Airolo is a municipality in the district of Leventina in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. In the settlement of Madrano, Roman tombs from the 2nd and they belonged to a Vicus, whose inhabitants probably collected crystal, which was processed in Locarno into glass. The ruins of Stalvedro Castle are probably from a 13th Century Lombardy noble family and written sources confirm the existence of another castle, situated near the parish church tower. Near Madrano was a castle which was rebuilt in the late 13th Century by the Anexia family. Archaeological excavations conducted in 1995 inside the church of SS Nazaro Celso discovered a construction history dating back to the 5th or 6th centuries. The present building was given its form in 1879, though the tower dates from the Roman era. At the train there is the famous high-relief carving by Vincenzo Vela. The modern municipality of Airolo is first mentioned in 1210 as Oriolo, in German it was known as Eriels and in Romansh as Iriel, though these names are no longer official.
The region of Airolo, which was tied to the fate of the Levantine valley, was divided into four Degagne, Valle, Solario. In the 13th and 14th Century Airolo, which had always been the most populous village of the valley, due to traffic on the Gotthard Pass, the village became wealthy from trade and housing travelers. There were four major hospices, of two were on the pass. During the Sonderbund war of 1847, Federal troops moved quickly to control of key alpine passes. One of the key passes was the St. Gotthard, which led to the Battle of Airolo, even before the diet began its campaign, the men of Uri seized the St. Gotthard passes. They marched themselves across the Levantina valley and surprised three thousand Ticinese encamped at Airolo, the Ticinese were quickly driven back as far as the Moesa bridge. However, once the Uri soldiers arrived at point, they found themselves face to face with Graubünden and Ticino militia, superior to them in number. The expedition had no other result than holding back two thousand Federal troops from the places where decisive blows were to be struck, between 1871 and 1881, Airolo was home to many workers on the Gotthard rail tunnel.
A strike of the workers in 1875 was crushed by the Swiss Army, killing four, fires ravaged the village four times, the last times in 1736 and 1877. In the beginning of the 19th Century construction began on avalanche protection, after the avalanches of 1923 and 1951 construction resumed and continued into modern times
Burgeis is the largest frazione of the comune of Mals and sits at an altitude of 1216m in Vinschgau in South Tyrol beneath the mountain Watles on the upper reaches of the Adige. The name goes all the way back to a Roman founding, as a fort on the Via Claudia Augusta and this fort gave the name of the Edelfreien von Burgus-Wanga, whose arms the village bears today. It lies 2.5 Kilometer from Mals and this gives a wide reaching sketch of the place, of the history of Marienberg and of Obervischgau in the high Middle Ages. So we know more about Burgeis in the 12th century than many other, above Burgeis lies Europes highest Benedictine abbey Marienberg. Its impressive Baroque church and the Romanesque crypt belong to the most beautiful. school of art, the Frescos in the crypt date from between 1175 and 1180. They were partly discovered in 1887 and in 1980 completely freed, Burgeis is the birthplace of the famous Baroque painter Johann Evangelist Holzer. There are many Hotels and Guesthouses in and around Burgeis, tourismusverein Burgeis auf der Seite der Gemeinde Mals
Bivio is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula of the Swiss canton of Graubünden. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Bivio, Marmorera, Riom-Parsonz, Savognin, Bivio is first mentioned about 840 as de stabulo Bivio. At one time it was known, in German, as Stallen, Bivio had an area, as of 2006, of 76.7 km2. Of this area,48. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,0. 4% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The village is located on the roads to the Julier and Septimer pass and it is the only traditionally Italian language village north of the continental divide. However, the German-speaking population is now in the majority, with large Romansh- and it consists of the village of Bivio and the hamlets of Stalveder, Mott and Valetta da Beiva. Until 1902 Bivio was known as by its Italian name Stalla, neighboring municipalities are Marmorera, Silvaplana, Sils im Engadin/Segl, Soglio and Mulegns. Bivio had a population of 189, as of 2008,14. 3% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.
Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -13. 5%, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 47. 5% male and 52. 5% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Bivio is,21 people or 10. 3% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,12 people or 5. 9% are 10 to 14, and 3 people or 1. 5% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population,23 people or 11. 3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 29 people or 14. 2% are 30 to 39,24 people or 11. 8% are 40 to 49, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35. 2% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SPS and the CVP, the entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Bivio about 58. 5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Bivio has an unemployment rate of 1. 55%. As of 2005, there were 21 people employed in the economic sector. 9 people are employed in the sector and there are 3 businesses in this sector. 68 people are employed in the sector, with 21 businesses in this sector.
The historical population is given in the timeline, Bivio has an average of 132.1 days of rain per year
Bellinzona is the capital of the canton Ticino in Switzerland. The city is famous for its three castles that have been UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2000, the town lies east of the Ticino river, at the foot of the Alps. It stretches along the valley, surrounded by the southern ranges of the Lepontine Alps to the east and west. The toponym is first attested in 590 in Latin as Belitio or Bilitio, the name is Lepontic in origin, possibly from belitio or belitione. During the medieval period, the name is found as Berinzona, Birizona and Belinzona, the German name of the town is Bellenz. A local folk etymology derives the name Bellinzona from zona bellica war zone, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is an erect serpent in silver on a red field. The fabulous animal is called in Italian Biscione and this animal, which can be found on the arms of the Alfa Romeo car company, is linked with the Visconti family, who were feudal lords of Bellinzona in the 14th and 15th centuries. Bellinzona has always occupied an important geographic location in the Alps, to the south, the Po valley is accessible by a lowland route down the valley of the Ticino river and by Lake Maggiore.
To the north, the valley of the Ticino leads to the alpine passes of Nufenen, St. Gotthard, Lukmanier. Although now little used, the San Jorio Pass to the east was important in Bellinzonas past. While the region has been occupied since the early Neolithic age it wasnt until the late 1st century BOT that a fort was built in the area during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. While the fort fell into disrepair in the centuries, it was rebuilt. During the reign of Diocletian and Constantin a chain of castles, Bellinzonas location was recognized as a key point in the defenses and a large castle was built to protect the walls. The town that grew up around the fortifications was known as Bilitio, under the Longobards, Bellinzona became the site of a permanent garrison to protect the region from raids by the neighboring Frankish and Alemannic tribes. From Bellinzona the Longobards controlled the traffic on the important trade route from Varese over Ponte Tresa, some researchers believe that Bellinzona may have been the capital of a county that included most of the valleys in Ticino.
At around 774 the Frankish Kingdom gained control of the Ticino valley including Bellinzona, about two centuries the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, seeking to restore the power of glory of ancient Rome and expand into Italy, opened the Lukmanier and St. Bernard passes. Control of Bellinzona was a key part of this expansion, the city was taken from Milan and given as a gift to the Bishop of Como, who supported the Ottonian dynasty. In 1002, following the death of Otto III, Marquis Arduino of Ivrea declared himself King of Italy and ratified the bishops ownership of the Castelgrande and the city
Davos is a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. It has a permanent population of 11,109, Davos is located on the river Landwasser, in the Rhaetian Alps, between the Plessur and Albula Range. At 1,560 m, it is the highest town in Europe, Davos is host to the World Economic Forum, an annual meeting of global political and business elites and the home of one of Switzerlands biggest ski resorts. At the end of year it serves as the site of the annual Spengler Cup ice hockey tournament. The current settlement of the Davos area began in the High Middle Ages with the immigration of Rhaeto-Romans, the village of Davos is first mentioned in 1213 as Tavaus. Natives still speak a dialect that is atypical for Graubünden, showing similarities with German idioms of western parts of Switzerland, in 1436, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions was founded in Davos. Robert Louis Stevenson, who suffered from tuberculosis, wintered in Davos in 1880 upon the recommendation of his Edinburgh physician Dr.
George Balfour, arthur Conan Doyle wrote an article about skiing in Davos in 1899. A sanatorium in Davos is the inspiration for the Berghof Sanitorium in Thomas Manns novel Der Zauberberg, between 1936 and 1938, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, at the end of his life and living in Davos since 1917, depicted Davos and the Junkerboden. His painting has a both Romantic and pantheistic atmosphere and simplified formal structure, during the natural ice era of winter sports and the Davos Eisstadion were a mecca for speed skating. Many international championships were held here, and many records were set. The only European Bandy Championship was held in the town in 1913, Davos became a famous ski resort, especially frequented by tourists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. After peaking in the 1970s and 1980s, the city settled down as a leading, Davos has an area, of 283.98 km2. Of this area, about 35. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,2. 3% is settled and 40. 5% is unproductive land.
