12th century in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase in the production of Latin texts and these two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters with a lasting influence on the development of literature in the following centuries. 1104, September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral,1170, Poet and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. Before 1173, Copenhagen Psalter produced in northern England c, early 12th century Gesta Francorum Íslendingabók Liber Eliensis by monks of Ely Abbey By 1106 Lebor na hUidre by monks of Clonmacnoise 1108 Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent c. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus c.1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c, 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1135–39 Estoire des Engleis by Geoffrey Gaimar c.1140 Chronicon Roskildense 1145 Samguk Sagi by Kim Bu-sik, 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c.
1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 – Henry of Huntingdon, 1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c.1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c, 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c, 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c.1160 Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163. Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c, 1175–1200 Poema Morale c.1124 Vita Anselmi by Eadmer 1148 Alexiad by Anna Komnene c. 1150–1190 Le Roman de Tristan by Béroul c, 1155–1173 Tristan by Thomas of Britain c.1160 Roman dEnéas c.1165 Letter of Prester John c.1180 Chanson dAntioche c. 1155–60 Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure c.1170 Érec et Énide by Chrétien de Troyes c, Roman de toute chevalerie by Thomas de Kent c.1176 Cligès by Chrétien de Troyes 1177–80 Khosrow and Shirin by Nizami Ganjavi c.
1177–81 by Chrétien de Troyes Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette Yvain, 1180s Ipomedon by Hue de Rotelande Protheselaus by Hue de Rotelande Der arme Heinrich by Hartmann von Aue c. 1181–91 Perceval, le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes c.1190 Gregorius by Hartmann von Aue c, erec by Hartmann von Aue 1192 Layla and Majnun by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1184 Architrenius by John of Hauville Ludus de Antichristo Ordo Virtutum c.1119 Lyric poetry by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, 1124–27 Waka anthology Kinyō Wakashū compiled by Minamoto no Shunrai 1140s–1150s Goliardic poetry by Hugh Primas of Orléans c. 1125–1175 First Grammatical Treatise by the First Grammarian 1191 Itinerarium Cambriae by Gerald of Wales 1194 Descriptio Cambriae by Gerald of Wales c,1110, Wace, Jèrriais poet Born c. 1126, English ecclesiastic and historian Born c,1130, Akka Mahadevi, female Indian Kannada language Vachana sahitya didactic poet Died 1131, December 4 Omar Khayyám, Persian philosopher and presumed poet Born c. 1141, Nizami Ganjavi, Seljuk Empire Persian romantic epic poet Born c,1146, Gerald of Wales, Cambro-Norman churchman and topographer Died c
71st Venice International Film Festival
The 71st annual Venice Film Festival took place in Venice, Italy between 27 August to 6 September 2014. The Swedish film A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence won the Golden Lion award, joshua Oppenheimers The Look of Silence won the Silver Lion Grand Jury Prize. American filmmakers Thelma Schoonmaker and Frederick Wiseman were the recipients of the Lifetime Achievement award, french composer Alexandre Desplat was the head of the jury for the main competition section. Alejandro G. Iñárritus film Birdman opened the festival, ann Huis drama film The Golden Era served as the closing night film. Italian actress Luisa Ranieri hosted the opening and closing nights of the festival, the festival poster paid tribute to François Truffaut, as it featured the character of Antoine Doinel portrayed by Jean-Pierre Léaud from Truffauts 1959 drama film The 400 Blows
2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire
The intent of the celebration was to demonstrate Irans old civilization and history to showcase its contemporary advancements under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The Cyrus Cylinder served in the logo as the symbol for the event. With the decision to hold the event at the ancient city Persepolis near Shiraz, the local infrastructure had to be improved including the Shiraz airport. While the press and supporting staff would be housed in Shiraz, the area around Persepolis was cleared of snakes and other vermins. Trees and flowers were planted and populated with 50,000 song birds imported from Europe, Other events were scheduled for Pasargadae, the site of the Tomb of Cyrus, as well as Tehran. Each tent had direct telephone and telex connections back to its respective country, the large Tent of Honor was designed for the reception of the dignitaries. The Banqueting Hall was the largest structure and measured 68 by 24 meters, the tent site was surrounded by gardens of trees and other plants flown in from France and adjacent to the ruins of Persepolis.
