Category:Archaeological cultures of Western Europe
Pages in category "Archaeological cultures of Western Europe"
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ahrensburg culture – The most important prey was the wild reindeer. The earliest definite finds of arrow and bow date to this culture, the Ahrensburgian was preceded by the Hamburg and Federmesser cultures and superseded by the Maglemosian and Swiderian cultures. Ahrensburgian finds were made in southern and western Scandinavia, the North German plain, the Ahrensburgian area also included vast stretches of land now at the bottom of the North and Baltic Sea, since during the Younger Dryas the coastline took a much more northern course than today. Artefacts with tanged points are associated with both the Bromme and the Ahrensburg cultures. The extinction of mammoth and other megafauna provided for an incentive to exploit other forms of subsistence that included maritime resources, northward migrations coincided with the warm Bølling and Allerød events, but much of northern Eurasia remained inhabited during the Younger Dryas. The different technolithic complexes are chronologically associated with the climatic chronozones.700 BCE, palynological results demonstrate a close connection between the prominent temperature rise at the beginning of the Interstadial and the expansion of the hunter-gatherers into the northern Lowlands. The existence of a primary “pioneer phase” in the re-colonisation is contradicted by proof of e. g. an early Central European Magdalenian in Poland. Today it is accepted that the Hamburgian, featured by Shouldered Point lithics, is a techno-complex closely related to the Creswellian. Within the Hamburgian techno-complex, a younger dating is found for the Havelte phase, sometimes interpreted as a northwestern phenomenon, the Hamburgian culture existed during the warm Bølling period, the brief Dryas II glaciation and in the early warmer Allerød period. However, the distribution of the Hamburgian east of the Oder River has been confirmed, finds in Jutland indicates the expansion of early Hamburgian hunters and gatherers reached further north than previously expected. The Hamburgian sites with shouldered point lithics reach as far north as the Pomeranian ice margin, the younger Havelte phase has been proven for the area beyond the Pomeranian ice margin and on the Danish Isles after circa 12.300 BCE. The Backed Point lithics of Federmesser culture are dated in the Allerød Interstadial. Early Federmesser finds follows shortly or are contemporary to Havelte, the culture lasted approximately 1200 years from 11.900 to 10.700 BCE. and is located in Northern Germany and Poland to south Lithuania. Fish-hooks were discovered in Allerød layers and emphasize the importance of fishing in the Late Palaeolithic, Bromme culture sites are found in the entire southern and southeastern Baltic, and are dated to the second half of Allerød and the early cold Dryas III period. The classical Brommian complex is typified by simple and fast, but uneconomical, a new development noticed in Lithuania introduced both massive and smaller Tanged Points. In Bromme culture this technology is proposed to be a derived from tanged Havelte groups. Ahrensburg culture is associated with the Younger Dryas glacialization and the Pre-boreal period. Some recent finds, such as the Hintersee 24 site in southern Landkreis Vorpommern-Greifswald, would contribute to the argument of an early Ahrensburgian in northern GermanyAhrensburg culture – Ahrensburg culture
2. Apennine culture – The Apennine culture is a technology complex in central and southern Italy from the Italian Middle Bronze Age. This phase is preceded by the Grotta Nuova facies and by the Protoapennine B facies, Apennine pottery is a burnished ware incised with spirals, meanders and geometrical zones, filled with dots or transverse dashes. The people of the Apennine culture were cattle herdsmen grazing their animals over the meadows. They lived in small hamlets located in defensible places, on the move between summer pastures they built temporary camps or lived in caves and rock shelters. Their range was not necessarily confined to the hills, their pottery has been found on the Capitoline hill at Rome as well as on the mentioned above. In the 19th and early 20th centuries various theorists made various imputations of ethnicity concerning the Apennine culture, in the 20th century, the Italian scholar, Massimo Pallottino, who specialized in Etruscan civilization, rejected them as oversimple. At least with reference to Italy, he discarded Kossinnas Law, therefore, Pallottino argued that terms such as the Terramare culture or the Apennine culture have no ethnic or linguistic significance. The Apennine drew to an end with the spread of the Proto-Villanovan culture from the north and it pervaded all of Italy and introduced cremation, however, in Italy cremation existed side-by-side with continued inhumation. By the start of the Villanovan regional cultures had evolved along two lines, those that practiced both cremation and inhumation and those that practiced inhumation only. The Tiber river was the dividing line and it also divided the two main language groups, Etruscan and Italic. Whatever the Proto-Villanovan represents culturally it cannot have been a language or ethnic group, hence. Pallottinos presentation of the view of how the Indo-European languages on the left bank of the Tiber. Three waves of Indo-European language speakers, speaking closely related languages, arrived in groups over time across the Adriatic sea. The first occurred in the Middle Neolithic starting with the Square-necked Pottery Culture and prevailed for the remaining Neolithic, the Latin language evolved ultimately from their speech, in Italy. The second wave is associated with Mycenaean civilization of the Late Bronze Age and brought the ancestors of the Italic language speakers into central and they prevailed during the remainder of the Apennine. The third wave came with the Proto-Villanovan Culture and is responsible for the Venetic language speakers. The Apennine culture was in this theory always practiced mainly by speakers of languages in the Italic branch of Indo-European. The term Proto-Italic, in Pallottinos view, is useful because there was no single proto-language in ItalyApennine culture – The monumental building at Luni sul Mignone.
