The Areni-1 shoe is a 5, 500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave complex located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia. Much older footwear,10, 000-year-old sandals made of fiber, has been discovered in the United States at Fort Rock Cave in Oregon. By evidence found to date, the use of shoes arose between 40,000 and 26,000 years ago. The discovery was made by a team led by Boris Gasparyan. The shoe was found upside down at the base of a shallow, rounded, a broken pot and goat horns were found nearby. Excavations in the area found the worlds oldest wine-making site. The teams findings were published on June 9,2010, in the journal PLoS ONE, the shoe was found in near-perfect condition due to the cool and dry conditions in the cave and a thick layer of sheep dung which acted as a solid seal. Large storage containers were found in the cave, many of which held well-preserved wheat, barley. Lead archaeologist Ron Pinhasi could not determine whether the shoe belonged to a man or a woman.
While small, approximately a womans U. S. and Canada size 7, European size 37, or UK size 6, the shoe laces were preserved as well. According to Pinhasi, the Areni-1 shoe is similar to the Irish pampooties, the shoes are very similar to the traditional shoes of the Balkans, still seen today in festivals, known as Opanci. When the material was dated by the two laboratories in Oxford and California, it was established that the shoe dates back to 3,500 B. C. After being treated for preservation, the Areni-1 shoe will be displayed at the History Museum of Armenia
The Coligny calendar is a peg calendar or parapegma) made in Roman Gaul in the 2nd century, giving a five-year cycle of a lunisolar calendar with intercalary months. It is the most important evidence for the reconstruction of an ancient Celtic calendar and it is written in Latin inscriptional capitals and is in the Gaulish language. The restored tablet contains sixteen vertical columns, with 62 months distributed over five years and it was found in 1897 in France, in Coligny, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. It is now held at the Gallo-Roman Museum of Lyon-Fourvière and it was engraved on a bronze tablet, preserved in 73 fragments, that was originally 1.48 metres wide by 0.9 metres tall. Based on the style of lettering and the objects, it probably dates to the end of the second century. A similar calendar found nearby at Villards dHeria is preserved in only eight small fragments and it is now preserved in the Musée dArchéologie du Jura at Lons-le-Saunier. The Continental Celtic calendar as reconstructed from the calendars of Coligny and Villards dHeria was a calendar, attempting to synchronize the solar year.
The common lunar year contained 354 or 355 days, the calendar year began with Samonios. Le Contel and Verdier argue for a summer solstice start of the year, monard argues for an autumn equinox start. The entry TRINOX SAMO SINDIV three-nights of Samonios today) on the 17th of Samonios suggests that, like the Irish festival of Samhain, the additional months were intercalated before Samonios in the first year, and between Cutios and Giamonios in the third year. The name of the first intercalary month is not known with certainty, the name of the second intercalary month is reconstructed as Rantaranos or Bantaranos, based on the reading of the fifth line in the corresponding fragment. A gnomic verse pertaining to intercalation was taking up the first two lines, read as CIALLOS B SONNO CINGOS, the term sonno cingos is interpreted as suns march = a year by Delamarre. The months were divided into two halves, the beginning of the second half marked with the term atenoux or renewal, the basic unit of the Celtic calendar was thus the fortnight or half-month, as is suggested in traces in Celtic folklore.
The first half was always 15 days, the second half either 14 or 15 days on alternate months, months of 30 days were marked MAT, months of 29 days were marked ANM. This has been read as lucky and unlucky, based on comparison with Middle Welsh mad and anfad, there is no indication of any religious or ritual content. An exception is the 9th month Equos, which in years 1 and 5 is a month of 30 days, omsted in a similar argument proposes an origin around 850 ±300 BC. In the Coligny calendar, there is a hole in the sheet for each day. The middle of each month is marked atenoux, interpreted as the term for the night of the full moon
Amulet MS 5236
The only partially comprehensible inscription is an invocation of the god Phoebus Apollo and may have been composed in central Greece or western Asia Minor. The lamella is registered under the inventory number MS5236 by the private Norwegian Schøyen Collection, the printing technique of the inscription was specifically analysed by the German typographer Herbert Brekle in 2010. MS5236 is made of a thin, rectangular gold sheet of 2.8 x 9.0 x 0.1 cm, the ancient Greek text comprises six lines written from left to right, margins all around the text body suggest that its contents are fully preserved. The surface of the foil is marked by many small creases that have grown together into cracks. Unlike amulets, it appears to have never been rolled up or folded for personal use, the palaeographic analysis of the letterform indicates an early, archaic date. Overall, the comparison with other early Greek documents suggests a creation of the text in the middle of the 6th century BC. The wording does not correspond to any other ancient epigraphic and literary texts, providing evidence that the gold foil is genuine.
