Category:Archaeological sites in the Aegean Region
Pages in category "Archaeological sites in the Aegean Region"
The following 56 pages are in this category, out of 56 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 56 pages are in this category, out of 56 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Aigai (Aeolis) – Aigai, also Aigaiai was an ancient Greek, later Roman, city and bishopric in Aeolis. Aegae is mentioned by both Herodotus and Strabo as being a member of the Aeolian dodecapolis and it was also an important sanctuary of Apollo. Aigai had its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty, which ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd, the remains of the city are located near the modern village of Yuntdağı Köseler in Manisa Province, Turkey. The archaeological site is situated at a high altitude almost on top of Mount Gün. Initially the city was a possession of the Lydian Empire and later the Achaemenid Empire when it conquered the former, in the early third century BC it became part of the Kingdom of Pergamon. It changed hands from Pergamon to the Seleucid Empire, but was recaptured by Attalus I of Pergamon in 218 BC, in the war between Bithynia and Pergamon, it was destroyed by Prusias II of Bithynia in 156 BC. After a peace was brokered by the Romans, the city was compensated with hundred talents, under the rule of Pergamon a market building and a temple to Apollo were constructed. In 129 BC the Kingdom of Pergamon became part of the Roman Empire, the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 17 AD and received aid for reconstruction from emperor Tiberius. Ægæ was important enough in the Roman province of Asia Prima to become one of the many suffragans of its capital Ephesuss Metropolitan Archbishopric, the diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as titular bishopric. The plateau is surrounded by a wall with a length of 1.5 kilometers, on the eastern side are the remains of the three-story indoor market with a height of 11 meters and a length of 82 meters. The upper floor of the Hellenistic building was renovated in Roman times, the partially overgrown remains of many other buildings are scattered over the site. These include the acropolis which is out in terraces, a Macellum, a gymnasium, a bouleuterion. About five kilometers to the east the foundations of a sanctuary of Apollo are found on the banks of the river flows around the ruins. It was an Ionic order peripteros temple from the first century BC, a cella which is six meters high and three monoliths still remain. The first western visitors of Aigai were William Mitchell Ramsay and Salomon Reinach in 1880 and they reported about their visit in the Journal of Hellenic Studies and the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. They were followed by Richard Bohn and Carl Schuchhardt, who examined the site as a part of the excavations in Pergamon, since 2004 the site is being excavated by Ersin Doğer of Ege University in Izmir. By 2010 the access road, the bouleuterion, the odeon, shops, numerous water pipes, for the coming years it is planned to re-erect the market halls facade with the original stones
2. Aphrodisias – Aphrodisias was a small ancient Greek city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey. It is located near the village of Geyre, about 100 km east/inland from the coast of the Aegean Sea. Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, who had here her unique cult image, according to the Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedic compilation, before the city became known as Aphrodisias it had three previous names, Lelégōn Pólis, Megálē Pólis, and Ninóē. Sometime before 640, in the Late Antiquity period when it was within the Byzantine Empire, white and blue grey Carian marble was extensively quarried from adjacent slopes in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, for building facades and sculptures. Marble sculptures and sculptors from Aphrodisias became famous in the Roman world, the site is in an earthquake zone and has suffered a great deal of damage at various times, especially in severe tremors of the 4th and 7th centuries. An added complication was that one of the 4th century earthquakes altered the water table, evidence can be seen of emergency plumbing installed to combat this problem. Aphrodisias never fully recovered from the 7th century earthquake, and fell into disrepair, part of the town was covered by the modern village of Geyre, some of the cottages were removed in the 20th century to reveal the older city. A new Geyre has been built a distance away. In Byzantine times the city was renamed Stauropoli meaning “the city of the cross”, another bishop, Theopropios, is mentioned by an inscription. Bishops are known from the Notitia Episcopatuum of pseudo-Epiphanius, the town was also home to the martyrs Diodorus and Rodopiano during the persecution of Diocletian. In the 7th century Stauropolis had twenty-eight suffragan bishops and twenty-six at the beginning of the 10th century, surviving acta record that between 1356 and 1368 it was without a metropolitan, but was under the administration of the metropolitan of Bizye. In 1369 