People who sided with the Armagnac faction.
Pages in category "Armagnac faction"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
People who sided with the Armagnac faction.
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Charles VII of France – Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death. In the midst of the Hundred Years War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances, in addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a war raged in France between the Armagnacs and the Burgundian party. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other cities on the Loire river. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates and this long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French had expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais, the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France. Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the residence in Paris. He was the child and fifth son of Charles VI of France. His four elder brothers, Charles, Charles, Louis and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn, all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and they also decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau, the Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphins men reacted to the Dukes arrival by attacking and killing him, Charles level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his mens intentions, the assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was later required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, at the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt. For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, for those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates, the English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was ruled by an English regent, Henry Vs brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
2. Joan of Arc – Joan of Arc, nicknamed The Maid of Orléans, is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. Joan of Arc was born to Jacques dArc and Isabelle Romée, the uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VIIs coronation at Reims and this long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction and she was later handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges. After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, in 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League and she was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Cultural depictions of her have continued in films, theater, television, video games, music, the Hundred Years War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace. Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, and the English armys use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy, the French population had not recovered to its size previous to the Black Death of the mid-14th century, and its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Prior to the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a monarchy under English control. In the words of DeVries, The kingdom of France was not even a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype, the French king at the time of Joans birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanity and was often unable to rule. The kings brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, and the kings cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children. This dispute included accusations that Louis was having an affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria. The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy, the young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac. Their faction became known as the Armagnac faction, and the party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the Burgundian faction. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac, the future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession. His first significant official act was to conclude a treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419. This ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charless guarantee of protection, the new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English
3. Marie of Anjou – Marie of Anjou was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She served as regent and presided over the council of several times during the absence of the king. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, Marie was betrothed to her second cousin Charles, fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, in 1413. The wedding took place in April 1422 at Bourges, the wedding made her Queen of France, but as far as it is known, she was never crowned. Her spouses victory in the Hundred Years War owed a great deal to the support he received from Maries family, notably from her mother Yolande of Aragon. Queen Marie presided over the Council of state several times in the absence of the king, during which she had power of attorney as regent and she made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, and Mount St Michel by herself in 1447. Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the Twelve Perils of Hell for queen Marie in 1455, in 1461, Charles VII died and was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager. She was granted the Chateau of Amboise and the income from Brabant by her son, during the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to St Jacques de Compostela. She died at the age of 59 on 29 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou on her return and she is buried in the basilica of Saint-Denis alongside her spouse. Marie was the mother of fourteen children
4. Jean de Dunois – Jean de Dunois, also called John of Orléans and Jean de Duno, was the illegitimate son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, by Mariette dEnghien. In 1439 he received the county of Dunois from his half-brother, Charles, Duke of Orléans and his legitimate half-brother, Charles, Duke of Orléans, became an English prisoner at the Battle of Agincourt and remained so for several decades. This left him the only adult male of the house of Orléans. He was Knight of the Order of the Porcupine, Jean joined the civil war in France in the time of Charles VI on the side of the Armagnacs, and was captured by the Burgundians in 1418. Released in 1420, he entered the service of the Dauphin Charles, the future count of Dunois led the French defenses at the siege of Orléans. Together with Joan of Arc he relieved the siege and he joined her on the campaigns of 1429 and remained active after her death. Jean took part in the coronation of Charles VII and in 1436 he aided in the capture of Paris and he was prominent in the conquest of Guienne and Normandy in the final years of the Hundred Years War. He participated in the Praguerie against Charles VII and was a leader of the League of the Public Weal against King Louis XI in 1465, but each time he regained favor at court