Although these metal sheets circulated in the Greek world in numbers, only lead examples have survived. The special significance of MS5236 lies in the way the inscription was created, a close examination shows that a blind-stamping process was used to reproduce the Greek text on the lamella, with a single matrix carrying the whole text. In this, MS5236 differs fundamentally from other amulets of the time, the displaced material rose up on both sides of the letter grooves forming two sharp, parallel ridges. What produced the print image were the ridges caused by the material displacement, the actual, sunken letter lines were not transferred during the imprinting procedure, since they did not enter the surface of the foil. It is the existence of these fine double grooves on the gold lamella which provides the key for identifying MS5236 as being stamped, the inscription is a bas-relief, which was produced by a bas-relief stamp. If the text had been carved directly into the foil as with other amulets, a further indication for the use of a printing technique is the varying strength of the letters, which suggests that the surface of the lamella was not completely flat during printing.
This can be observed particularly along the folds and in the last line where the edge of the foil was apparently slightly bent downwards while being printed, the impressions of the letters appear less marked here. If the text had been inscribed with a stylus into the foil. Regarding the stroke order of the letters on the stamp, it can be said that the Hasta, MS5236 is an overall rare and possibly unique print from the early Greek era. Despite this, the use of magical amulets indicates that such block prints were, at least from the present prototype. Magic in the Greco-Roman world Brekle, Herbert E
Bat Creek inscription
The inscriptions were initially described as Cherokee, but in 2004, similarities to an inscription that was circulating in a Freemason book were discovered. Hoax expert Kenneth Feder says the peer reviewed work of Mary L. Kwas and Kwas themselves state The Bat Creek stone is a fraud. According to Gordon, five of the eight letters could be read as for Judea, Archaeologist Marshall McKusick countered that Despite some difficulties, Cherokee script is a closer match to that on the tablet than the late-Canaanite proposed by Gordon, but gave no details. He reported a radiocarbon date on associated wood fragments consistent with Gordons dating of the script, the Smithsonian agent who performed the excavation, the most likely responsible party. In a 1993 article in Biblical Archaeology Review, Semitist P, Kyle McCarter, Jr. McCarter concluded, It seems probable that we are dealing here not with a coincidental similarity but with a fraud. The General History correctly translates the inscription Holiness to the Lord and they conclude that Emmert most likely copied the inscription from the Masonic illustration, in order to please Thomas with an artifact that he would mistake for Cherokee.
The Little Tennessee River enters Tennessee from the Appalachian Mountains to the south, the completion of Tellico Dam at the mouth of the Little Tennessee in 1979 created a reservoir that spans the lower 33 miles of the river. Bat Creek empties into the southwest bank of the Little Tennessee 12 miles upstream from the mouth of the river, in the 1880s, the Smithsonian Institution team led by John W. The Bat Creek site, Smithsonian trinomial designation 40LD24, is a site with evidence of occupation as early as the Archaic period. According to Emmert, the site consisted of one large mound on the east bank of the creek, Mound 1—which had a diameter of 108 feet and a height of 8 feet —was located on the first terrace above the river, and is thus now submerged by the reservoir. Mound 2—which had a diameter of 44 feet and height of 10 feet —and Mound 3—which had a diameter of 28 feet, according to Emmerts notes, the Bat Creek Stone was found in Mound 3. The stone consists of siltstone, and measures 11.4 centimetres long and 5.1 centimetres wide.