metropolitan reappears as the recipient of the churches of Miletus and Antioch on the Maeander, isaias of Stauropolis attended the Council of Florence and fled to avoid signing the decree of union. Stauropolis remains a Roman Catholic titular metropolitan see of the former Roman province of Caria, the Temple of Aphrodite was a focal point of the town, but the character of the building was altered when it became a Christian basilica. The Aphrodisian sculptors became renowned and benefited from a supply of marble close at hand. The school of sculpture was very productive, much of their work can be seen around the site, many full-length statues were discovered in the region of the agora, and trial and unfinished pieces pointing to a true school are in evidence. Sarcophagi were recovered in locations, most frequently decorated with designs consisting of garland. Pilasters have been showing what are described as peopled scrolls with figures of people, birds. A monumental gateway, or tetrapylon, leads from the main street of the town into a large forecourt in front of the Temple or Sanctuary of Aphrodite
3. Basilica of St. John – The Basilica of St. John was a basilica in Ephesus. It was constructed by Justinian I in the 6th century and it stands over the believed burial site of John the Apostle. It was modeled after the now lost Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, the basilica is on the slopes of Ayasuluk Hill just below the fortress near the center of Selçuk, İzmir Province, Turkey and about 3.5 km from Ephesus. Little is known about the Basilica of St, the building of this church was presided over by the bishop, Hypatius of Ephesus. Despite its popularity after the 9th century it was no longer mentioned, possibly due to a new built in honor of St. John. The basilica was built almost entirely of brick and stones, while the columns would have made of marble or have been marble plated. The use of timber-roofed towers that were placed over the bay preceding the chancel, the first building to be built on St. John’s tomb was a mausoleum of sort, which also served as a church. In the 4th century, a basilica was built over it during the reign of Theodosius, two centuries later, as the site laid in ruins, Justinian began his construction of a much grander church. In comparison, the Theodosian Basilica measured at 246 x 146 feet while Justinian’s Basilica measured at 428 x 213 feet, the plan was laid out on the site of Constantine’s Apostoleion and would be arranged in a Greek cross pattern. And although the construction of church was by imperial order. The marble decorations were made in Constantinople and perhaps in Ephesus as well, the bases, column and capitals of the nave were made and imported from Constantinople or the quarries of Proconnesus. While much of the capital of the Eastern part of the church were done by local craftsmen instead, following the Constantinopolitan pattern, as Procopius has stated, the land surrounding the church was very uninhabitable nor could it be used to cultivate anything. To solve this, Justinian had an aqueduct built near the church, with its resemblance to the Church of the Holy Apostles, the Basilica of St. John also took on the cruciform in its design. The basilica was a domed basilica where the domes were placed over the crossing, choir, transepts. Five domes rested on solid piers in the corners of the cross and surmounted the arms, to hold such domes in place, massive marble pillars were built and erected to support the domes. The cupolas of the church would be covered in mosaics as well. Prior to Theodoras death in 548, Justinian had both her monogram and his placed on the capitals, the main entrance gate to the basilica was called the “Gate of Persecution” while atrium walls that were built would have surrounded the basilica itself. The walls would have consisted of towers that were empty or used as bastions
4. Didyma – Didyma was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, the Didymaion, in Greek didyma means twin, but the Greeks who sought a twin at Didyma ignored the Carian origin of the name. Next to Delphi, Didyma was the most renowned oracle of the Hellenic world and its establishment preceded literacy and even the Hellenic colonization of Ionia. Mythic genealogies of the origins of the Branchidae line of priests, designed to capture the origins of Didyma as a Hellenic tradition, date to the Hellenistic period. The ruins of Didyma are located a distance to the northwest of modern Didim in Aydin Province, Turkey. Didyma was the largest and most significant sanctuary on the territory of the classical city Miletus. To approach it, visitors would follow the Sacred Way to Didyma, along this route were ritual waystations, and statues of male and female members of the Branchidae family, as well as animal figures. Some of these statues, dating to the 6th century BC, are now in the British Museum, also, as Wilamowitz suggested, there may be a connection to Cybele Dindymene, the Cybele of Mount Dindymon. Excavations by German archaeologists have uncovered a major sanctuary dedicated to Artemis, the 6th century Didymaion, dedicated to Apollo, enclosed a smaller temple that was its