not to be born, O man, is the highest, the greatest word. But if you have seen the light of day, then consider it best to depart as quickly as possible to whence you came. It was not Sophocles, however, who invented the idea, not to exist, and he was not the one to voice it. Tradition placed the thought already in the mouth of Homer, in response to the question and he is reputed to have said, It is best not to be born or, failing that, it is best to pass as soon as possible through the gates of Hades. The teaching of the Buddha is interpreted by Hari Singh Gour, in The Spirit of Buddhism, Buddha states his propositions in the pedantic style of his age. If he would realize what suffering he would add to by his act, he would desist from the procreation of children. In the Bibles book of Ecclesiastes, dating from c, wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive. Yea, better is he than both they, which not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun. The Marcionites believed that the world is an evil creation of a crude, cruel, jealous, angry demiurge. According to this teaching, people should oppose him, abandon his world, not create people, the Encratites observed that birth leads to death. In order to conquer death, people should desist from procreation, the Manichaeans, the Bogomils and the Cathars believed that procreation sentences the soul to imprisonment in evil matter. They saw procreation as an instrument of a god, demiurge, or of Satan that imprisons the divine element in matter. The essence of ethical conduct is compassion and the denial of the will to live, once one denies the will to live, placing a human being in the world is a superfluous, senseless, and morally very questionable act. Peter Wessel Zapffe viewed humans as a biological paradox, consciousness has become over-evolved in humans, therefore making us incapable of functioning normally like other animals, cognition gives us more than we can carry. We want to live, and yet because of how we have evolved and we are able to analyze the past for broad expectations of the future, both our situation and situations of others, we expect justice and meaning in a world where neither occur
2. Djuna Barnes – Djuna Barnes was an American writer and artist best known for her novel Nightwood, a cult classic of lesbian fiction and an important work of modernist literature. In 1913, Barnes began her career as a freelance journalist, by early 1914, Barnes was a highly sought feature reporter, interviewer, and illustrator whose work appeared in the city’s leading newspapers and periodicals. In 1921, a commission with McCall’s magazine took Barnes to Paris. During the 1930s, Barnes spent time in England, Paris, New York and it was during this restless time that she wrote and published Nightwood. In October 1939, after two decades living mostly in Europe, Barnes returned to New York. She published her last major work, the verse play The Antiphon, in 1958, Barnes was born in a log cabin on Storm King Mountain, near Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Her paternal grandmother Zadel Barnes was a writer, journalist, and her father, Wald Barnes, was an unsuccessful composer, musician, and painter. An advocate of polygamy, he married Barness mother Elizabeth in 1889, his mistress Fanny Clark moved in with them in 1897 and they had eight children, whom Wald made little effort to support financially. As the second oldest child, Barnes spent much of her childhood helping care for siblings and half-siblings and she received her early education at home, mostly from her father and grandmother, who taught her writing, art, and music but neglected subjects such as math and spelling. She claimed to have had no schooling at all, some evidence suggests that she was enrolled in public school for a time after age ten. At the age of 16 she was raped, apparently by a neighbor with the knowledge and consent of her father and she referred to the rape obliquely in her first novel Ryder and more directly in her furious final play The Antiphon. Shortly before her 18th birthday she reluctantly married Fanny Clarks brother Percy Faulkner in a ceremony without benefit of clergy. The match had been promoted by her father, grandmother, mother, and brother. In 1912 Barness family, facing financial ruin, split up, Elizabeth moved to New York City with Barnes and three of her brothers, then filed for divorce, freeing Wald to marry Fanny Clark. Upon arriving at the Daily Eagle, Barnes declared, “I can draw and write and she also published short fiction in the New York Morning Telegraphs Sunday supplement and in the pulp magazine All-Story Cavalier Weekly. Much of Barness journalism was subjective and experiential, writing about a conversation with James Joyce, she admitted to missing part of what he said because her attention had wandered, though she revered Joyces writing. For a 1914 New York World magazine article she submitted to force-feeding and she concluded, I had shared the greatest experience of the bravest of my sex. It was their mistreatment which motivated Barnes to experience for herself the torture of being force-fed, Barnes immersed herself in risky situations in order to access experiences that a previous generation of homebound women had been denied