3. Arras culture – The Arras culture is an archaeological culture of the Middle Iron Age in East Yorkshire, England. It takes its name from the site of Arras, at Arras Farm, near Market Weighton. The site spans three fields, bisected by the main east-west road between Market Weighton and Beverley, and is arable farmland, little to no remains are visible above ground, the extent of the Arras culture is loosely associated with the Parisi tribe of pre-Roman Britain. The culture is defined by its burial practices, which are uncommon outside East Yorkshire, but are found in continental Europe, the burials have been dated from the latter part of the 1st millennium BC to the Roman conquest. The burial goods and chariot designs were primarily British in style, many of the archaeological finds are in the Yorkshire Museum and the British Museum. The site was first investigated by a group of gentry in 1815–1817, including William Watson, the Rev E. W. Stillingfleet. Their investigations were detailed, encompassing the excavation of more than a hundred barrows in fields north and south of the Market Weighton to Beverley road, many of the excavation details have been lost, but detailed recording was undertaken of four barrows with the richest grave goods. They were named the Kings Barrow, the Queens Barrow, the Ladys Barrow, work in 1850 by John Thurnam of the Yorkshire Antiquarian Club led to further investigations of these barrows, Thurnam published a report detailing the human remains from his excavation. The site of the Arras cemetery is about 200 metres long and some 100 barrows were identified, the name of the site lends itself to the culture, archaeologically based around chariot burials, across North and East Yorkshire. The relative scarcity of chariot burials even within the Arras culture leads to suggestions that the individuals inhumed with chariots represent a local elite, high quality metalwork and the use of imported materials in grave goods corroborates this suggestion. The number of non-chariot burials vastly outweighs those with chariots, such burials are always inhumations within a square barrow. Skeletal remains in the graves are laid out most commonly on a north-south axis where the head is facing north. The skeletons at Burton Fleming have been identified in three poses, extended fully, with the legs bent at the knees, and with the legs drawn up against the chest. Grave goods include metalwork, ceramics and animal remains, pig and horse bones are frequently associated with the burials. The original excavations by William Watson uncovered more than 100 square-barrows, material uncovered in the graves is of particularly high quality and is often unique in Iron Age Britain and includes copper-alloys, iron, animal bone, coral, jet, and enamel. Of the four barrows, most material from the Kings Barrow, the Queens Barrow and the Charioteers Barrow are accessioned to the Yorkshire Museum, the wheels were placed above the skull of a horse. The wooden frame of the cart did not survive, but the tyres and nave-hoops. Terret rings and other fittings were also recoveredArras culture – Horse-bit from the King's Barrow, now in the British Museum
4. Atlantic Bronze Age – The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, Armorica, Britain and Ireland. Commercial contacts extended from Sweden and Denmark to the Mediterranean, the period was defined by a number of distinct regional centres of metal production, unified by a regular maritime exchange of some of their products. The major centres were southern England and Ireland, north-western France, the items related to this culture are frequently found forming hoards, or they are deposited in ritual areas, usually watery contexts, rivers, lakes and bogs. Which they see as indicating possible processes linked to language shift, in 2013, Koch saw this east to west elite contact as the simplest explanation for the genesis of Celtic languages with a Proto-Celtic homeland in west-central Europe. However, this stands in contrast to what remains the generally accepted view that Celtic origins lie with the Central European Hallstatt C cultureAtlantic Bronze Age – Bronze cauldron and flesh hook, in the British Museum
5. Azilian – The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the Epipaleolithic in northern Spain and southern France. It probably dates to the period of the Allerød Oscillation around 12,000 years ago, archaeologists think the Azilian represents the tail end of the Magdalenian as the warming climate brought about changes in human behaviour in the area. The effects of melting ice sheets would have diminished the supply and probably impoverished the previously well-fed Magdalenian manufacturers. As a result, Azilian tools and art were cruder and less expansive than their Ice Age predecessors - or simply different, diagnostic artifacts from the culture include Azilian points, crude flat bone harpoons and pebbles with abstract decoration. The latter were first found in the River Arize at the type-site for the culture,145 are known from the Swiss site of Birsmatten-Eremitage. Compared with the late Magdelanian, the number of microliths increases, a culture very similar to the Azilian spread as well into Mediterranean Spain and southern Portugal. Because it lacked bone industry it is named distinctively as Iberian microlaminar microlithism and it was replaced by the so-called geometrical microlithism related to Tardenoisian cultureAzilian – Azilian
