Slack Farm is an archaeological site of the Caborn-Welborn variant of the Mississippian culture. Slack Farm is located near Uniontown, Kentucky close to the confluence of the Ohio River, the site included a Native American mound and an extensive village occupation dating between 1400–1650 CE. Although Slack Farm was long known to be one of the villages of the Caborn-Welborn people. The Slack Farm site is located on a terrace and adjacent levee 300 metres from the Ohio River. There was a located on the bluff overlooking the site. The Slack Farm site itself consisted of 7 discrete village areas surrounding a central plaza, a shallow ravine bisects the site running from the west to the south. Houses were typical Mississippian rectangular wall trench wattle and daub structures set in shallow basins, located near most houses were special pits used to store maize and other dried foods. The pits were large enough to have stored enough grain to feed 7 to 12 people for a year, each section of the large village maintained its own cemetery.
Burials were typically in extended positions and they were often laid out in parallel rows and the absence of overlapping burials suggests that they were marked in some way. Grave goods such as limestone disc pipes, shell beads and ear plugs, as well as small pottery jars were often included, in Late Caborn-Welborn times, European trade goods such as glass beads, copper/brass bracelets and tubes were deposited in the graves. During the 1987 looting,650 to 750 graves were opened by the looters, in 1987 the ten looters of Slack Farm paid $10,000 to a new landowner of the Slack Farm property for the right to dig at the site. After renting a tractor, the ten individuals spent two months destroying hundreds of Native American graves, Mississippian culture houses, and unknown other artifacts, local complaints by the people of Uniontown led to the arrest of the perpetrators for the misdemeanor of desecrating a venerable object. The looting of Slack Farm contributed to the passage of more stringent laws in the state of Kentucky relating to the protection of burials, sacred grounds, and indigenous/archaeological sites.
The damage done to Slack Farm attracted worldwide attention and was written about in National Geographic Magazine, the hundreds of broken bones were reburied by Native American groups. As of May 2007, Native American groups still meet in the area to commemorate the site, fagan explains the Slack Farm Tragedy in three parts Kentucky Burial Laws Archaeological vandalism in the Southeast Purifying the Slack Farm, Native Americans continuing to celebrate the site
Green River Shell Middens Archeological District
The Green River Shell Middens Archeological District is a historic district composed of archaeological sites in the U. S. state of Kentucky. All of the sites are shell middens along the banks of the Green River that date from the portion of the Archaic period. The district was established and named a National Historic Landmark on May 5,1994, each of the districts twenty-three contributing properties had previously been listed on the National Register of Historic Places by itself. The sites are distributed among five counties, Butler County, Henderson County, McLean County, Muhlenberg County, the district comprises the following sites, listed by their Smithsonian trinomials, names are provided for named sites. Indian Knoll, another shell midden in the region not included in the district Green River Shell Middens of Kentucky TR Multiple Property Submission
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Round Hill, Kentucky
Round Hill is an unincorporated community in Madison County, United States. It lies 10 miles southwest of Richmond on County Road 595, a burial mound attributed by the National Register of Historic Places to the Adena Culture is the central feature of the village. The ovoid earthwork has a base of roughly 150 by 90 feet, unsystematic excavations in the early twentieth century by local residents produced flint tools and human remains. The mound stands on property but is visible from the road. Round Hill is part of the Richmond–Berea Micropolitan Statistical Area
Mount Horeb Earthworks Complex
The Mount Horeb Earthworks Complex is an Adena culture group of earthworks in Fayette County, Kentucky. It consists of two components, the Mount Horeb Site 1 and the Peter Village enclosure, and several smaller features including the Grimes Village site, Tarleton Mound. This site is the piece of the University of Kentuckys Adena Park and is located on a bank 75 feet above Elkhorn Creek. It is a perfectly circlular 105 feet diameter platform, surrounded by a 45 feet wide ditch, in 1939 the site was excavated by William S. Webb and the Works Projects Administration. They discovered the remains of a 97 feet diameter circular wooden structure on the platform, in 1936 the site and 6 acres were paid for through private dontations and transferred to the Kentucky Archaeological Society. It is currently owned and operated by the University of Kentucky as part of the Campus Recreation Department, the earliest occupation at this site is 300 to 200 BCE and is considered to be a pre-Adena site for harvesting and processing galena, which occurs naturally nearby.