The inscription consists of at least eight characters, seven of which are in a row, and one located below the main inscription. A portion of a letter that has broken off remains at the left edge in this orientation. Cyrus Thomas, an entomologist by background, was appointed Director of the Mound Survey, according to archaeologist Kenneth L. Feder, With this funding, Thomas initiated the most extensive and intensive study yet conducted on the Moundbuilder question. The result was more than seven hundred pages submitted as a report of the Bureau in 1894. He collected over 40,000 artifacts, which part of the Smithsonian Institutions collection. Thomass work was a watershed, both in terms of answering the question of who had built the mounds, and in terms of the development of American archaeology
After a paddle from Star Carr in England, the Duvensee paddle is the second oldest known paddle and is considered among the earliest evidence for the use of water transport in the Mesolithic. The find is in the permanent exhibition of the Archaeological Museum Hamburg in Harburg, the former bog Duvenseer Moor was located west of the village Duvensee in a young drift landscape. The area, of 3.5 kilometres from north to south and 1.2 kilometres from east to west, originally was an open, from the late 18th century, the marsh was drained by ditches to make usable for agriculture. The peat of the bog was cut for fuel, by the early 19th century only a small body of open water remained, which was eventually completely drained. In 1923 the geologist Karl Gripp discovered by chance a Mesolithic settlement site while mapping the Duvenseer Moor, in the following years, the site was archaeologically investigated. Archaeologists Gustav Schwantes,1946 Hermann Schwabedissen and finally Klaus Bokelmann excavated the bog, besides numerous stone artifacts, the excavations provided only very few wooden tools, including the paddle found by Schwantes in 1926, located in a former bank zone near a residential area.
The Duvensee paddle, found at 53. 699171°N10. 54739°E /53.699171,10.54739, is one of the most outstanding finds from the Duvenseer Moor. The paddle was found broken into pieces, but except for a few flaws was extremely well preserved. Under normal oxygen conditions, fungi and insects would have caused a degradation of the wood in short time. Only the end of the handle is missing and a corner of the leaf is broken off. The paddle has a length of 520 millimetres, a width of 100 millimetres, the leaf has a long rectangular shape with widely rounded corners, having a length of about 260 millimetres and an asymmetric connection to the shaft. The weight of the paddle is 331 grams, the paddle was carved from the stem of a pine tree, with knots smoothed to the shaft. After recovery, the paddle was treated with a waxy substance for conservation. In the 1920s the paddle was typologically dated by palynological evidence to the Mesolithic period, radiocarbon dating in the 1980s on several hazelnut shells and remaining wood from the find spot gave a more precise date of around 7390 ±80 BC.
An accelerator mass spectrometry carried out in 2008 on two samples from the paddle yielded calibrated dates to 6527 ±49 years BC and 6311 ±38 years BC, of note are the distinctly different 14C-ages of samples from urban findings. Before 1925, elementary school teacher Ernst Bornhöf, from nearby Schiphorst, both paddles were transferred to the Helms-Museum in 1925. One is a paddle of oak, 790×182×35 millimetres with a weight of 613 grams. It was 14C-dated in 2008 to 1121 ±22 Before Present, the second paddle is now lost, and only a few written records and a photo of the object exist
The Dipylon inscription is a short text written on an ancient Greek pottery vessel dated to ca.740 BC. It is famous for being the oldest known samples of the use of the Greek alphabet, the jug is attributed to the Late Geometrical Period. It is now in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, the text is written in an archaic form of the Greek alphabet, with some letter shapes still resembling those of the original Phoenician alphabet. It is written right to left, with the individual letters mirror-shaped in comparison with the modern forms. It is placed in a circle around the shoulder of the vessel, the text consists of 46 characters, of which the first 35 can easily be read as an hexametric verse in Greek. The fragmentary rest is believed to have been the beginning of the verse of a distichon. The text marks the vessel as a prize in a dancing competition and it is translated as, whoever of the dancers now dances most lightly. And the second line is conjectured to have something to the effect of.