predecessor, which archaeologists have identified. Its treasury was enriched by gifts from Croesus, Apollo was worshipped in nearby Miletus under the name Delphinius. At Didyma, he was worshipped as Didymeus and his other names in the area were Philesios, and Carinus. Until its destruction by the Persians in 494 BC, Didymas sanctuary was administered by the family of the Branchidae, who claimed descent from an eponymous Branchos, the priestess, seated above the sacred spring, gave utterances that were interpreted by the Branchidae. Both Herodotus and Pausanias dated the origins of the oracle at Didyma before the Ionian colonization of this coast, though the sanctuaries of Delphi and Ephesus were swiftly rebuilt, Didyma remained a ruin until the first steps of restoration were undertaken in 334 BC. After his capture of Miletus in 334 BC, Alexander the Great reconsecrated the oracle and placed its administration in the hands of the city, where the priest in charge was annually elected. Vitruvius recorded a tradition that the architects were Paeonius of Ephesus, whom Vitruvius credited with the rebuilding of the Temple of Artemis there, the peripteral temple was surrounded by a double file of Ionic columns. With a pronaos of three rows of four columns, the approaching visitor passed through a regularized grove formed of columns. The door usually leading to a cella was replaced by a wall with a large upper opening through which one could glimpse the upper part of the naiskos in the inner court. This was the location of an ancient spring, the naiskos—which was itself a small temple, containing in its own small cella the bronze image of the god—and a grove of laurels
5. Ephesus – Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic, during the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC, the city was famed for the nearby Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other buildings are the Library of Celsus. Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation, the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils, the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, and although rebuilt, the citys importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was slowly silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD, the area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill, according to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa. Some scholars suggest that this is the later Greek Ephesus, in 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John. This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC, Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus. The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, according to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and he was a successful warrior, and as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper and he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the citys mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus, Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains, about 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council and his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple
6. Hierapolis – Hierapolis was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently comprise an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the hot springs have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BC, with many patrons retiring or dying there. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, most famously that of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos, the great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the section, including the bath, library. Hierapolis is located in the Büyük Menderes valley adjacent to the modern Turkish cities of Pamukkale and it is located in Turkeys inner Aegean region, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. There are only a few facts known about the origin of the city. No traces of the presence of Hittites or Persians have been found, the Phrygians built a temple, probably in the first half of the 3rd century BC. This temple, originally used by the citizens of the town of Laodicea. Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa early in the 2nd century BC within the sphere of the Seleucid Empire, Antiochus the Great sent 2,000 Jewish families to Lydia and Phrygia from Babylon and Mesopotamia, later joined by more from Judea. The Jewish congregation grew in Hierapolis and has estimated as high as 50,000 in 62 BC. The city was expanded with the booty from the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia where Antiochus the Great was defeated by the Roman ally Eumenes II, following the Treaty of Apamea ending the Syrian War, Eumenes annexed much of Asia Minor, including Hierapolis. Hierapolis became a centre where doctors used the thermal springs as a treatment for their patients. The city began minting coins in the 2nd century BC. These coins give the name Hieropolis and this name eventually changed into Hierapolis, according to the Byzantine geographer Stephanus on account of its large number of temples. In 133 BC, when Attalus III died, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, Hierapolis thus became part of the Roman province of Asia. In AD17, during the rule of the emperor Tiberius, through the influence of the Christian apostle Paul, a church was founded here while he was at Ephesus. The Christian apostle Philip spent the last years of his life here, the towns Martyrium was alleged to have been built upon the spot where Philip was crucified in AD80. His daughters were said to have acted as prophetesses in the region