At this time the site had an enclosure and a palisade. Rafinesque described the site as a twenty sided icosogonal polygon 3,767 feet long with a 15 feet wide 4 feet to 8 feet deep surrounding it. An entryway to the enclosure was located to the south, Mount Horeb, described as ancient work near Lexington, was featured in the 1848 book Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis. Portsmouth Earthworks Adena Park Earthworks Travel Guide
It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 28,1983. With a fairly large number of bad characters from various nations Lower Shawneetown posed a significant challenge to France, the community was less a village and more of a district extending along the wide Scioto River and narrower Ohio River floodplains and terraces. It was a series of wickiups and longhouses. French. The town was destroyed by floods in November,1758 and the relocated to another site further up the Scioto River. A feature of the site is the Old Fort Earthworks, a part of the Portsmouth Earthworks known as Group A. Built between 100 BCE and 500 CE by the Adena culture, the earthworks are a series of rectangular enclosures connected to the main features of the group by an earthen causeway. The site is a 1.2 hectare village on the flood terrace of the Ohio River. Established in the mid-1730s at the mouth of the Scioto River, the name of the town was not recorded, but scholars believe it may have been Chalahgawtha, a Shawnee word meaning principal place.
The area had Iroquois and Miami communities within a few days journey, the town lay near the Seneca Trail, which was used by Cherokees and Catawbas, and it was surrounded by fertile, alluvial flatlands that were ideal for growing corn. Although mainly a Shawnee village, the population included contingents of Seneca, the earliest reference to it is in a July 27,1734 letter by François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, describing an English traders warehouse in the home of the Shawnees on the Ohio River. The earliest eyewitness account is a report by Baron de Longueuil from July 1739, while on their journey down the Ohio River towards the Mississippi, they met with local chiefs in a village on the banks of the Scioto. In the summer of 1749 Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville moved down the Ohio River on his lead plate expedition, the plates were inscribed to claim the area for France. Céloron sought out British traders and warned them to leave this territory belonged to France. Hearing that a French military force was approaching, the hastily erected a stockade.
The Shawnees reluctantly opened the gates and invited Céloron to enter, he summoned the five Pennsylvania traders who were living in the town and ordered them to leave. Céloron considered plundering their goods, but as he was confronted by a large and well-armed Shawnee force, in April 1745 Peter Chartier and about 400 Shawnees took refuge in Lower Shawneetown after defying Governor Patrick Gordon in a conflict over the sale of rum to the Shawnees. Chartier opposed the sale of alcohol in Native American communities and threatened to destroy any shipments of rum that he found and he persuaded members of the Pekowi Shawnee to leave Pennsylvania and migrate south. After staying in Lower Shawneetown for a few weeks they proceeded into Kentucky to found the community of Eskippakithiki, william Trent established a storehouse in Lower Shawneetown sometime around 1734, and the Shawnees kept it secure in order to encourage further trade with the British
The Portsmouth Earthworks are a large prehistoric mound complex constructed by the Ohio Hopewell culture mound builder indigenous peoples of eastern North America. The site was one of the largest earthwork ceremonial centers constructed by the Hopewell and is located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers, the majority of the mound complex site is now covered by the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County, Ohio. Several individual sections of the complex have included on the National Register of Historic Places. Originally, the Portsmouth Earthworks consisted of three sections extending over twenty miles of the Ohio River valley, crossing from Ohio to Kentucky in several places. It was surveyed and mapped by E. G. Squier in 1847 for inclusion in the archaeological and anthrolopological work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. The northern most section was made up of a number of circular enclosures, one set of walled roads extends across the Ohio River into South Portsmouth, Kentucky to the southwest to Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A.
Another set of walled roads lead to the southeast where it crossed the Ohio River and lead to Portsmouth Earthworks. The third set of walled roads lead to the northwest for an undetermined distance, the City of Portsmouth maintains a public park which includes one of the remaining horseshoe-shaped enclosures, known as Mound Park, it is the only publicly accessible part of the complex. Under the name Horseshoe Mound it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, known as the Old Fort Earthworks it is a series of rectangular enclosures near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky. Group A is a square enclosure with two series of parallel walls extending from the northeast and southwest corners. The Old Fort Earthworks consist of several sites, including the Old Fort Earthworks, Mays Mound, Hicks Mound, Stephenson Mound, and several other unnamed mounds and enclosures. This section of the earthworks is located in Greenup County, Kentucky several miles to the east of South Shore, but connected to Group B by a causeway
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Archaeological investigations have linked the site with others along the Ohio River in Illinois and Kentucky as part of the Angel Phase of Mississippian culture. Wickliffe Mounds is controlled by the State Parks Service, which operates a museum at the site for interpretation of the ancient community, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is a Kentucky Archeological Landmark and State Historic Site. The town at Wickliffe Mounds is located on a bluff above the Ohio River, at its peak it had a population probably reaching into the hundreds. The site is dominated by two platform mounds, with at least eight smaller mounds scattered around a central plaza area. Agriculture was based on the cultivation of maize as a staple, the Mississippian culture peoples had trade with societies as far away as North Carolina and the Gulf of Mexico. As in most other Mississippian chiefdoms, the community of Wickliffe had a social hierarchy ruled by a hereditary chief, the site was inhabited between 1000 CE and 1350 CE.