5. Yolande of Aragon – She was a daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar. Yolande played a role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arcs army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Yolanda de Aragón and Violant dAragó, tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours. Yolande was born in Zaragoza, Aragon, on 11 August 1384, the eldest daughter of King John I of Aragon by his wife, Yolande of Bar. She had three brothers and two sisters, as well as five older half-siblings from her fathers first marriage to Martha of Armagnac, Yolande later played an important role in the politics of England, France, and Aragon during the first half of the 15th century. In 1389, Louis II was crowned King of Naples and his mother Marie of Blois opened negotiations for a marriage between her son and Yolande to prevent Aragon from obstructing his rule there. When Yolande was eleven, she signed a document to disavow any promises made by ambassadors about her marrying Louis II, in 1395, Richard II of England also opened negotiations for Yolandes hand. To prevent this marriage, Charles VI of France offered his own daughter Isabella to King Richard, after the death of Yolandes father, Marie of Blois convinced Yolandes uncle Martin I of Aragon to have Yolande wed Louis II. Yolande signed a protest, but was forced to retract it later, the couple married in Arles on December 2,1400. Despite Yolandes earlier objections and the illnesses of her husband. As the surviving daughter of King John I of Aragon, she claimed the throne of Aragon after the deaths of her elder sister Joanna, Countess of Foix, and her uncle, King Martin I. However, unclear though they were, the laws of succession for Aragon, the Anjou candidate for the throne of Aragon was Yolandes eldest son Louis III of Anjou, Duke of Calabria, whose claim was forfeited in the Pact of Caspe. Yolande and her sons regarded themselves as the heirs with the stronger claim, as a result of this additional inheritance, Yolande was called the Queen of Four Kingdoms - the four apparently Sicily, Jerusalem, Cyprus and Aragon. Another interpretation specifies Naples separate from Sicily, plus Jerusalem and Aragon, the number could be raised to seven if the two component kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon and Sardinia were included. However, the reality was that Yolande and her family controlled territories in the kingdoms only at short intervals. Their true realm was the Anjou fiefdoms across France, they held uncontestably the provinces of Provence and Anjou, Yolandes son René I of Anjou became ruler of Lorraine through his marriage to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. In the emerging second phase of the Hundred Years War, Yolande chose to support the French against the English, in the same year, Yolande met with Queen Isabeau of France to finalize a marriage contract between her daughter Marie and Isabeaus third surviving son Charles. After his two brothers died, she supported the claim of the Dauphin Charles who, relying upon Yolandes resources and help
6. Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac – Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac was Count of Armagnac and Constable of France. He was the son of John II and Jeanne de Périgord and he succeeded in Armagnac at the death of his brother, John III, in 1391. After prolonged fighting, he also became Count of Comminges in 1412, when his brother, who claimed the Kingdom of Majorca, invaded northern Catalonia late in 1389 in an attempt to seize the kingdoms continental possessions, Bernard commanded part of his forces. Bernards wife was Bonne, the daughter of John, Duke of Berry and he first gained influence at the French court when Louis, Duke of Orléans married Valentina Visconti, the daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. Bernards sister Beatrice married Valentinas brother Carlo, after Louis assassination in 1407, Armagnac remained attached to the cause of Orléans. He married his daughter Bonne to the young Charles, Duke of Orléans in 1410, Bernard dArmagnac became the nominal head of the faction which opposed John the Fearless in the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, and the faction came to be called the Armagnacs as a consequence. He became constable of France in 1415 and was the head of the government of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII, until the Burgundians invaded Paris in the night of 28-29 May 1418. On 12 June 1418, he was one of the first victims of the massacres in which over 550 of his real or suspected followers were killed in the course of weeks throughout the summer
7. Arthur III, Duke of Brittany – Arthur was a younger son of Duke John IV and his third wife Joanna of Navarre, and so a member of the Ducal House of Montfort. Arthur was born at the Château de Suscinio, just a year before his own death, Arthur succeeded his nephew Peter II as Duke. Arthur was also titular Earl of Richmond, the earldom had often been granted to the Dukes of Brittany, but after the death of Arthurs father, the English refused to recognize his heirs as earls. Nevertheless, they continued to style themselves Count of Richmond, while the English title was given to John, Duke of Bedford, Arthur was an important figure at the French court during the Hundred Years War, even before becoming Duke of Brittany. Arthur sided with the Armagnac faction against the Burgundians during their conflict in France which lasted from 1410 to 1414. He fought at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415 and he was released by the English in 1420 and helped persuade his brother, Duke John, to sign the Treaty of Troyes. In 1422, the English created him Duke of Touraine, however, he subsequently returned to the allegiance of the Dauphin in 1424, was made Constable of France with support from Yolande of Aragon in 1425. As Constable of France he fought alongside the charismatic Joan of Arc during her victory at the Battle of Patay on 18 June 1429, Arthur was known for his tenacity and bad temper, the negative aspects of his personality had led to his expulsion from the court in 1427. By 1435 he regained influence at the French court and then helped arrange the Treaty of Arras between Charles VII of France and Philip III, Duke of Burgundy and this treaty cemented the peace between France and Burgundy, leading to the eventual defeat of the English. He was commander of the French army at the Battle of Formigny on 15 April 1450, the next-to-the-last battle of the Hundred Years War which sealed the reconquest of Normandy. His wives were as follows, married in Dijon on 10 October 1423 Margaret of Burgundy, daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and widow of Dauphin Louis, Arthur died with no known legitimate issue. He was succeeded as Duke of Brittany by his nephew Francis II, Dukes of Brittany family tree Arthur de Richemont Arthur III, Duke of Brittany
8. Louis II of Naples – Louis II was King of Naples from 1389 until 1399 and Duke of Anjou from 1384 until 1417. He was a member of the House of Valois-Anjou, born in Toulouse, Louis II was the son of Louis I of Anjou, King of Naples, and Marie of Blois. He came into his Angevin inheritance, which included Provence, in 1384, with his rival Charles of Durazzo, of the senior Angevin line, most towns in Provence revolted after the death of his father. His mother then raised an army and they traveled from town to town, Louis was recognized as Count of Provence in 1387. He founded a university in Aix-en-Provence in 1409, in 1386, Charles of Durazzos son, the underage Ladislaus, was expelled from Naples soon after his father died. Louis II was crowned King of Naples by the Avignonese antipope Clement VII on 1 November 1389 and he was ousted in turn by his rival in 1399. In 1409, Louis liberated Rome from Ladislaus occupation, in 1410, as an ally of the antipope John XXIII he attacked Ladislaus, eventually Louis lost his Neapolitan support and had to retire. His claim to Naples passed to his son, Louis III and he married his first cousin once removed Yolande of Aragon in Arles in 1400, giving him a possibility of inheriting the throne of Aragon through her right. Her father, King John I of Aragon had died in 1396 and his son Louis was bethrothed to Catherine of Burgundy, a daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. However, after John instigated a mob attack on the Dauphin of France, he, the betrothal to Catherine was repudiated, which caused the enmity of the Duke of Burgundy. He was not present at the Battle of Agincourt, because he had a bladder infection, after the battle, he fled from Paris to join his wife and children at Angers. Louis II died at his chateau of Angers, the county town of Anjou, Louis and Yolande had five surviving children, Louis III of Anjou, titular King of Naples, Duke of Anjou. René of Anjou, King of Naples, Duke of Anjou, Charles of Le Maine, Count of Maine. Marie of Anjou, married 1422 at Bourges Charles VII of France, Yolande, married firstly Philip I, Duke of Brabant and secondly in 1431, Francis I, Duke of Brittany. The Good King, René of Anjou and Fifteenth Century Europe