6. Beaker culture – The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on the cultures distinctive pottery drinking beakers. The Bell Beaker period marks a period of contact in Atlantic and Western Europe on a scale not seen previously. It has been suggested that the beakers were designed for the consumption of alcohol, beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups, some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. They were used as status display amongst disparate elites, there have been numerous proposals by archaeologists as to the origins of the Bell Beaker culture, and debates continued on for decades. Several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, similarly, scholars have postulated various mechanisms of spread, including migrations of populations, smaller warrior groups, individuals, or a diffusion of ideas and object exchange. Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon and they have concluded that the Bell Beaker phenomenon was a synthesis of elements, representing “an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background. An overview of all sources from southern Germany concluded that Bell Beaker was a new and independent culture in that area. The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found widely around the Tagus estuary in Portugal. Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BC. AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern. Furthermore, the ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe. Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions although, instead of battle-axes, the initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica, the enclave established in southern Brittany was linked closely to the riverine and landward route, via the Loire, and across the Gâtinais valley to the Seine valley, and thence to the lower Rhine. This was a long-established route reflected in early stone axe distributions, another pulse had brought Bell Beaker to Csepel Island in Hungary by about 2500 BC. But in contrast to the early Bell Beaker preference for the dagger and bow, here Bell Beaker people assimilated local pottery forms such as the polypod cup. These common ware types of pottery then spread in association with the bell beaker. From the Carpathian Basin Bell Beaker spread down the Rhine and eastwards into what is now Germany, by this time the Rhine was on the western edge of the vast Corded Ware zoneBeaker culture – The distinctive Bell Beaker pottery drinking vessels shaped like an inverted bell
7. Canegrate culture – The Canegrate culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy who developed from the recent Bronze Age until the Iron Age, in the areas of what are now western Lombardy, eastern Piedmont, and Ticino. Canegrate represented a new cultural dynamic to the area expressed in pottery. The name comes from the locality of Canegrate in Lombardy, south of Legnano and 25 km north of Milan, where Guido Sutermeister discovered important archaeological finds. The site was first excavated in 1926 in the area of Rione Santa Colomba and it is one of the richer archeological sites of Northern Italy. The necropolis found in Canegrate is very similar to those realized in the period in the north of Alps. They brought a new funerary practice—cremation—which supplanted inhumation, from the archaeological evidence it can be deduced that their interactions with the native populations had not been completely peaceful. The uniform and isolated Canegrate finds do not show any trace of the preceding Polada culture, the origins of the Orobii, a population localized by classical writers in these areas and which founded the town of Como, have been linked to the Canegrate culture. Since ancient times, the inhabitants of Olona Valley lived mainly away from the river, in Multiple Authors, I Celti, BompianiCanegrate culture – Archaeological find of Canegrate culture
8. Las Cogotas – Las Cogotas, is an archaeological site in Spain in Cardenosa municipality, province of Avila. The site was researched by the Galician archaeologist Juan Cabré in 1920s and it is namesake for two different archaeological cultures known from this site, Cogotas I of the Late Bronze Age and Cogotas II of the Iron Age. This culture, which existed around 1700—1550 BC, is known as Cogeces horizon. Although Protocogotas culture was not represented by finds in La Cogotas, characteristic for this culture is black pottery with incised geometric motives incrusted by white paste. Vessels were relatively small, flat-based, conic, rough, supposedly used as kitchen ware. Chronology of Cogotas I, Formation stage,1700 BC incised, one of them were Vettones, most probably of Celtic origin. Characteristic for Cogotas II cultures are verraco statues and these are stone bovine statues situated on pasture lands, whose exact usage is still unclear. Among other material culture objects there were daggers, flat axes, copper axes, sickles, granite grindstones. Like other similar settlements, Cogotas of that time was divided into several districts, including several cattle enclosures. Cattle husbandry played an important role in the life of Vettones, La prehistoria del Valle del Duero, Valladolid,1985. La Cultura de las Cogotas I, Actas del Homenaje a Luis Siret, Sevilla,1986Las Cogotas – Cogotas I. Ceramics with incrustation