Amateur and semi-professional excavations first began in the site around 1913, the excavations were done under the direction of Dr. Walter B, Alabama State Geologist, and David L. DeJarnette who was the crew chief. To defry the cost of operating the site a one dollar admission was charged for the one hour guided tour during the King era, in cooperation with his wife, Blanche Busey King, he opened the site for tourists under the name Ancient Buried City. These actions put them directly in opposition to profestsional archaeologists who studied the site, the Kings deeded the site to the Western Baptist Hospital in Paducah in 1946, that agreed to pay them a monthly stipend until both of their deaths. The hospital continued to operate the site as a business until 1983 the year Mrs. King died. That year the hospital donated the site to Murray State University, to be used for research, in 1984 the sites historic importance was recognized and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2004, the became the 11th State Historical Site of Kentucky.
In addition to the freestanding Mound A, the major ceremonial mound and it displays the outstanding collection of pottery and artifacts excavated on site. A mural with a view of the Mississippian village on the bluff shows how the entire complex would have looked. /* Mound A */ Ceremonial Mound is the largest of the mounds and was the location of ceremonial structures and this would have been political and religious center of the community. Originally excavated in 1932 and in 1984-5, it has determined that there are six phases of development. The Architecture Building covers a mound that was residential and you can see several layers of habitation revealed in this cut-away mound. This mound was built up over 200 years, visitors can look into the layers of this mound
Hardin Village Site
The Hardin Village Site is a Fort Ancient culture Montour Phase archaeological site located on a terrace of the Ohio River near South Shore in Greenup County, Kentucky. It is located within the Big Sandy Management Area along with the nearby Lower Shawneetown site, the site was first inhabited sometime in the early 16th century and abandoned by 1625. This era of protohistory saw the arrival of Europeans in North America, although by the time made it to this area. The Hardin Village site is located on the large flat 2 kilometres wide floodplain terrace of the Ohio River and it was occupied from sometime in the early 16th century and abandoned by about 1625, during the Montour Phase of the Fort Ancient chronology. During its occupation it covered an area of about 4. 5-hectare, like other Fort Ancient villages it had a defensive palisade surrounding it, but unlike other sites it does not seem to have had a central oval plaza. Interior posts helped to support the roof and storage pits lined the interior of the walls, thin partitions divided the large structures into multi-family dwellings. A gap between two larger posts set on the sides of the houses was used as the doorway.
The houses could be large, some measuring up to 9.1 metres by 21.5 metres. As with other peoples of the era, mussel shells from local stream were used for tools, animal bone and shell attached to prepared tree limbs were used for hoes in their gardens. Animal bone was shaped for use as tools and these included awls, fish hooks, bone needles, and hide scrapers. Their jewelry included beads, hair pins, tinklers, gourds from their garden and turtle shell were used for ceremonial rattles. Pottery at the Hardin site was similar to that made and found at other Fort Ancient sites, women would use ground mussel shell as a tempering agent, it was added to wet clay and finely kneaded in. This technique of using ground mussel shell is a hallmark of Mississippian cultures to the south and west of the Fort Ancient, the clay would be rolled into strips and layered and smoothed to form the appropriate shapes. It was decorated with a variety of such as engraving designs with a sharpened stick, cordmarking with twine, stamping.
Burials for the village would be made in designated areas of the village, a total of 301 to 445 burials have been found at the site by archaeologists, the largest number of burials found in a Kentucky Fort Ancient site. Most of these burials were in the position, stretched straight out. A small percentage of burials at the site have been of other types, including in the position, bundle burials. About half of the burials contained grave goods, including pottery and these utilitarian wares were more often interred with adults
The Marshall Site is an Early Mississippian culture archaeological site located near Bardwell in Carlisle County, Kentucky, on a bluff spur overlooking the Mississippi River floodplain. The site was occupied from about 900 to about 1300 CE during the James Bayou Phase of the chronology and was abandoned sometime during the succeeding Dorena Phase. Its inhabitants may have moved to the Turk Site, which is located on the nearest adjacent bluff spur to the south, and it is several miles south of the Wickliffe Mounds Site. Marshall is a village site, with evidence of once having had mounds and earthworks. It is one of the few James Bayou Phase sites to be extensively excavated and its archaeological features were undisturbed by occupations. In 1985, a team from the University of Illinois conducted excavations at Marshall. Four locations were excavated, spots on the eastern and western sides of the knoll, another on a spur to the north. On the eastern side of the knoll, a substantial midden was investigated and found to possess good stratigraphy, Early shell tempering in far Western Kentucky