3. Samuel Beckett – Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. He is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century, Becketts work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour, and became increasingly minimalist in his later career. He is considered one of the last modernist writers, and one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the Theatre of the Absurd. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and he was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland, the family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court built in 1903 by Samuels father, William. Samuel Beckett was born on Good Friday,13 April 1906, to William Frank Beckett, a quantity surveyor and descendant of the Huguenots, and Maria Jones Roe, a nurse, Beckett had one older brother, Frank Edward Beckett. At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool, where he started to learn music, in 1919, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman, later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel literature laureate to have played first class cricket, Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. He was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926, Beckett graduated with a BA and, after teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast, took up the post of lecteur danglais at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris from November 1928 to 1930. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy and this meeting had a profound effect on the young man. Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, one of which was research towards the book that became Finnegans Wake, in 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante. Becketts close relationship with Joyce and his family cooled, however, Becketts first short story, Assumption, was published in Jolass periodical transition. In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer, in November 1930, he presented a paper in French to the Modern Languages Society of Trinity on the Toulouse poet Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called le Concentrisme. It was a parody, for Beckett had in fact invented the poet and his movement that claimed to be at odds with all that is clear. Beckett later insisted that he had not intended to fool his audience, when Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, his brief academic career was at an end. He spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, two years later, following his fathers death, he began two years treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychoanalyst Dr. Wilfred Bion. Aspects of it became evident in Becketts later works, such as Watt, in 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon it
4. Emil Cioran – Emil Cioran was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French. Cioran was born in Resinár, Szeben County, which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time and his work has been noted for its pervasive philosophical pessimism, and frequently engaged with issues of suffering, decay, and nihilism. Among his best known works are On the Heights of Despair, Ciorans first French book, A Short History of Decay, was awarded the prestigious Rivarol Prize in 1950. The Latin Quarter of Paris was his permanent residence and he lived much of his life in isolation with his partner Simone Boué, Cioran was born in Resinár, Szeben County, which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time. His father, Emilian Cioran, was an orthodox priest, while his mother, Elvira, was originally from Veneția de Jos, Future Romanian philosopher Constantin Noica and future Romanian thinker Petre Țuțea, became his closest academic colleagues as all studied under Tudor Vianu and Nae Ionescu. Cioran, Eliade, and Țuțea became supporters of the ideas of Nae Ionescu, deemed Trăirism, Cioran had a good command of German. His early studies revolved around Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, and he became an agnostic, taking as an axiom the inconvenience of existence. Ciorans graduation thesis was on Henri Bergson whom he later rejected, in 1933, he received a scholarship to the University of Berlin, where he came into contact with Klages and Nicolai Hartmann. Cioran’s first book, On the Heights of Despair, was published in Romania in 1934 and it was awarded the Commission’s Prize and the Young Writers Prize for one of the best books written by an unpublished young writer. Successively, The Book of Delusions, The Transfiguration of Romania, Cioran revised The Transfiguration of Romania heavily in its second edition released in the 1990s, eliminating numerous passages he considered extremist or pretentious and stupid. Marta Petreus An Infamous Past, E. M. Cioran and his early call for modernization was, however, hard to reconcile with the traditionalism of the Iron Guard. In 1934, he wrote, I find that in Romania the sole fertile, creative, and invigorating nationalism can only be one which does not just dismiss tradition, but also denies and defeats it. Disapproval of what he viewed as specifically Romanian traits had been present in his works, after coming back from Berlin, Cioran taught philosophy at the Andrei Șaguna high school in Brașov for a year. In 1937, he left for Paris with a scholarship from the French Institute of Bucharest, after a short stay in his home country, Cioran never returned again. He later renounced not only his support for the Iron Guard, but also their nationalist ideas, in 1940, he started writing The Passionate Handbook, and finished it by 1945. It was to be the last book that he would write in Romanian, although not the last to deal with pessimism and misanthropy through delicate, from this point on Cioran only published books in French. In 1949 his first French book, A Short History of Decay, was published by Gallimard and was awarded the Rivarol Prize in 1950, later on, Cioran refused every literary prize with which he was presented. The Latin Quarter of Paris became Cioran’s permanent residence and he lived most of his life in isolation, avoiding the public