9. Creswellian culture – The Creswellian is a British Upper Palaeolithic culture named after the type site of Creswell Crags in Derbyshire by Dorothy Garrod in 1926. It is also known as the British Late Magdalenian, the Creswellian is dated between 13, 000–11,800 BP and was followed by the most recent ice age, the Younger Dryas, when Britain was at times unoccupied by humans. The term Creswellian appeared for the first time in 1926 in Dorothy Garrods The Upper Palaeolithic Age in Britain and this was the first academic publication by the woman who became in 1939 the first woman ever elected as a professor at Cambridge. It is also the first monograph about the Upper Paleolithic of Britain at the national level, the definition of Creswellian was refined since then and now refers exclusively, in the British context, to the Late Magdalenian-style industry. The diagnostic tools are trapezoidal backed blades called Cheddar points and variant forms known as Creswell points as well as smaller bladelets, other tool types include end scrapers made from long, straight blades. A special preparation technique was employed to remove blades from a core through striking in a single direction, the tools were made using a soft hammerstone or an antler hammer. Other finds from Creswellian contexts include Baltic amber, mammoth ivory and animal teeth and these were used to make harpoons, awls, beads and needles. Unusual bevelled ivory rods, known as sagaies have been found at Goughs Cave in Somerset, some of the flint at Goughs Cave came from the Vale of Pewsey in Wiltshire whilst non-local seashells and amber from the North Sea coast also indicate a highly mobile population. Comparison of flint from Kents Cavern and Creswell Crags has led archaeologists to believe that they were made by the same group. Highly fragmentary fossil bones were found in Goughs Cave and they had marks that suggested actions of skinning, dismembering, defleshing and marrow extraction. The excavations of 1986-1987 noted that human and animal remains were mixed and they also show the signs of the same treatments as the animal bones. These findings were interpreted in the sense of a nutritional cannibalism, however, slight differences from other sites in skull treatment leave open the possibility of elements of ritual cannibalismCreswellian culture – Creswellian culture
10. El Argar – The Argaric culture was characterised by its early adoption of bronze, which briefly allowed this tribe local dominance over other, copper age peoples. El Argar also developed sophisticated pottery and ceramic techniques, which traded with other Mediterranean tribes. The center of civilization is displaced to the north and its extension. Their mining and metallurgy were quite advanced, with bronze, silver and gold being mined and worked for weapons and jewelry. Pollen analysis in a deposit in the Canada del Gitano basin high in the Sierra de Baza suggests that the Argaric exhausted precious natural resources. The civilization of El Argar extended to all the province of Almería, north onto the central Meseta, to most of the land of and westwards into the provinces of Granada and Jaen. Its cultural and possibly political influence was wider, clearly influencing eastern and southwestern Iberia. Some authors have suggested that El Argar was a unified state, Fuente Vermeja, small fortified site,3 km north of El Argar Lugarico Viejo, larger town very close to Fuente Vermeja. Puntarrón Chico, in the top of a hill, near Beniaján Ifre. Zapata,4 km. west of Ifre, fortified, cabezo Redondo, one of the biggest settlements, on a rocky elevation next to an old lagoon and salt evaporation pond. Gatas, fortified town on a hill with remarkable water canalizations, El Oficio, atop of a well defended hill, strongly fortified, especially towards the sea. Cerro de las Viñas, Coy, Spain Fuente Álamo, the citadel is atop a hill, almizaraque, a town dating to Los Millares civilization. Cerro de la Virgen de Orce, the culture of El Argar has traditionally been divided in two phases, named A and B.1730 BC in Fuente Álamo for El Argar A2, with six undated A1 layers under it. 1700 BC in Cuesta del Negro with clear Argarian materials in its lower layer and this phase begins in the 16th century BC. The main C-14 date is that of 1550 BC in Fuente Álamo for the layer of El Argar B2. Other stratigraphic dates are more recent but are not confirmed by C-14. El Argar B ends in the 14th or 13th century BC, again Fuente Álamo gives the best C-14 dating with 1330 BC. Many more C-14 dates have been published since the beginning of the 21st century, in recent publications, at least 260 such dates are cited altogetherEl Argar – Treasure of Villena, the second biggest gold finding in Europe. It is supposed to have been hidden by the Cabezo Redondo (near Villena) inhabitants.
11. Elp culture – The Elp culture is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the Netherlands having earthenware pottery of low quality known as Kümmerkeramik as a marker. The initial phase is characterized by tumuli, strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in Northern Germany and Scandinavia and this phase was followed by a subsequent change featuring Urnfield burial customs. First the dead were buried in pits and covered by a low barrow. At the end of the Bronze Age they were cremated and the urns were gathered in low barrows, family burials occurred only in the later stages. The culture is known for featuring the longhouse, housing people and animals in one and this construction shows an exceptional local continuity until the twentieth century, still being the normal type of farm in the lowlands of north-western Europe and the Netherlands. Going back to the roots of this tradition, it is assumed that its origins lay somewhere in the Bronze Age. Probably this change was contemporary to a transition from the two-aisled to the farm as early as 1800 BCE. This development bears comparison with what we know from Scandinavia, where the house also develops at the same time. Within the Northern Bronze Age context, many important reasons are mentioned to the custom of storing cattle inside a building and, moreover, cattle stalling was necessary to avoid cows giving less milk in cold conditions. Protection against cattle raids would fit the circumstances—proven by grave goods, rock engravings, the culture came to an end with the advent of the Hallstatt culture. Atlantic Bronze Age Urnfield culture Jastorf culture http, //www. landenweb. net/nederland/geschiedenis/Elp culture – Location of the Elp culture.