In the 2004/09 survey a total of 337 ha or about 1. 2% of the area was covered with buildings. Over the same period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 10 ha and is now about 0. 22% of the total area. Of the agricultural land,1,296 ha is fields and grasslands and 9,056 ha consists of alpine grazing areas, since 1985 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 736 ha. Over the same period the amount of forested land has increased by 481 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 285 ha in the municipality, until 2017 the municipality was located in the Davos subdistrict of the Prättigau/Davos district, after 2017 it was part of the Prättigau/Davos Region
1954 FIFA World Cup
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July. Switzerland was chosen as hosts in July 1946, the tournament set a number of all-time records for goal-scoring, including the highest average goals scored per game. The tournament was won by West Germany, who defeated Hungary 3–2 in the final, Switzerland was awarded the tournament unopposed on 22 July 1946, the same day that Brazil was selected for the 1950 World Cup, in Luxembourg City. The hosts and the champions qualified automatically. Of the remaining 14 places,11 were allocated to Europe, scotland and South Korea made their World Cup debuts at this tournament. Austria appeared for the first time since 1934, Turkey would not participate at a finals again until the 2002 competition, while South Koreas next appearance would be in 1986. The third and fourth teams from 1950, Sweden and Spain. In a shock result, Spain was eliminated by Turkey, after the two countries had tied a series, Turkey progressed by drawing of lots.
German teams were allowed to qualify again, after having been banned from the 1950 FIFA World Cup, West Germany qualified against fellow Germans from the Saarland, while East Germany had not entered, cancelling international football games after the East German uprising of 1953. Argentina declined to participate for the third World Cup in succession, the 1954 tournament used a unique format. The sixteen qualifying teams were divided into four groups of four teams each, each group contained two seeded teams and two unseeded teams. Only four matches were scheduled for each group, each pitting a team against an unseeded team. This contrasts with the usual round-robin in which team plays every other team. Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw, the two teams with the most points from each group progressed to the knockout stage. If the first and second placed teams were level on points, lots were drawn to decide which team would top the group. However, if the second and third placed teams were level on points and it turned out that two of the four groups required play-offs, and the other two required drawing of lots between the two top teams.
The play-offs were between Switzerland and Italy, and Turkey and West Germany, in matches the unseeded teams repeated earlier victories against the seeds to progress. In the other two groups, lots were drawn to determine the teams, resulting in Uruguay and Brazil finishing above Austria and Yugoslavia
Domat/Ems is a municipality in the Imboden Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Domat/Ems is first mentioned in 765 as colonia de Amede, Ems is the German name for the municipality, Domat is the Romansh name and since 1943 the official name has been the combination of both. Domat/Ems has an area, as of 2006, of 24.2 km2, of this area,27. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 53. 8% is forested. Of the rest of the land,12. 2% is settled, before 2017, the municipality was located in the Rhäzüns sub-district, of the Imboden district, after 2017 it was part of the Imboden Region. It is located on the bank of the Rhine river. Until 1943 Domat/Ems was known as Ems, Domat/Ems has a population of 7,880. As of 2008,18. 5% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7. 2%. As of 2000, the distribution of the population was 49. 4% male and 50. 6% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Domat/Ems is,675 people or 10. 6% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,394 people or 6. 2% are 10 to 14, and 432 people or 6. 8% are 15 to 19.
Of the adult population,819 people or 12. 9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 977 people or 15. 3% are 30 to 39,1,005 people or 15. 8% are 40 to 49, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 33. 3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the FDP, the entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Domat/Ems about 68. 9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Domat/Ems has an unemployment rate of 1. 55%. As of 2005, there were 108 people employed in the economic sector. 1,782 people are employed in the sector and there are 55 businesses in this sector. 895 people are employed in the sector, with 150 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census,4,061 or 63. 7% are Roman Catholic, of the rest of the population, there are 167 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 54 individuals who belong to another Christian church.