5. Gustave Flaubert – Gustave Flaubert was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary, his Correspondence, the celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert. Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department of Upper Normandy and he was the second son of Anne Justine Caroline and Achille-Cléophas Flaubert, director and senior surgeon of the major hospital in Rouen. He began writing at an age, as early as eight according to some sources. He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, and did not leave until 1840, in Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo, toward the end of 1840, he traveled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris, from 1846 to 1854, Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet, his letters to her have survived. After leaving Paris, he returned to Croisset, near the Seine, close to Rouen and he made occasional visits to Paris and England, where he apparently had a mistress. According to his biographer Émile Faguet, his affair with Louise Colet was his only serious romantic relationship, with his lifelong friend Maxime Du Camp, he traveled in Brittany in 1846. In 1849–50 he went on a journey to the Middle East, visiting Greece. He spent five weeks in Istanbul in 1850 and he visited Carthage in 1858 to conduct research for his novel Salammbô. Flaubert was very open about his activities with prostitutes in his writings on his travels. He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl and he also engaged in intercourse with male prostitutes in Beirut and Egypt, in one of his letters, he describes a pockmarked young rascal wearing a white turban. Flaubert was a worker and often complained in his letters to friends about the strenuous nature of his work. He was close to his niece, Caroline Commanville, and had a close friendship and he occasionally visited Parisian acquaintances, including Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Ivan Turgenev, and Edmond and Jules de Goncourt. The 1870s were a time for Flaubert. Prussian soldiers occupied his house during the War of 1870, after her death, he fell into financial difficulty due to business failures on the part of his nieces husband
6. Heinrich Heine – Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his lyric poetry. Heines later verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and he is considered part of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities, Heine spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Heine was born at Düsseldorf in what was then the Duchy of Berg and he was called Harry in childhood but became known as Heinrich after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. Heines father, Samson Heine, was a textile merchant and his mother Peira, née van Geldern, was the daughter of a physician. Heinrich was the eldest of four children, Heine was also a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life. Düsseldorf was then a town with a population of around 16,000. The French Revolution and subsequent Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars involving Germany complicated Düsseldorfs political history during Heines childhood and it had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth. It then went to the Elector of Bavaria before being ceded to Napoleon in 1806 and it was first ruled by Joachim Murat, then by Napoleon himself. Upon Napoleons downfall in 1815 it became part of Prussia, thus Heines formative years were spent under French influence. The adult Heine would always be devoted to the French for introduction of the Napoleonic Code and he glossed over the negative aspects of French rule in Berg, heavy taxation, conscription, and economic depression brought about by the Continental Blockade. Heines parents were not particularly devout, as a young child they sent him to a Jewish school where he learned a smattering of Hebrew, but thereafter he attended Catholic schools. Here he learned French, which would be his second language - although he spoke it with a German accent. He also acquired a love for Rhineland folklore. In 1814 Heine went to a school in Düsseldorf where he learned to read English. The most successful member of the Heine family was his uncle Salomon Heine, in 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncles bank, but displayed little aptitude for business. He learned to hate Hamburg with its ethos, but it would become one of the poles of his life alongside Paris
7. T. E. Lawrence – Thomas Edward Lawrence, CB, DSO was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Junner, in 1896, the Lawrences moved to Oxford, where Lawrence attended high school, then in 1907–1910 studied History at Jesus College. Between 1910 and 1914 he worked as an archaeologist, chiefly at Carchemish, soon after the outbreak of war he joined the British Army and was stationed in Egypt. In 1916, he was sent to Arabia on a mission and quickly became involved with the Arab Revolt, serving, along with other British officers. After the war, Lawrence served until 1922 as a diplomat, in 1922, he retreated from public life and spent the years until 1935 serving as an enlisted man, mostly in the Royal Air Force, with a brief stint in the Army. During this time, he wrote and published his work, Seven Pillars of Wisdom. He also translated books into English and completed The Mint, which was published posthumously and he corresponded extensively and was friendly with well-known artists, writers, and politicians. For the RAF, he participated in the design of rescue motorboats, Lawrences public image resulted in part from the sensationalised reporting of the Arab revolt by American journalist Lowell Thomas, as well as from Seven Pillars of Wisdom. In 1935, Lawrence was fatally injured in a accident in Dorset. Lawrence was born on 16 August 1888 in Tremadog, Carnarvonshire, Wales in a house named Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge. His Anglo-Irish father Thomas Chapman had left his wife Edith after he fell in love and had a son with Sarah Junner, a young Scotswoman who had been engaged as governess to his daughters. Sarah was the daughter of Elizabeth Junner and John Lawrence, who worked as a carpenter and was a son of the household in which Elizabeth had been a servant. She was dismissed four months before Sarah was born, Sarah and Thomas did not marry, but lived together under the name Lawrence. In 1914, Sir Thomas inherited the Chapman baronetcy based at Killua Castle, the family home in County Westmeath, Ireland. They had five sons, Thomas Edward was the second eldest, from Wales the family moved to Kirkcudbright, Galloway in southwestern Scotland, then Dinard in Brittany, then to Jersey. In 1894–96, the family lived at Langley Lodge, set in woods between the eastern borders of the New Forest and Southampton Water in Hampshire. The residence was isolated, and young Ned Lawrence had many opportunities for outdoor activities, in the summer of 1896, the Lawrences moved to 2, Polstead Road in Oxford, where they lived under the names of Mr and Mrs Lawrence until 1921
8. Mani (prophet) – Mani, of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct. Mani was born in or near Seleucia-Ctesiphon in Parthian Babylonia, at the time part of the Parthian Empire. Six of his works were written in Syriac Aramaic. He died in Gundeshapur, under the Sassanid Empire, in 1969 in Upper Egypt a Greek parchment codex dating to ca.400 CE was discovered. It is now designated Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis because it is conserved at the University of Cologne, among these medieval accounts, Ibn al-Nadims account of Manis life and teachings is generally speaking the most reliable and exhaustive. Notably, the image of the Third Ambassador is only represented through a mention of the name bašīr, messenger of good news. This work and other evidence discovered in the 20th century establishes Mani as a historical individual, Mani was born near Seleucia-Ctesiphon, perhaps in the town Mardinu in the Babylonian district of Nahr Kutha, according to other accounts in the town Abrumya. Manis father Pātik, a native of Ecbatana, was a member of the Jewish-Christian sect of the Elcesaites and his mother was of Parthian descent, her name is reported variously, among others Mariam. At ages 12 and 24, Mani had visionary experiences of a twin of his, calling him to leave his fathers sect. In 240–41, Mani travelled to India, where he studied Hinduism, Al-Biruni says Mani traveled to India after being banished from Persia. Returning in 242, he joined the court of Shapur I, to whom he dedicated his work written in Persian. Shapur was not converted to Manichaeanism and remained Zoroastrian, shapurs successor Hormizd I appears to have continued to patronize Mani, but his successor Bahram I, a follower of the Zoroastrian reformer Kartir, began to persecute the Manichaeans. He incarcerated Mani, who died in prison within a month, Manis followers depicted Manis death as a crucifixion in a conscious analogy to the death of Christ, Al-Biruni says that Bahram ordered the execution of Mani. His corpse was decapitated and the placed on a spike. Bahram also ordered the killing of many Manicheans, the canon of Mani included six works originally written in Syriac, and one in Persian, the Shapuragan. Mani also wrote the book Arzhang, a book of Manichaeism unique in that it contained many drawings and paintings to express and explain the Manichaeist creation. Manis teaching was intended to succeed and surpass the teachings of Christianity and it is based on a rigid dualism of good and evil, locked in eternal struggle. In his mid-twenties, Mani decided that salvation was possible through education, self-denial, fasting, Mani claimed to be the Paraclete promised in the New Testament, and the Last Prophet
9. Marcion of Sinope – Marcion of Sinope was an important leader in early Christianity. His theology rejected the deity described in the Hebrew Scriptures and in distinction affirmed the Father of Christ as the true God, the Church Fathers denounced Marcion, and he chose to separate himself from the proto-orthodox church. He published the earliest extant fixed collection of New Testament books, Epiphanius records in his Panarion that Marcion was born the son of a bishop in Pontus. His near-contemporaries Rhodo and Tertullian described him as a mariner and a ship-master, Marcion made a donation of 200,000 sesterces to the church in Rome. Conflicts with the church of Rome arose and he was eventually excommunicated, after his excommunication, he returned to Asia Minor, where he continued to lead his many church congregations and teach the Christian gospel in its Marcionite version. According to anti-Marcionite sources, Marcions teacher was the Simonian Cerdo, in 394, Epiphanius claimed that after beginnings as an ascetic, Marcion seduced a virgin and was accordingly excommunicated by his father, prompting him to leave his home town. This account has been doubted by scholars, who consider it malicious gossip. More recently, Bart D. Ehrman suggests that this seduction of a virgin was a metaphor for his corruption of the Christian Church, Marcion responded by developing a ditheistic system of belief around the year 144. In contrast to other leaders of the nascent Christian church, however, Marcion declared that Christianity was in complete discontinuity with Judaism, Marcion did not claim that the Jewish scriptures were false. Instead, Marcion asserted that they were to be read in a literal manner. Contrastingly, the god that Jesus professed is a different being. Marcion also produced his Antitheses contrasting the