7. House of the Virgin Mary – The House of the Virgin Mary is a Catholic and Muslim shrine located on Mt. Koressos in the vicinity of Ephesus,7 kilometres from Selçuk in Turkey. The Catholic Church has never pronounced in favour or against the authenticity of the house, anne Catherine Emmerich was Beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 3,2004. Catholic pilgrims visit the house based on the belief that Mary, the shrine has merited several papal Apostolic Blessings and visits from several popes, the earliest pilgrimage coming from Pope Leo XIII in 1896, and the most recent in 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI. The shrine itself is not extensively large, but may rather be described as a modest chapel. Upon entrance to the chapel, a pilgrim is met by one large room where an altar along with a large statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary is prominently displayed in the center. On the right side, a smaller room lies----traditionally associated with the room where the Virgin Mary is believed to have slept. Outside the shrine is a particular wishing wall which pilgrims have used by tying their personal intentions on paper or fabric, various types of florals and fruits are grown nearby, and additional lighting has been installed within the vicinity of the shrine for further monitoring of the site. A water fountain or well is located nearby, believed by some pilgrims to have miraculous powers of healing or fertility. Emmerich was ill for a period of time in the farming community of Dülmen but was known in Germany as a mystic and was visited by a number of notable figures. One of Emmerichs visitors was the author Clemens Brentano who after a first visit stayed in Dülmen for five years to see Emmerich every day and transcribe the visions she reported. After Emmerichs death, Brentano published a book based on his transcriptions of her visions. One of Emmerichs accounts was a description of the house the Apostle John had built in Ephesus for Mary, the mother of Jesus, where she had lived to the end of her life. Emmerich provided a number of details about the location of the house, and the topography of the area, Mary did not live in Ephesus itself. Marys dwelling was on a hill to the left of the road from Jerusalem and this hill slopes steeply towards Ephesus, the city, as one approaches it from the south east seems to lie on rising ground. Narrow paths lead southwards to a hill near the top of which is an uneven plateau and she further described the location of the doors, the shape of the chimney, etc. The book containing these descriptions was published in 1852 in Munich and he believed it was the house described by Emmerich and where the Virgin Mary had lived the final years of her life. The house is called Panaya Kapulu, every year pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the site on August 15, the date on which most of the Christian world celebrated Marys Dormition/Assumption. The restored portion of the structure has been distinguished from the remains of the structure by a line painted in red
8. Kaunos – Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey. The Calbys river was the border between Caria and Lycia, initially Kaunos was a separate state, then it became a part of Caria and later still of Lycia. Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century BC, because of the formation of İztuzu Beach and the silting of the former Bay of Dalyan, Kaunos is now located about 8 km from the coast. The city had two ports, the port at the southeast of Küçük Kale and the inner port at its northwest. The southern port was used from the foundation of the city roughly the end of the Hellenistic era. The inner or trade port could be closed by chains, the latter was used till the late days of Kaunos, but due to the silting of the delta and the ports, Kaunos had by then long lost its important function as a trade port. After Caria had been captured by Turkish tribes and the malaria epidemic of the 15th century AD. In 1966 Prof. Baki Öğün started the excavations of ancient Kaunos and these have been continued up to the present day, and are now supervised by Prof. Cengiz Işık. The archeological research is not limited to Kaunos itself, but is carried out in locations nearby e. g. near the Sultaniye Spa where there used to be a sanctuary devoted to the goddess Leto. According to mythology Kaunos was founded by King Kaunos, son of the Carian King Miletus and Kyane, Kaunos had a twin sister by the name of Byblis who developed a deep, unsisterly love for him. When she wrote her brother a letter, telling him about her feelings. His twin sister became mad with sorrow, started looking for him, mythology says that the Calbys river emerged from her