He shall get me as his prize, literal translation, Whoever of all these dancers now plays most delicately, to him this. It is believed that either the Dipylon inscription or the so-called Nestor Cup is the oldest known alphabetic Greek inscription, the Nestor Cup, which bears a verse inscription, was found in an excavation at the ancient Greek colony of Pithekoussai on the island of Ischia in Italy. It is thought to be of age with the Dipylon inscription or slightly younger. History of the Greek alphabet Pottery of Ancient Greece Powell, B, the Dipylon Oinochoe Inscription and the Spread of Literacy in 8th Century Athens, Kadmos,27, 65–86. Η γραφή, in Kopidakis, M. Z. Ιστορία της ελληνικης γλώσσας, Elliniko Logotechniko kai Istoriko Archeio, bibliotheca Augustana corpus, Online text and image Epigraphical database, Online text
Dong Son drum
Đông Sơn drums are bronze drums fabricated by the Đông Sơn culture in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. The drums were produced from about 600 BCE or earlier until the third century CE and are one of the cultures finest examples of metalworking, the drums, cast in bronze using the lost-wax casting method are up to a meter in height and weigh up to 100 kilograms. Đông Sơn drums were both musical instruments and cult objects. They are decorated with patterns, scenes of daily life and war and birds. The latter alludes to the importance of trade to the culture in which they were made, more than 200 have been found, across an area from eastern Indonesia to Vietnam and parts of Southern China. The earliest drum found in 1976 existed 2700 years ago in Wangjiaba in Yunnan Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture China. It is classified into the bigger and heavier Yue drums including the Dong Son drums, but the Book of the Later Han said Ma melt the bronze drums seized from the rebel Lạc Việt in Jiaozhi into horse.
In 1902, a collection of 165 large bronze drums was published by F. Heger, the scenes depict daily life of ancient Viet and reflect the artistic talent and mind. The drums were used as instruments in festivals, such as prayers for rain, for good harvest and rituals, such as weddings and funerals. They were used as objects and symbol of power of tribe leaders. The Heger 1 drums of the Dong Son culture were classified and divided into five groups by the Vietnamese scholar Pham Huy Thong in 1990, the earliest, group A, comprisees a set of large and intricated decorated drums. Group B consists of a smaller drums which almost universally have a group of waterbirds in flight as their key motif on the tympanum, group C has a central panel on the tympanum made up of a row of plumed warriors placed inside another panel of waterbirds in flight. Toads line the edge while the mantle was decorated with either patterns involving boats or geometric patterns. The Ngọc Lũ drum is regarded as the most important of the Đông Sơn drums, the drum was accidentally discovered in 1893 in Hà Nam Province, southeast of Hanoi, rather than during a planned expedition.
In contrast to most other drums of the Đông Sơn, the drumhead bears three concentric panels depicting animals or humans interleaved with bands of geometric or circular patterns. The innermost panel appears to be a depiction, as it is decorated with pictures of humans who appear to be performing a ceremony involving the drums themselves. Other musical instruments and rice growing and harvesting activities are shown, the two outer panels are decorated with scenes of deer and crane egrets. The Hoàng Ha drum is a notable Đông Sơn drum and it depicts four feathered men are depicted walking in a line, brandishing spears, with two musicians in tow
Faddan More Psalter
The Faddan More Psalter is an early medieval Christian psalter or text of the book of Psalms, discovered in a peat bog in July 2006, in the townland of Faddan More in north County Tipperary, Ireland. The manuscript was written in about 800 in one of a number of monasteries in the area. A unique feature is that the inside of the cover is lined with papyrus, probably as a stiffening. After several years of work, the psalter went on display at the National Museum of Ireland in Kildare St. This discovery was hailed by the National Museum of Ireland as one of the most significant Irish archaeological finds in decades, the psalter joins the very small number of very early Western books that have survived fully intact with their original bookbindings. These mostly have their origins in the monastic Insular art of Britain and Ireland, the earliest is the St Cuthbert Gospel of about 700, and other examples probably of the mid-8th century are at Fulda on the continent. However the wallet-like style of the Faddan More binding, and the fact that it not seem to have been physically attached to the sewn-together pages.