Demiurge of the Old Testament with the Heavenly Father of the New Testament, Marcion was the first to introduce an early Christian canon. The gospel used by Marcion does not contain elements relating to Jesus birth and childhood, although it does contain elements of Judaism. Marcion is sometimes described as a Gnostic philosopher, in some essential respects, Marcion proposed ideas which would have aligned well with Gnostic thought. Like the Gnostics, he argued that Jesus was essentially a divine spirit appearing to human beings in the shape of a human form, however, Marcionism conceptualizes God in a way which cannot be reconciled with broader Gnostic thought. For Gnostics, some human beings are born with a piece of Gods soul lodged within his/her spirit. God is thus connected to and part of his creation. Salvation lies in turning away from the world and embracing the God-like qualities within yourself
10. Leilani Munter – Leilani Maaja Münter is an American race car driver and environmental activist. She drives in the ARCA Racing Series, and previously drove in the Firestone Indy Lights and she was born and raised in Rochester, Minnesota, earned a degree in biology from the University of California, San Diego and currently lives in Cornelius, North Carolina. Münter is the child of a Japanese-Hawaiian mother from the Island of Hawaii and a German father and her father relocated to Rochester, Minnesota for work at the Mayo Clinic, where she was born. Prior to becoming a car driver, Münter earned a bachelors degree in biology, specializing in ecology, behavior. During her college years, Münter was also a volunteer at a wildlife rescue and she is an almost lifelong vegetarian, and became vegan in 2011. She once worked as a photo double for Catherine Zeta-Jones. On March 17,2009, Münter married Craig Davidson, an engineer and her personal car is an electric Tesla Model S, which she charges with solar panels on the roof of her home. Münter is the sister-in-law of musician Bob Weir, one of the members of the Grateful Dead. Münter began racing in California in 2001 in the Allison Legacy Series and she debuted with a seventh-place finish. In 2002 Münter made the move to Mooresville, North Carolina, in 2003 she had her first start in the NASCAR Weekly Racing Series at South Boston Speedway, she finished ninth. She made her first speedway start in 2004 at Texas Motor Speedway and set a new record when she qualified fourth and it was also her first super late model race, she finished seventh. In 2006 she had her first full-time season in a race car.5 mile speedway, later that year, Leilani became the first woman to qualify in the 45-year history of the Tony Bettenhausen Classic at Illiana Speedway in Indiana. In 43 stock car starts, Münter scored 19 top tens and 9 top five finishes, at the end of the 2006 racing season, she was set to make the move into the ARCA Series in 2007, a stepping stone series into NASCARs top three series. In December 2006 she completed her ARCA rookie test at Daytona International Speedway. She was 24th quick of 59 race cars testing that day in a car prepared by Andy Hillenburg, a retired driver who owns Fast Track Racing School. In 2007 Münter became the woman in history to compete in the Indy Pro Series. In May, Münter passed her Indy Pro Series rookie test at Kentucky Speedway, in August she signed a deal with three time championship team Sam Schmidt Motorsports. She qualified fifth for her debut at Kentucky Speedway on August 11 and she had trouble on a restart and dropped to thirteenth but raced her way back to the front of the field
11. Michel Onfray – Michel Onfray is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism, and anarchism. He is a prolific author on philosophy, having written more than 100 books. His philosophy is influenced by such thinkers as Nietzsche, Epicurus, the cynic and cyrenaic schools, French materialism. Born to a family of Norman farmers, Onfray was abandoned by his parents to a Catholic boarding from age 10 to 14, overcoming these early hardships, Onfray graduated with a PhD in philosophy. Onfrays Traité dAthéologie became the number one best-selling nonfiction book in France for months when it was published in the Spring of 2005 and this book repeated its popular French success in Italy, where it was published in September 2005 and quickly soared to number one on Italys bestseller lists. In the 2002 election, Onfray endorsed the French Revolutionary Communist League and its candidate for the French presidency, Onfray himself attributes the birth of philosophic communities such as the université populaire to the results of the French presidential election,2002. His book Le crépuscule dune idole, Laffabulation freudienne, published in 2010, has been the subject of controversy in France because of its criticism of Freud. He recognizes Freud as a philosopher, but he brings attention to the considerable cost of Freuds treatments and casts doubts on the effectiveness of his methods and he is an atheist and author of Atheist Manifesto. In 2015, he published Cosmos, the first book of a trilogy, Onfray considers ironically that it constitutes his very first book. Onfray writes that there is no philosophy without self-psychoanalysis and he describes himself as an atheist and considers theist religion to be indefensible. Onfray has published 9 books under a project of history of philosophy called Counter-history of Philosophy, in each of these books Onfray deals with a particular historical period in western philosophy. The series of books are composed by the titles I. Les Sagesses Antiques, Les Ultras des Lumières, V. LEudémonisme social, VI. Les Radicalités existentielles and VII. La construction du surhomme, Jean-Marie Guyau, Friedrich Nietzsche. In an interview