tears. The oldest find at the Kaunos archeological site is the neck of a Protogeometric amphora dating back to the 9th century BC, or even earlier. A statue found at the gate of the city walls, pieces of imported Attic ceramics. However, none of the finds at Kaunos itself dates back to earlier than the 4th century BC. Kaunos is first referred to by Herodotus in his book Histories and he narrates that the Persian general Harpagus marches against the Lycians, Carians and Kaunians during the Persian invasion of 546 BCE. Herodotus writes that the Kaunians fiercely countered Harpagus attacks but were ultimately defeated, despite the fact that the Kaunians themselves said they originated from Crete, Herodotus doubted this. He thought it was far more likely that the Kaunians were the inhabitants of the area because of the similarity between his own Carian language and that of the Kaunians
9. Knidos – Knidos or Cnidus was an ancient Greek city of Caria and part of the Dorian Hexapolis, in south-western Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey. It was situated on the Datça peninsula, which forms the side of the Sinus Ceramicus. By the 4th century BC, Knidos was located at the site of modern Tekir, but earlier, it was probably at the site of modern Datça. It was built partly on the mainland and partly on the Island of Triopion or Cape Krio, the debate about it being an island or cape is caused by the fact that in ancient times it was connected to the mainland by a causeway and bridge. Today the connection is formed by a sandy isthmus. The extreme length of the city was less than a mile. Knidos was a Hellenic city of high antiquity, diodorus Siculus claimed that Cnidus was founded by both Lacedaemonians and Argives. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens. During the hellenistic age, Knidos boasted a school, however. In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history. Bishop Evander was at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, no longer a residential bishopric, Cnidus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. The first Western knowledge of the site was due to the mission of the Dilettante Society in 1812, the most famous statue by Praxiteles, the Aphrodite of Knidos, was made for Cnidus. It has perished, but late copies exist, of which the most faithful is in the Vatican Museums, the Knidos Lion is now displayed under the roof of the Great Court in the British Museum
10. Laodicea on the Lycus – Laodicea on the Lycus was an ancient city built on the river Lycus. It was located in the Hellenistic regions of Caria and Lydia and it is now situated near the modern city of Denizli. It contained one of the Seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation, Laodicea is situated on the long spur of a hill between the narrow valleys of the small rivers Asopus and Caprus, which discharge their waters into the Lycus. It was approximately 17 kilometres west of Colossae, and 10 kilometres south of Hierapolis and it was approximately 160 kilometres east of Ephesus and, according to Strabo, it was on a major road. At first, Laodicea was not a place of much importance, in 220 BC, Achaeus was its king. In 188 BC, the city passed to the Kingdom of Pergamon and it suffered greatly during the Mithridatic Wars but quickly recovered under the dominion of Rome. The area often suffered from earthquakes, especially from the shock that occurred in the reign of Nero in which the town was completely destroyed. But the inhabitants declined imperial assistance to rebuild the city and restored it from their own means and its wealthy citizens embellished Laodicea with beautiful monuments. One of the chief of these citizens, Polemon, became King of Armenian Pontus, the city minted its own coins, the inscriptions of which show evidence of the worship of Zeus, Æsculapius, Apollo, and the emperors. It received from Rome the title of free city, during the Roman period, Laodicea was the chief city of a Roman conventus, which comprised twenty-four cities besides itself, Cicero records holding assizes there ca.50 BC. Antiochus the Great transported 2,000 Jewish families to Phrygia from Babylonia, many of Laodiceas inhabitants were Jews, and Cicero records that Flaccus confiscated the considerable sum of 9 kilograms of gold which was being sent annually to Jerusalem for the Temple. The Byzantine writers often mention Laodicea, especially in the time of the Comneni, in 1119, Emperor John the Beautiful and his lead military aid John Axuch captured Laodicea from the Seljuk Turks in the first major military victory of his reign. It was fortified by the emperor Manuel I Comnenus, in 1206–1230, it was ruled by Manuel Maurozomes. The city was destroyed during the invasions of the Turks and Mongols, with its large Jewish community, Laodicea became at a very early period a seat of Christianity and a bishopric. The Epistle to the Colossians mentions Laodicea as one of the communities of concern for Paul the Apostle and it sends greetings from a certain Epaphras from Colossae, who worked hard for the Christians of the three Phrygian cities of Colossae, Laodicea and Hierapolis. Some Greek manuscripts of the First Epistle to Timothy end with the words, Written at Laodicea, Laodicea is also one of the seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation. After these three comes Sagaris, martyr, sisinnius is mentioned in the Acts of the martyr Saint Artemon, a priest of his church. Nunechius assisted at the Council of Nicaea, eugenius, known by an inscription, was probably his successor