12. Este culture – The Este culture or Atestine culture was a Iron Age culture existing from the late Italian Bronze Age to the Roman period. It was located in the present territory of Veneto in Italy and derived from earlier and it is also called civilization of situlas, or paleo-venetic. The culture is named after a settlement in the Po Valley. The city of Este was originally situated on the river Etsch, the settlement evolved in the beginning of the 1st century BC at the cross-way of important traffic routes. Essentially only the cremation cemeteries with its burial goods remained. Este culture existed, next to the Villanovan Culture in the Bologna area, Este imparted artistically and technical incitation of the Hallstatt region to the south and Etruscan-Grecian elements to the north. Este was the center of the so-called situlae art, especially the situla decorated with animal and ribbons of figural shapes are characteristic. The most significant example is the Benvenuti-Situla, the evolution of the bronze foils works can be traced back until the end of the 4th century BC. Este culture survived the invasion of the Celts and their successors, several archaeological discoveries give the evidence that Este was an important centre of Venetic culture from the 7th to the 4th century BC. They had a shrine to the good or goddess Reitia. Archaeologists found, next to small statues, tools, vases and money,200 inscriptions in the Venetic script. Four phases are distinguished, Este I, Este II has a character, Este III is the climax corresponding to Certosa. The Este culture is referred to the precursor of the Veneti, the Veneti formed a buffer between the Illyrians, whose tribal area was located in the Balkans to the East of Trieste, and the Celts in the Po Valley. They had their own language and culture, which more and more open to Greek influence. The Veneti continued the tradition of the Este culture, when it expired in Este, in Veneto a modified figural art exists until today. Taylor & Francis,1997, p.183 f, dal paleolitico alla civiltà atestina / a cura di Raffaello Battaglia // Storia di Venezia / Centro internazionale delle arti e del costume. - Venezia, Centro internazionale delle arti e del costume,1958 - Vol.1, p. 79-177, Bermond Montanari 1999, G. Bermond Montanari, Gli strumenti musicali nell’arte delle situle. In, Protostoria e storia del „Venetorum Angulus“, portogruaro – Quarto d’Altino – Este – Adria, 16-19 ottobre 1996Este culture – Situation of the Este culture to the south of the Hallstatt culture.
13. Gaudo culture – It is sometimes described as an eneolithic culture, due to its use of primitive copper tools. This necropolis occupies about 2000 m² and contains 34 separate tombs and it was discovered late in the year 1943, during the Allied campaign in Italy, when the construction of the Gaudo Airfield unearthed some of the tombs. The tombs were accessed by a more or less circular shaft from above, at the bottom of which was a kind of vestibule or antechamber. There is evidence that the Gaudo funeral rites would have carried out by a team of people, and after the conclusion of the rites. The Gaudo people would apparently use tombs repeatedly, perhaps for different generations of people and it has been seen that the body of the most recently deceased would always be placed at the back of his burial chamber, with the previous tenants of that chamber placed beside him. These accessories were probably symbols of rank, study of the arrangement of bones and accompanying artifacts has led researchers to believe that the Gaudo society was structured into different family groups or warrior clans of some kind. Unfortunately, since the Gaudo people are known almost exclusively through their tombs, little is known about the other facets of their culture. Some other Gaudo sites are known throughout Campania however, such as what is thought to be a Gaudo dwelling in Taurasi, a large collection of Gaudo artifacts is on display at the National Archeological Museum of PaestumGaudo culture – Gaudo pot
14. Golasecca culture – The cultures material evidence is scattered over a wide area of 20,000 km² south of the Alps, between the rivers Po, Serio and Sesia, and bordered on the north by the Alpine passes. Most of the objects were from different graves located in the areas of Sesto Calende, Golasecca. Giani published a first report in 1824, but he misinterpreted the findings and he made several trips there bringing back to France part of the Abbot Gianis collection to enrich the Musée des Antiquités Nationales collections, of which he was Vice-curator. The excavations spread over various sites throughout the late 19th century, alexandre Bertrand, also curator of the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in turn went on site in 1873 and conducted some excavations by himself. It ended with the Gallic invasion of the Po Valley in 388 BC, the modern assessment of Golasecca culture is derived from the campaigns of 1965-69 on Monsorino, directed by A. Mira Bonomi. More recent chronological studies have produced by Raffaele De Marinis. More recent historical studies on the subject have been produced by Raffaele De Marinis, of the 44 graves identified in the excavations,33 were still almost intact. Subsequent phases of the Golasecca culture are so periodized, Canegrate culture, Type Ascona I or A Type Ascona II or B Type Ca’ Morta - Malpensa. Golasecca I A, 9th-8th century BC, Golasecca I B, late 8th - early 7th century BC. Golasecca I C, 7th century BC, Golasecca III A, 500-350 BC. G. III A1, 500-450 BC. G. III A2, 450-400 BC. G. III A3, 400-350 BC. In a broader context, the subalpine Golasecca culture is the very last expression of the Middle European Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age, the cultures richest flowering was Golasecca II, in the first half of the 6th to early 5th centuries BC. It lasted until it was overwhelmed by the Gaulish Celts in the 4th century BC and was incorporated into the hegemony of the Roman Republic. The very earliest finds are of the Late Bronze Age, apparently building upon a local culture, in Golasecca culture some of the first evolved characteristics of historic society may be seen in the specialized use of materials and the adaptation of the local terrain. Hand-shaped ceramics, made without a wheel, were decorated in gesso. The use of the wheel is known from the carts in the Tomb of the Warrior at the Sesto Calende site, Amber beads from the Baltic Sea, doubtless brought down the Amber Road, and obsidian reveal networks of long-distance trade. Some legume and cereal crops were cultivated, nuts and fruits were collected, the dugout boats from Castelletto Ticino and Porto Tolle are conserved at the museum of Isola Bella. Metal, though rare, was in increasing use, the old sites—Golasecca, Sesto Calende, Castelletto Ticino—maintained their traditional autochthonous character through the 6th century BC, when outside influences begin to be detectable. At the beginning of the 5th century BC, pastoral practices resulted in the development of new settlements in the plains, deciphered written characters are found incised in ceramics or on stone, in the Celtic Lepontic languageGolasecca culture – Negau type helmet from the Golasecca III period (480/450 BCE).