There are 305 who are Islamic, there are 78 individuals who belong to another church,222 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 200 individuals did not answer the question
Chiavenna is a comune in the Province of Sondrio in the Italian region of Lombardy. It is the centre of the Alpine Valchiavenna region, the historic town is a member of the Cittaslow movement. Chiavenna is located about 100 kilometres north of Milan and about 40 kilometres northwest of Sondrio, the town is situated on the right bank of the river Mera about 16 kilometres north of Lake Como. The river course leads up to Val Bregaglia in the east, in the north, the Valle Spluga stretches up to Passo dello Spluga and the road to Chur in the Grisons. Chiavenna borders the municipalities, Piuro, Prata Camportaccio. The municipality of Chiavenna contains the frazioni Campedello, Pianazzola, as of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 7,263 and an area of 11.1 kilometres. In Roman times Clavenna was a town of Rhaetia, on the Italian side of the Alps, north of the head of the Lacus Larius and it was by one or other of these passes that Stilicho crossed the Alps in midwinter, a feat celebrated by Claudian.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire the city marked the limit of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy. Clavenna was retaken by the Romans in the century during the reign of Justinian. Clavenna probably derived some importance from its position at the junction of two passes, as does the modern town of Chiavenna, which is the chief town of the surrounding district. Chiavenna received town privileges from the Bishops of Como, in medieval times, the castello served as a residence of local counts controlling the Alpine passes in the north and east. Initially under the overlordship of the Dukes of Swabia, the town was acquired by the Italian Visconti in the 14th century from the bishop of Chur. At a similar time to the campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. This put the Valtellina back under the control of the Prince Bishop of Chur, the Three Leagues was not part of Switzerland until Napoleons much conquest. To this day, there is a statue of Peter de Salis in Chiavenna, during the favourable time of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, primary schools were created in every place, and the instruction was made obligatory for maids.
Lombard and Venetic women where the first to be alphabetised in Italy, the Austrian administration build bold modern routes, created hospitals and brought the level of medicine in Milan up to the top for the time. A citizen of Chiavenna could study in the universities of Innsbruck, Prague and he could serve in the imperial army, become an officer, accede to the higher administration, and be ennobled. After the proclamation of the Sabaudian Regno dItalia, Chiavenna followed the sort of the rest of Lombardy, a popular governor, 1771–1773 and 1781–1783
Corin Curschellas is a Swiss singer-songwriter, free improvisation, voice actress in as well as voice instructress. Curschellas was born in 1956 in Chur (Graubünden, Switzerland where she grew up and she attended the local state school in Chur, Kantonsschule Chur, and completed her studies in 1977 with a Primary Teacher’s Certificate. From 1977 to 1983 she studied theatre and theatre pedagogy at the Zurich University of the Arts as well as three semesters of Music Sciences at the University of Zurich, from 1983 until 1989 Curschellas lived in Berlin, followed by two years in Basel. A grant she received enabled her to move to Paris in 1991, between 2000 and 2005 she alternated between Paris and Zürich. I have always lived in worlds foreign to me, but the poems, in Berlin I read copious volumes on the Romansh culture. Before that it had hardly interested me, but there I really wanted to get to know it. I met so many people who spoke of their origins that I wanted to find or establish my identity The song “Senza patria”, “Homeless” in English, since 2005 the artist has lived in Zürich and in the Surselvan Rueun about 30 kilometers outside of Chur.
In Rueun she lives together with her partner, the sculptor Linard Nicolay, in the house that belonged to her grandparents. Corin Curschellas actual mother tongue is the Swiss German dialect, although from her father she learnt to speak near-perfect Surselvan, she does not herself write any Graubünden Romansh songs. However, she sing the lyrics and songs of Romansh writers in full Romansh Idiom. Ei vegn tut pli ruasseivel, ferm e curaschus, pli clar e concentrau, Corin Curschellas music covers different Music genres, Folk, World Music, Folk Song, Musical improvisation. She refers to herself ironically as a “sound medium”, Corin Curschellas mostly sings in the Romansh Language, Swiss German and English, though in Standard German, French or Italian, and even in Gibberish. From 1977 to 1983 Corin Curschellas worked together with Walter Lietha, from 1993 to 1997, Corin Curschellas was lead singer for the “Vienna Art Orchestra”. She toured with this Orchestra once again in 2009, with Steve Argüelles, Christophe Minck and Benoît Delbecq she was for certain periods a full member of their Jazz and Improvisation band The Recyclers.