11. Mausoleum at Halicarnassus – The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene, the Mausoleum was approximately 45 m in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors—Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such a triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb. In the 4th century BC, Halicarnassus was the capital of a regional kingdom within the Achaemenid Empire on the western coast of Asia Minor. In 377 BC, the ruler of the region, Hecatomnus of Milas, died and left the control of the kingdom to his son. Hecatomnus, a local satrap under the Persians, took control of several of the neighboring cities, after Artemisia and Mausolus, he had several other daughters and sons, Ada, Idrieus and Pixodarus. Mausolus extended its territory as far as the southwest coast of Anatolia, Artemisia and Mausolus ruled from Halicarnassus over the surrounding territory for 24 years. Mausolus, although descended from people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life. He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions, Mausolus decided to build a new capital, one as safe from capture as it was magnificent to be seen. He chose the city of Halicarnassus, Artemisia and Mausolus spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city. They commissioned statues, temples and buildings of gleaming marble, in 353 BC, Mausolus died, leaving Artemisia to rule alone. As the Persian satrap, and as the Hecatomnid dynast, Mausolus had planned for himself an elaborate tomb, when he died the projects was continued by his siblings. The tomb became so famous that Mausoluss name is now the eponym for all stately tombs, Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband. The urns with their ashes were placed in the yet unfinished tomb. As a form of sacrifice ritual the bodies of a number of dead animals were placed on the stairs leading to the tomb. It is likely that Mausollos started to plan the tomb before his death, as part of the works in Halicarnassus. Artemisia spared no expense in building the tomb and she sent messengers to Greece to find the most talented artists of the time
12. Miletus – Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. Its ruins are located near the village of Balat in Aydın Province. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus greatest wealth and splendor was reached during the Hellenistic era and later Roman times. Evidence of first settlement at the site has been inaccessible by the rise of sea level. The first available evidence is of the Neolithic, in the early and middle Bronze age the settlement came under Minoan influence. Legend has it that an influx of Cretans occurred displacing the indigenous Leleges, the site was renamed Miletus after a place in Crete. The Late Bronze Age, 13th century BC, saw the arrival of Luwian language speakers from south central Anatolia calling themselves the Carians, later in that century other Greeks arrived. The city at that time rebelled against the Hittite Empire, after the fall of that empire the city was destroyed in the 12th century BC and starting about 1000 BC was resettled extensively by the Ionian Greeks. Legend offers an Ionian foundation event sponsored by a founder named Neleus from the Peloponnesus, the Greek Dark Ages were a time of Ionian settlement and consolidation in an alliance called the Ionian League. The Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art, Miletus is the birthplace of the Hagia Sophias architect Isidore of Miletus and Thales, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher in c.624 BC. The ruins appear on maps at 37°31. 8N 27°16. 7E, about 3 km north of Balat and 3 km east of Batıköy in Aydın Province. In antiquity the city possessed a harbour at the entry of a large bay. The harbour of Miletus was additionally protected by the small island of Lade. Over the centuries the gulf silted up with alluvium carried by the Meander River, there is a Great Harbour Monument where, according to the New Testament account, the apostle Paul stopped on his way back to Jerusalem by boat. He met the Ephesian Elders and then headed out to the beach to bid farewell, recorded in the book of Acts 20. During the Pleistocene epoch the Miletus region was submerged in the Aegean Sea and it subsequently emerged slowly, the sea reaching a low level of about 130 meters below present level at about 18,000 BP. The site of Miletus was part of the mainland, a gradual rise brought a level of about 1.75 meters below present at about 5500 BP, creating several karst block islands of limestone, the location of the first settlements at Miletus. At about 1500 BC the karst shifted due to small crustal movements, since then the sea has risen 1.75 m but the peninsula has been surrounded by sediment from the Maeander river and is now land-locked