15. Langdale axe industry – The Langdale axe industry is the name given by archaeologists to specialised stone tool manufacturing centred at Great Langdale in Englands Lake District during the Neolithic period. The existence of a site was originally suggested by chance discoveries in the 1930s. The finds were mainly reject axes, rough-outs and blades created by knapping large lumps of the found in the scree or perhaps by simple quarrying or opencast mining. Hammerstones have also found in the scree and other lithic debitage from the industry such as blades and flakes. The area has outcrops of fine-grained greenstone or hornstone suitable for making polished stone axes, such axes have been found distributed across Great Britain. The rock is an epidotised greenstone quarried or perhaps just collected from the slopes in the Langdale Valley on Harrison Stickle. The nature and extent of the axe-flaking sites making up the Langdale Axe Factory complex are still under investigation, geological mapping has established that the volcanic tuff used for the axes outcrops along a narrow range of the highest peaks in the locality. Archaeologists are able to identify the nature of the Langdale stone by taking sections. The minerals in the rock have a pattern, using a method known as petrography. They have been able to reconstruct the methods and trade patterns employed by the axe makers. The Langdale industry produced roughly hewn axes and simple blocks, the highly polished final product were usually made elsewhere, such as at Ehenside tarn in the western fringes of the Lake District, and all were traded on throughout Britain and Ireland. The Langdale tuff was among the most common of the rocks used to make axes in the Neolithic period. Polishing the rough surfaces will have improved the strength of the axe as well as lowering friction when used against wood. Fractures occur more easily in brittle materials like stone when rough owing to the stress concentrations present at sharp corners, holes, removing those defects by polishing makes the axe much stronger, and able to withstand impact and shock loads from use. Sandstone was usually used for polishing axes, and whetstones have been nearby at Ehenside tarn. Large fixed outcrops were also used for polishing, and there are numerous examples across Europe. That at Fyfield Down near Avebury is an exception, but there must be many more awaiting discovery, the stone axes from Langdale have been found at archaeological sites across Britain and Ireland. An unusual concentration of finds occurs in the East of England, francis Pryor attributes this to these axes being particularly valued in this regionLangdale axe industry – Polished stone axe
16. Los Millares – Los Millares is a Chalcolithic occupation site 17 km north of Almería, in the municipality of Santa Fe de Mondújar, Andalusia, Spain. The complex was in use from the end of the millennium to the end of the second millennium BC. It was discovered in 1891 during the construction of a railway and it was first excavated by Luis Siret in the succeeding years. The site covers 2 hectares and comprises three lines of stone walls, the outer ring the largest, running more than 650 feet with nineteen bastions. The road to the site is guarded by four smaller outlying stone forts, there is an extensive cemetery of eighty passage grave tombs. Radiocarbon dating has established that one collapsed and was rebuilt around 3025 BC. A cluster of simple dwellings lay inside the walls as well as one large building containing evidence of copper smelting, pottery excavated from the site included plain and decorated wares including symbolkeramik bowls bearing oculus motifs. Similar designs appear on various carved stone idols found at the site, the Los Millares culture eventually came to dominate the Iberian peninsula. The population of Los Millares has been estimated at approximately 1000 in the timeframe 3200–2300 BC, the labor involved in its construction, the large volume of stones used, its geometric characteristics and sophisticated design all indicate multiple functionality, including defense and power. Los Millares participated in the trends of Megalithism and the Beaker culture. Other Iberian settlements in region of a similar age to Los Millares include the settlement of Los Silillos. Similarities between Los Millares architecture and the pyramid at Monte dAccoddi in Sardinia have been noticed. Media related to Los Millares at Wikimedia Commons European Megalithic Culture Virtual visit to the place of Los MillaresLos Millares – A model of the prehistoric town of Los Millares, with its walls.