The psalter contains the Latin text of the Psalms, complete on 60 sheets of vellum in five gatherings or quires, the text is a Gallican version of the Vulgate, written in Insular majuscule letters in a single column. The first letter of each psalm has a capital and, as is often the case, the words of psalms 1,51 and 101 are decorated, using black, red. Similar covers seem to be shown in images in manuscripts. The outside of the cover was painted with black carbon-based pigment, the leather seems to have been used as a trial piece or sketchpad for composing patterns of interlace for other objects. On the inside there is a sheet of papyrus, presumably used as a liner to stiffen the cover somewhat, low oxygen levels in the bog provide unusual preservation conditions, and bogs were often used by Irish monks as hiding places for valuables in the face of Viking raids. Its highly reactive carbonyl groups can alter chemicals and nutrients that would otherwise decompose organic matter, and above all the sphagnum moss causes organic material to undergo chemical changes itself that make it impervious to rot.
It was uncovered by bulldozer driver Eddie Fogarty, a worker extracting peat with a backhoe, the book was initially stored in refrigeration at the National Museum. Identifying the safest way to pry open the pages without damaging or destroying them was expected to take months, the area around Faddan More Bog is rich in medieval history. Monastic foundations such as Lorrha and Terryglass in County Tipperary and Birr, the bog is owned by local brothers Kevin and Patrick Leonard. Six years before the find, a leather satchel was found that. This was located just 100m from the psalter findspot and is of a similar date suggesting that the satchel may have contained the book
Crosby Garrett Helmet
The Crosby Garrett Helmet is a copper alloy Roman cavalry helmet dating from the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD. It was found by a metal detectorist near Crosby Garrett in Cumbria, England. Later investigations found that a Romano-British farming settlement had occupied the site where the helmet was discovered, which was located a few miles away from a Roman road and it is possible that the owner of the helmet was a local inhabitant who had served with the Roman cavalry. The helmet appears to have been folded up and deposited in an artificial stone structure. It is thought to have used for ceremonial occasions rather than for combat. Its design may allude to the Trojans, whose exploits the Romans re-enacted in cavalry tournaments, Dr Ralph Jackson, Senior Curator of Romano-British Collections at the British Museum, has described the helmet as. An immensely interesting and outstandingly important find and its face mask is both extremely finely wrought and chillingly striking, but it is as an ensemble that the helmet is so exceptional and, in its specifics, unparalleled.
It is a find of the greatest national significance, on 7 October 2010, the helmet was sold at Christies for £2.3 million to an undisclosed private buyer. Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery in Carlisle sought to purchase the helmet, the helmet has so far been publicly displayed twice, once in a 2012 exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts, and again at Tullie House in 2013–14. The Crosby Garrett helmet is an almost complete example of a two-piece Roman cavalry helmet, the visor portrays the face of a youthful, clean-shaven male with curly hair. The headpiece is in the shape of a Phrygian cap, on the crest of which is a griffin that stands with one raised foot resting on an amphora. The helmet would have held in place using a leather strap attached from the wearers neck to a decorated rivet on either side of the helmet. Wear marks caused by opening and closing the visor are still visible, only two other Roman helmets complete with visors have been found in Britain – the Newstead Helmet and Ribchester Helmet.
The helmet and visor were cast from an alloy consisting of an average of 82% copper, 10% zinc and this alloy was probably derived from melted-down scrap brass with a low zinc content, with which some tin had been added to improve the quality of the casting. Some of the fragments show traces of a metal coating, indicating that the visor would originally have been tinned to give the appearance of silver. The griffin was cast separately from a different alloy consisting of 68% copper, 4% zinc, 18% tin, the visor would originally have been a silver hue and the helmet would have had a coppery yellow appearance. The helmets creation can be dated to the late 2nd or early 3rd century from the use of a type of decorated rivet as well as some of its design features. There has been debate about the symbolic meaning of the helmets design