Catering services were provided by Maxims de Paris, which closed its restaurant in Paris for almost two weeks to provide for the glittering celebrations, legendary hotelier Max Blouet came out of retirement to supervise the banquet. Lanvin designed the uniforms of the Imperial Household,250 red Mercedes-Benz limousines were used to chauffeur guests from the airport and back. Dinnerware was created by Limoges and linen by Porthault, the festivities were opened on 12 October 1971, when the Shah and the Shahbanu paid homage to Cyrus the Great at his mausoleum at Pasargadae. For the next two days, the Shah and his wife greeted arriving guests, often directly at the Shiraz airport, on 14 October, a grand gala dinner took place in the Banqueting Hall in celebration of the birthday of the Shahbanu. Sixty members of families and heads of state were assembled at the single large serpentine table in the Banqueting Hall. The official toast was raised with a Dom Perignon Rosé1959, the food and the wine for the celebration were provided by the Parisian restaurant Maxims.
A son et lumière show, the Polytope of Persepolis designed by Iannis Xenakis, the next day saw a parade of armies of different Iranian empires covering two and half millennia by 1,724 men of the Iranian armed forces, all in period costume. In the evening, a less formal traditional Persian party was held in the Banqueting Hall as the event at Persepolis. On the final day, the Shah inaugurated the Shahyad Tower in Tehran to commemorate the event, the tower was home to the Museum of Persian History. In it was displayed the Cyrus Cylinder, which the Shah promoted as the first human rights charter in history. The cylinder was the symbol of the celebrations
The Kornet is a Russian anti-tank guided missile. It is intended for use against main battle tanks, but is not intended to replace previous systems. The missile carries the GRAU designation 9M133 and the NATO reporting name AT-14 Spriggan and it was first introduced into service with the Russian Army in 1998. Its export designation is the Kornet-E, the Kornet anti-tank missile was unveiled in October 1994 by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The missile started development in 1988 as a modular, universal system able to engage any target from a mix of platforms using a laser beam guidance system that was simple to use. It is a heavy ATGM, superior to the earlier 9K111 Fagot and 9K113 Konkurs wire-guided ATGMs, the missile entered service in the Russian army in 1998. Its export designation is the Kornet-E, the Kornet Anti Tank Missile system is an advanced ATGM with spiral trajectory. The 9M133 missile together with its 9P163-1 tripod launcher and 1PN79-1 thermal sight forms the 9K135 missile system, the transfer to the firing position takes less than one minute, and preparation and production of a shot in at least one second.
In addition to a portable version, the 9K133 system has been integrated into a variety of other vehicles. The 9K133 has been fitted into a BMP-3 to form the 9P163M-1 tank destroyer and is similar in function to the Khrizantema missile system, the 9P163M-1 carries two 9M133 missiles on launch rails, which are extended from a stowed position during transit. Missile are re-loaded automatically by the destroyer from an internal magazine with 16 rounds. NBC protection is provided for the two crew of each 9P163M-1 in addition to full armour protection equivalent to the standard BMP-3 chassis, the guidance system of the 9P163M-1 allows two missiles to be fired at once, each operating on different guidance channels. The turret has space for a five rounds and is operated by a single individual. Another upgrade possibility is the Kliver missile and gun turret, seen as an option for the BTR series of APC, BMP-1 IFV. It has similar capabilities as the Kvartet turret, but carries a 30 mm 2A72 cannon, finally the 9M133 is available in the BEREZHOK turret upgrade made available by KBP.