17. Nuragic civilization – The Nuragic civilization, born and developed in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, lasted from the Bronze Age to the 2nd century AD. The civilizations name derives from its most characteristic monument, the nuraghe, today some 7,000 nuraghes dot the Sardinian landscape. No written records of civilization have been discovered. The only written information that we have comes from literature of the Greeks and Romans. In the Stone Age the island was inhabited by people who had arrived there in the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages from several parts of Europe, the most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona. Later several cultures developed on the island, such as the Ozieri culture, the economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland. With the diffusion of metallurgy, silver and copper objects and weapons also appeared on the island, according to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and those found in Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the Eastern Mediterranean. The altar of Monte dAccoddi fell out of use starting from c.2000 BC, when the Beaker culture, the beakers appeared in Sardinia from two different geographical areas, firstly from Spain and southern France and then from Central Europe, through the Italian Peninsula. The Bonnanaro culture was the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia and these two cultures shared common features in the material culture such as pottery with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed new architectural techniques that were widespread on the island. New peoples coming from the mainland arrived on the island at time, bringing with them new cults, new technologies and new ways of life. The widespread diffusion of bronze brought numerous improvements to the used in agriculture, hunting. From this period dates the construction of the so-called proto-nuraghe, a structure that marks the first phase of the Nuragic Age. There has long been controversy among scholars, in ancient times, Greek historians and geographers tried to solve the mystery of the nuraghe and their builders. They described the presence of fabulous edifices, called daidaleia, from the name of Daedalus, perhaps for protection reasons, new towers were added to the original ones, connected by walls provided with slits forming a complex nuraghe. It has been suggested some of the current Sardinian villages trace their origin directly from Nuragic ones. The usually cited tin sources and trade in ancient times are those in the Iberian Peninsula or from Cornwall, the late Bronze Age saw a vast migration of the so-called Sea Peoples, described in ancient Egyptian sources. They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked Egypt, according to Giovanni Ugas the Sherden, one of the most important tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the Nuragic SardiniansNuragic civilization – Su Nuraxi of Barumini, included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 1997
18. Ozieri culture – The Ozieri culture was a prehistoric pre-Nuragic culture that occupied Sardinia from c.3200 to 2800 BC. The Ozieri existed contemporaneously with the Arzachena culture, sharing some similarities, the settlements consisted of small stone huts, with a circular wall supporting a wooden frame with a ceiling of boughs. One, near Sestu, consisted of 60 huts, another, near Mogoro, included 267 huts, perhaps also erected on poles driven into the ground, with pavements composed of limestone slabs, basalt cobbles or clay. The finding of unique tools and objects in individual huts, and early evidence of metal-working, the villages had no walls, and findings of weapons in the tombs are scarce, indicating the Ozieri civilization was perhaps a peaceful one, far different from the later Nuragic civilization. Some tombs, of more monumental appearance, belonged perhaps to chiefs, the Ozieri burial practices differ from what is found in the region of Gallura, where the dead were interred in Megalithic circles. The Ozieri produced finely made pottery with complex patterns, incisions. Archaeological excavations held in 1914 and 1949 found fine worked vases with geometrical motifs carved in the clay, the oldest ones were still rather crude, while the more recent examples were more refined and slender. Such ceramics were a novelty for prehistoric Sardinia, since up to that point they had considered typical of the Cyclades. The development of the Ozieri culture, therefore, probably stemmed from contacts with other eastern Mediterranean civilizations, the Ozieri culture appears to have been much involved in the obsidian trade, due to rich deposits on the island, which may have led to increased trading contact. Female statuettes similar to those of the Ozieri culture have also found in Malta. Bull horns were recovered from tombs and elsewhere, indicating the sacred bull was also an important conceptOzieri culture – A statuette of the Mediterranean Mother goddess, found at Senorbì.