he establishes his view on the history of philosophy, from that point on, anything that crosses this partial – in both senses of the word – view of things finds itself dismissed. Philosophy that comes down from the heavens is the kind that – from Plato to Levinas by way of Kant and Christianity – needs a world behind the scenes to understand, explain and justify this world. The other line of force rises from the earth because it is satisfied with the given world and his mission is to rehabilitate materialist and sensualist thinking and use it to re-examine our relationship to the world. He defines hedonism as an attitude to life based on taking pleasure yourself and pleasuring others. Onfrays works have explored the philosophical resonances and components of science, painting, gastronomy, sex and sensuality, bioethics, wine and his most ambitious project is his projected six-volume Counter-history of Philosophy, of which three have been published. His philosophy aims for micro-revolutions, or revolutions of the individual and small groups of like-minded people who live by his hedonistic, recently Michel Onfray has embraced the term postanarchism to describe his approach to politics and ethics
12. Nina Paley – Nina Paley is an American cartoonist, animator and free culture activist. She directed the feature film Sita Sings the Blues. She was the artist and often the writer of comic strips Ninas Adventures and Fluff, Paley was born in Urbana, Illinois, the daughter of Jean and Hiram Paley. Her father was a professor at the University of Illinois and was mayor of Urbana. Her first animation was made when she was 13, it was recorded on Super-8 reels and her first animation as an adult was the short story Follow your Bliss. Her second clay animation, I Heart My Cat, was shot on a Krasnogorsk camera and these two, along with Cancer, were found on VHS with the description NINA PALEY DEMO REEL1998. In 2012, Paley decided to publish them under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license, in 1988, Paley moved to Santa Cruz, California, and began to write and draw the strip Ninas Adventures. In 1991, she moved to San Francisco, in 1995, she began to draw the more mainstream Fluff, a comic strip about a cat, which enjoyed a modest success in syndication. In 1998, she began to experiment with animation. In 1999, she made the worlds first cameraless IMAX film, Pandorama, in 70 mm form, it also ran for about a year as a short feature at Berlin Cinestar and has been shown at IMAX theaters elsewhere. A humorous short cartoon based on a variety of optical illusions. She then embarked on a series based on a controversial subject. The centerpiece of the series was The Stork, in which the environment is bombed to destruction by storks dropping bundled babies. The film is an expression of the conflict between increasing human population and the ecosystem in which it must live. The 3½ minute film was a success at festivals and resulted in an invitation to Sundance in 2003. In this time she also drew comic strips for VHEMT which remain on the VHEMT website today. Early in 2010 Paley started drawing a new comic strip called Mimi & Eunice. She is distributing it on the web using a copyleft license, in 2013, Paley created an animation on Vimeo depicting the Middle East conflicts over history, it was named a Staff Pick
13. Arthur Schopenhauer – Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation, wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and his writing on aesthetics, morality, and psychology would exert important influence on thinkers and artists throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Though his work failed to garner substantial attention during his life, Schopenhauer has had an impact across various disciplines, including philosophy, literature. When Danzig became part of Prussia in 1793, Heinrich moved to Hamburg, as early as 1799, Arthur started playing the flute. In 1805, Schopenhauers father died, possibly by suicide and he dedicated himself wholly to studies at the Gotha gymnasium in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, but left in disgust after seeing one of the masters lampooned. By that time, Johanna Schopenhauer had already opened her famous salon and he was also disgusted by the ease with which his mother had forgotten his fathers memory. He left to become a student at the University of Göttingen in 1809, there he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, the author of Aenesidemus, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Immanuel Kant. In Berlin, from 1811 to 1812, he had attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Schopenhauer had a notably strained relationship with his mother Johanna. He wrote his first book, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and his mother informed him that the book was incomprehensible and it was unlikely that anyone would ever buy a copy. In a fit of temper Arthur Schopenhauer told her that his work would be long after the rubbish she wrote would have been totally forgotten. In fact, although they considered her novels of dubious quality and we published more and more of her son Arthurs work and today nobody remembers Johanna, but her sons works are in steady demand and contribute to Brockhaus reputation. He kept large portraits of the pair in his office in Leipzig for the edification of his new editors, in 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation. He finished it in 1818 and Brockhaus published it that December, in Dresden in 1819, Schopenhauer fathered, with a servant, an illegitimate daughter who was born and died the same year. In 1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin and he scheduled his lectures to coincide with those of the famous philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, whom Schopenhauer described as a clumsy charlatan. However, only five students turned up to Schopenhauers lectures, a late essay, On University Philosophy, expressed his resentment towards the work conducted in academies. While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in a lawsuit initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet and she asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. According to Schopenhauers court testimony, she annoyed him by raising her voice while standing right outside his door. Marquet alleged that the philosopher had assaulted and battered her after she refused to leave his doorway and her companion testified that she saw Marquet prostrate outside his apartment