She brought out eight albums containing her own songs and realized numerous personal musical projects, a selection of these follows in chronological order. With the Musiciens du Nil, Christy Doran und Fritz Hauser she toured Egypt,1992 while in Paris, Corin Curschellas wrote the song La pura, based on the poem of that name by the Swiss priest/poet Gion Cadieli. She combines the language of the theme and alpine text with foreign. At the time, the song figured in the program “Hot Rotation” of the Swiss national television station DRS3, the song La pura finds new expression within this project
Calfreisen is a former municipality in the district of Plessur in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. On 1 January 2013 the former municipalities of Calfreisen, Langwies, Lüen, Peist, Calfreisen is first mentioned in 1156 as Caureisene. Before the merger, Calfreisen had an area of 5.2 km2. Of this area,49. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,1. 7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The former municipality is located in the Schanfigg sub-district of the Plessur district and it is on the north slope of the Schanfigg mountain. Calfreisen had a population of 54, as of 2008,20. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12. 5%, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 55. 6% male and 44. 4% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Calfreisen is,7 children or 15. 6% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,4 teenagers or 8. 9% are 10 to 14, and 1 teenager is 15 to 19.
Of the adult population,2 people or 4. 4% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 6 people or 13. 3% are 30 to 39,8 people or 17. 8% are 40 to 49, and 6 people or 13. 3% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 1 person is between 60 and 69 years old,3 people or 6. 7% are 70 to 79, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 63. 3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the CVP and the FDP, in Calfreisen about 77. 3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Calfreisen has an unemployment rate of 0. 4%, as of 2005, there were 6 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 3 businesses involved in this sector. 1 person is employed in the sector and there is 1 business in this sector. 1 person is employed in the sector, with 1 business in this sector. The historical population is given in the table, Most of the population speaks German.
The historical language use is given in the table, Official website Calfreisen in German, French
Como is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Como. With 215,320 overnight guests, in 2013 Como was the fourth most visited city in Lombardy after Milan, the hills surrounding the current location of Como have been inhabited, since at least the Bronze Age, by a Celtic tribe known as the Orobii. Remains of settlements are still present on the wood covered hills to the South West of town, around the 1st century BC, the territory became subject to the Romans. The newly founded town was named Novum Comum and had the status of municipium, in 774, the town surrendered to invading Franks led by Charlemagne, and became a center of commercial exchange. In 1127, Como lost a war with the nearby town of Milan. A few decades later, with the help of Frederick Barbarossa, Frederick promoted the construction of several defensive towers around the city limits, of which only one, the Baradello, remains. Subsequently, the history of Como followed that of the Ducato di Milano, through the French invasion and the Spanish domination, until 1714, Napoleon descended into Lombardy in 1796 and ruled it until 1815, when the Austrian rule was resumed after the Congress of Vienna.
Finally in 1859, with the arrival of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the town was freed from the Austrians, as a curiosity, the Rockefeller fountain that today stands in the Bronx Zoo in New York City was once in the main square by the lakeside. It was bought by William Rockefeller in 1902 for 3,500 lire, nearby major cities are Varese and Lugano. Wind is quite rare, only sudden bursts of foehn or thunderstorms manage to sweep the air clean, pollution levels rise significantly in winter when cold air clings to the soil. Rain is more frequent during spring, summer is subject to thunderstorms and, Como Cathedral, construction began in 1396 on the site of the previous Romanesque church of Santa Maria Maggiore. The façade was built in 1457, with the rose window. The construction was finished in 1740, the interior is on the Latin cross plan, with Gothic nave and two aisles divided by piers, while the transept wing and the relative apses are from the Renaissance age. It includes a carved 16th century choir and tapestries on cartoons by Giuseppe Arcimboldi, the dome is a rococo structure by Filippo Juvarra.
Other artworks include 16th–17th century tapestries and 16th century paintings by Bernardino Luini, San Fedele, a Romanesque church erected around 1120 over a pre-existing central plan edifice. The original bell tower was rebuilt in modern times, the main feature is the famous Door of St. Fedele, carved with medieval decorations. SantAgostino, built by the Cistercians in the early 14th century, the interior and adjoining cloister have 15th–17th century frescoes, but most of the decoration is Baroque