19. Polada culture – Other major sites are found in the area between Mantua, the Lake Garda and the Lake of Pusiano. It was succeeded in the Middle Bronze Age by the facies of the pile dwellings and of the dammed settlements. The Polada culture is usually assigned to the period from 2200 to 1500 BC, or according to A. F. Harding from 2400 to 1400 BC, according to the chronology proposed by Renato Perini, they correspond to the Bronzo Antico II and Bronzo Antico III. These clay objects can be dated in Italy in a period from 2050 BC to 1400/1300 BC, the settlement of Lavagnone 1 can be assigned to 2080/2050 BC. Lavagnone 2 existed for 65 years and Lavagnone 3 began around 1984 BC, there are some commonalities with the previous Bell Beaker Culture including the usage of the bow and a certain mastery in metallurgy. Apart from that, the Polada culture does not correspond to the Beaker culture nor to the previous Remedello culture, according to Barfield the appearance of Polada facies is connected to the movement of new populations coming from southern Germany and from Switzerland. Its influences are found in the cultures of the Early Bronze Age of Liguria, Romagna, Corsica. The settlements in the area of lakes and marshes of Moraine are stilt houses resting on drainage of horizontal trunks and they had a relatively limited extension, about a hectare, and a population between 200 and 300 people per village. The economy was based on breeding, hunting, farming, fishing, in a site of this culture, near Solferino, was found the oldest example of domesticated horse in Italy. If the pottery is still coarse, other human activities grow and develop, lithic industry, in bone and horn, wood, the Bronze tools and weapons show similarities with those of the Unetice Culture and other groups in the north of Alps including the Singen and Straubing groups. L. Barfield, Northern Italy Before Rome, london, Thames and Hudson,1971 B. Barich, Il complesso industriale della stazione di Polada alla luce dei più recenti dati, Bollettino di Paleotnologia Italiana,80,22, john M. Coles, A. F. Harding, The Bronze Age in Europe, an introduction to the prehistory of Europe, c. 2000-700 BC, Taylor & Francis,1979 - ISBN 0-416-70650-9 L. Fasani, Letà del Bronzo, in Veneto nellantichità, Preistoria e Protostoria, R. Peroni, Letà del bronzo nella penisola italiana I. Lantica età del bronzo, Florence, Olschki,1971Polada culture – Polada pottery
20. Solutrean – The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP. The term Solutrean comes from the type-site of Cros du Charnier, dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, the Rock of Solutré site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry. It is now preserved as the Parc archéologique et botanique de Solutré, the eras finds include tools, ornamental beads, and bone pins as well as prehistoric art. Solutrean tool-making employed techniques not seen before and not rediscovered for millennia, the Solutrean has relatively finely worked, bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and pressure flaking rather than cruder flintknapping. Knapping was done using antler batons, hardwood batons and soft stone hammers and this method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads. Bone and antler were used as well, the Solutrean may be seen as a transitory stage between the flint implements of the Mousterian and the bone implements of the Magdalenian epochs. Faunal finds include horse, reindeer, mammoth, cave lion, rhinoceros, bear, Solutrean finds have been also made in the caves of Les Eyzies and Laugerie Haute, and in the Lower Beds of Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, England. The industry first appeared in what is now Spain, and disappears from the record around 17,000 BP. The migrants arrived in northeastern North America and served as the culture for what eventually developed into Clovis tool-making technology. The idea of a Clovis-Solutrean link remains controversial and does not enjoy wide acceptance, in 2014, the autosomal DNA of a male infant from a 12, 500-year-old deposit in Montana was sequenced. The DNA was taken from a referred to as Anzick-1. The skeleton was found in association with several Clovis artifacts. Comparisons showed strong affinities with DNA from Siberian sites, and virtually ruled out any close affinity of Anzick-1 with European sources, Clovis and Solutrean, Is There a Common Thread. by James MSolutrean – Solutrean tools, 22,000–17,000 BP, Crot du Charnier, Solutré-Pouilly, Saône-et-Loire, France
21. Villanovan culture – The Villanovan culture and people branched from the Urnfield culture of Central Europe. The Villanovans introduced iron-working to the Italian peninsula, they practiced cremation, the name Villanovan comes from the type-site, that of the first archaeological finds relating to this advanced culture, remnants of a cemetery found near Villanova in northern Italy. The well tomb pit graves lined with stones contained funerary urns, they had only sporadically plundered. In 1893, a chance discovery unearthed another distinctive Villanovan necropolis at Verucchio, cremated remains were placed in cinerary urns and then buried. A custom believed to originate with the Villanovan culture is the usage of Hut urns, cinerary urns fashioned like small huts, typical sgraffito decorations of swastikas, meanders and squares were scratched with a comb-like tool. Urns were accompanied by simple bronze fibulae, razors and rings, the culture is broadly divided into a Proto-Villanovan culture from c.1100 BC to c.900 BC and the Villanovan culture proper from c.900 BC to c.700 BC. This period came just before the foundation of Etruscan cities, chamber tombs and inhumation practices were developed side-by-side with the earlier cremation practices. Generally speaking, Villanovan settlements were centered in the Adriatic Etruria, in Emilia Romagna, in Marche and in Lazio. Further south, Villanovan cremation burials are to be found in Campania, at Capua, at the tombs of Pontecagnano near Salerno, at Capo di Fiume, at Vallo di Diano. This site continuity encourages modern opinion generally to follow Massimo Pallottino in regarding the Villanovan culture as ancestral to the Etruscan civilization. Canegrate culture Prehistoric Italy S. Gozzadini, La nécropole de Villanova, Fava et Garagnani, Bologna,1870 J. P. Mallory, Villanovan Culture, G. Bartoloni, The origin and diffusion of Villanovan culture. In M. Torelli, The Etruscans, pp 53–74, M. E. Moser, The Southern Villanovan Culture of Campania,1982Villanovan culture – Villanovian double urn