14. Robert Smith (musician) – Robert James Smith is an English singer, songwriter and musician. He is the singer, guitarist, lyricist and principal songwriter of the rock band the Cure. He is the only constant member since its formation in 1976. He also played guitar in the band Siouxsie and the Banshees, Smith is a multi-instrumentalist, known for his unique stage look and distinctive voice. Smith was born in the Lancashire town of Blackpool and is the third of four born to James Alexander. Smith came from a musical family – his father sang and his mother played the piano, raised Catholic, he later became an atheist. He later attended Notre Dame Middle School and St Wilfrids Comprehensive School, both Robert and his younger sister Janet had piano lessons, Smith said that Janet was a piano prodigy, so sibling rivalry made me take up guitar because she couldnt get her fingers around the neck. He told Chris Heath of Smash Hits magazine that from about 1966 his brother Richard taught him a few chords on guitar. Smith began taking guitar lessons from the age of nine, with a student of John Williams. I learned a lot, but got to the point where I was losing the sense of fun, Smith has said his guitar tutor was horrified by his playing. Robert consequently gave up formal tuition and began teaching himself to play by ear, Smith was thirteen or fourteen when he became more serious about rock music and started to play and learn frenetically. Up until December 1972 he did not have a guitar of his own, but Id commandeered it anyway – so whether he was officially giving it to me at Christmas or not, I was going to have it. Smith was quoted in earlier sources as saying he purchased the Top 20 himself for £20. Smith described Notre Dame Middle School as a very free-thinking establishment with an experimental approach, according to Smith four other kids beat him up after school, although Jeff Apter notes that Smith has given several conflicting versions of the story. In the summer of 1975, Smith and his school bandmates sat their O Level exams, Robert Smith has said that his first band when he was fourteen consisted of my brother Richard, some of his friends and my younger sister Janet. It was called the Crawley Goat Band – brilliant, Jeff Apter, however, dates the performance to April 1973, which is at variance with Smith and his bandmates having already left Notre Dame Middle School by this time. Smith said that they were simply as the group because it was the only one at school so we didnt need a name. Dempsey, who moved from guitar to bassist for the group
15. Doug Stanhope – Douglas Stanhope is an American stand-up comedian, actor, and author known for his cynical and controversial comedy style. Stanhope had his own show on Fox called Invasion of Hidden Cameras in 2002. He also was one of the pranksters on Spy TV, in 2003 and 2004, Stanhope co-hosted the fifth and sixth seasons of The Man Show with Joe Rogan. He hosted his own show on SIRIUS Satellite Radio in 2005. That year, Stanhope hosted Girls Gone Wild, America Uncovered, Stanhope established a group of touring comics known as The Unbookables featuring such artists as Andy Andrist, James Inman, and Brendon Walsh, among others. The Unbookables first CD, Morbid Obscenity, also featuring Andrist, Rouse, Lynn Shawcroft and he appeared in the film The Aristocrats, telling a caustic joke to a baby. He appeared alongside Rouse at the Festival Fringe in Edinburgh, Scotland on August 2006 to 5-star reviews from the press, on his opening night he took what was believed to be an ecstasy tablet that was handed to him by a member of the audience. During his Edinburgh performance he included a segment that some regarded as anti-Semitic and he responded in his 2007 Showtime special, No Refunds, by elaborating on the incident. He discussed his book and the philosophy behind it on Penn Jillettes radio show on San Diegos 97.1 FreeFM on November 22,2006. The Showtime special, titled No Refunds, premiered August 3 and was released on DVD August 14 and his live show was voted Best Comedy Performance of the Year by Time Out New York for both 2006 and 2008. His live show was placed in the top 5 of the 20 Best Live Shows of 2009 by Londons The Guardian newspaper, Stanhopes seventh album, From Across The Street, was released on November 24,2009. In 2010, Stanhope aired a series of vignettes during Newswipe with Charlie Brooker in the UK, in 2013 he did the same during Charlie Brookers Weekly Wipe. On November 17,2010, Stanhope signed to rock and metal label Roadrunner Records to launch their new comedy label, on May 3,2011, the album was released, Oslo, Burning The Bridge To Nowhere. In cooperation with the mayor of Reykjavík, comedian Jón Gnarr, Stanhope scheduled a performance in Icelands only maximum security prison, Litla-Hraun, fans who wanted to watch the show would have to commit a crime, for them he invented the Stanhope defense. He had a role in the 2014 Chris Rock film Top Five. On February 16,2013, Stanhope debuted his eponymous podcast, recorded out of his home in Bisbee, in 2014, the Doug Stanhope Podcast was hosted by the All Things Comedy network. Stanhope is a critic of Dr. On August 24, his new special, Beer Hall Putsch, was released exclusively to Netflix, the special was made available on CD on September 17,2013, with a DVD set for November 26,2013