Since 2014, its production has been resumed for the domestic market with the designation B05YA01. The Kornet-EM variant uses technical vision with a target tracker to make it a fire and forget missile. The systems use of an autotracker can make it effective against aerial threats like helicopters, several months after the cease-fire, reports have provided sufficient photographic evidence that Kornet ATGMs were indeed both in possession of, and used by, Hezbollah in this area
1974 Asian Games
The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1,1974, to September 16,1974, in Tehran, Iran. The Aryamehr sports complex was built for the Games, the Asian Games were hosted in the Middle East for the first time. Tehran, the capital of Iran, played host to 3,010 athletes coming from 25 countries/NOCs, fencing and womens basketball were added to the existing disciplines. The games were known for the use of technology, from synthetic track to photo-finish cameras. Starting in 1962, the Games were hit by several crises, the host country Indonesia, refused to permit the participation of Israel and the Republic of China due to political and religious issues. As a result, the IOC removed its sponsorship of the Games, the Asian Football Confederation, International Association of Athletics Federations and International Weightlifting Federation, removed their recognition of the Games. Prior to the Games, Japan was asked to host the Games and this edition marked the first time the Games were broadcast on television throughout the world.
On 11 and 12 January 1968, a meeting was organised at the Bangkok, the framework of the meeting was set up in another meeting held on 1 September 1970 during Bangkok Asian Games. Tehran was selected as host city after defeating Kuwait City and Tel Aviv, the responsibility of organising the Seventh Asian Games was assigned to a special committee headed by the Amir Abbas Hoveida, Prime Minister of Iran. The venue for the 1974 Asian Games was the multi-purpose sport complex– Aryamehr Sports Complex, the stadium was designed by Abdolaziz Farmanfarmaian and rupees 100,000 persons were required for the full construction, which was completed on 1 April 1971. The stadium was named to Aryamehr, meaning the light of Aryans referring to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, on 1 September 1974, the Seventh Asian Games were officially opened. The Aryamehr Stadium was filled with an estimated 100,000 spectators, after a speech by the president of Asian Games Federation, HRH Yadavendra Singh, Mohammad Reza Shah officially opened the Games.
The Asian Games Federation conference, which was ten months before the Games, decided to expel the Republic of China from the games. The Arab nations, Pakistan and North Korea refused to play with Israel in tennis, fencing, in the following calendar for the 1974 Asian Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held, the numeral indicates the number of event finals for each sport held that day. On the left, the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, there is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader. The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below, the host nation, Iran, is highlighted. 1976 AFC Asian Cup www. ocasia. org Champions of Asia Anthem of 1974 Asian Games in Tehran
42 is the natural number that succeeds 41 and precedes 43. Forty-two is a number and an abundant number, its prime factorization 2 ·3 ·7 makes it the second sphenic number. As with all numbers of this form, the aliquot sum is abundant by 12. 42 is the second number to be bracketed by twin primes,30 is a pronic number. 42 has a 14-member aliquot sequence 42,54,66,78,90,144,259,45,33,15,9,4,3,1,0 and is part of the aliquot sequence commencing with the first sphenic number 30. Further,42 is the 10th member of the 3-aliquot tree, additional properties of the number 42 include, It is the third primary pseudoperfect number. It is an alternating sign matrix number, that is, the number of 4-by-4 alternating sign matrices and it is the number of partitions of 10—the number of ways of expressing 10 as a sum of positive integers. It is the third pentadecagonal number and it is a meandric number and an open meandric number. It is conjectured to be the factor in the leading order term of the sixth moment of the Riemann zeta function.
In particular, Conrey & Ghosh have conjectured that 1 T ∫0 T | ζ |6 d t ∼429, ∏ p 4 log 9 T. where the infinite product is over all prime numbers, p.42 is a Størmer number. Whether there are other remains a open question. 42 is a number, as σ2 = σ = 6n. 42 is the number of the original Smith number, Both the sum of its digits. The dimension of the Borel subalgebra in the exceptional Lie algebra e6 is 42,42 is a perfect score on the USA Math Olympiad and International Mathematical Olympiad. 42 is the maximum of core points awarded in International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme,42 is the sum of the first 6 positive even numbers. 42 is the number of molybdenum. 42 is the mass of one of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of calcium. The angle rounded to whole degrees for which a rainbow appears, the first half of the journey consists of free-fall acceleration, while the second half consists of an exactly equal deceleration