16. Fernando Vallejo – Fernando Vallejo Rendón is a novelist, filmmaker and essayist, born in Colombia. He obtained Mexican nationality in 2007, Vallejo was born and raised in Medellín, though he left his hometown early in life. He started studies in Philosophy at the National University of Colombia in Bogotá, soon after he began new studies on biology at the Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, which he finished. Then he spent one year in Italy at the film academy Cinecittà, Vallejo then returned to Colombia with the project of filmmaking. Yet after difficulties with the Colombian Government in producing and, after he produced it, in presenting his first film, in Mexico he produced and distributed three films about the violence in Colombia. He also wrote a childrens theater script, El reino misterioso o Tomás y las abejas. He has been living in Mexico since 1971, where he not only produced his cinematographic pieces, despite time spent in other locales, mainly Europe and the United States, most of his novels take place in Colombia. His best-known novel, La virgen de los sicarios, has translated into English as Our Lady of the Assassins. It deals with his return to Medellín, and his relationships with two teenagers caught in the local cycle of violence. The autobiographical/fiction La virgen de los sicarios was made into a feature film in 2000. In 2003, Colombian filmmaker Luis Ospina made a documentary about him, La desazón suprema. In April 2007, Vallejo obtained Mexican citizenship and published a letter in which he renounced his Colombian nationality. Vallejo is openly gay and lives with his partner, scenographist David Antón and he is known as an animal rights defender and vegan, and because of his antinatalist views, he has no children. El reino misterioso o Tomás y las abejas -, concurso Nacional de Obras de Teatro. Acceptance speech at the Rómulo Gallegos prize, in Spanish, La sinceridad puede ser demoledora Ciberletras,13, list of Colombian writers 10 Most Influential Ibero American Intellectuals of the year 2012. Foreign Policy magazine La Virgen de los sicarios at the Internet Movie Database Revista Semana, A su estilo, con humor negro, el escritor Fernando Vallejo renuncia a la nacionalidad colombiana
17. Otto Weininger – Otto Weininger was an Austrian philosopher. In 1903, he published the book Geschlecht und Charakter, which gained popularity after his suicide at the age of 23, Otto Weininger was born on April 3,1880, in Vienna as a son of the Jewish goldsmith Leopold Weininger and his wife Adelheid. After attending primary school and graduating from school in July 1898. He studied philosophy and psychology but took courses in natural sciences, Weininger learned Greek, Latin, French and English very early, later also Spanish and Italian, and acquired passive knowledge of the languages of August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen. In the autumn of 1901 Weininger tried to find a publisher for his work Eros and he met Sigmund Freud, who, however, did not recommend the text to a publisher. His professors accepted the thesis and Weininger received his Ph. D. degree in July 1902, shortly thereafter he became proudly and enthusiastically a Protestant. In 1902 Weininger went to Bayreuth where he witnessed a performance of Richard Wagners Parsifal, via Dresden and Copenhagen he made his way to Christiania where he for the first time saw Henrik Ibsens liberation drama Peer Gynt on stage. Upon his return to Vienna Weininger suffered from fits of deep depression, the decision to take his own life gradually took shape in his mind, after a long discussion with his friend Artur Gerber, however, Weininger realized that it is not yet time. The book contained his thesis to which three vital chapters were added, The Nature of Woman and her Relation to the Universe, Judaism, Women, while the book was not received negatively, it did not create the expected stir. Weininger was attacked by Paul Julius Möbius, professor in Leipzig and author of the book On the Physiological Deficiency of Women, deeply disappointed and seemingly depressed, Weininger left for Italy. Back in Vienna he spent his last five days with his parents, on October 3, he took a room in the house in Schwarzspanierstraße 15 where Ludwig van Beethoven died. He told the landlady that he was not to be disturbed before morning since he planned to work and this night he wrote two letters, one addressed to his father, the other one to his brother Richard, telling them that he was going to shoot himself. On October 4, Weininger was found wounded, having shot himself in the chest. He died in the Wiener Allgemeines Krankenhaus, and was buried in the Matzleinsdorf Protestant Cemetery in Vienna, Sex and Character argues that all people are composed of a mixture of male and the female substance, and attempts to support his view scientifically. The male aspect is active, productive, conscious and moral/logical, while the aspect is passive, unproductive, unconscious. A significant part of his book is about the nature of genius. Weininger argues that there is no such thing as a person who has a genius for, say, mathematics, or music and he reasons that such genius is probably present in all people to some degree. Christianity is described as the highest expression of the highest faith, Weininger decries the decay of modern times, and attributes much of it to feminine influences