French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages, French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues doïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to Frances past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, a French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is a language in 29 countries, most of which are members of la francophonie. As of 2015, 40% of the population is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas. French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union, 1/5 of Europeans who do not have French as a mother tongue speak French as a second language. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 17th and 18th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa, most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 77 to 110 million native speakers, approximately 274 million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates 700 million by 2050, in 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Under the Constitution of France, French has been the language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases, French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. French is the language of about 23% of the Swiss population. French is also a language of Luxembourg, Monaco, and Aosta Valley, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands. A plurality of the worlds French-speaking population lives in Africa and this number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050, French is the fastest growing language on the continent. French is mostly a language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Libreville. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages, sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growth
The Ndràngheta is organized crime centered in Calabria, Italy. A US diplomat estimated that the narcotics trafficking, extortion. Since the 1950s, the organization has spread towards Northern Italy, according to a 2013 Threat Assessment on Italian Organised Crime of Europol, the Ndrangheta is among the richest and most powerful organised crime groups at a global level. In 1861 the prefect of Reggio Calabria already noticed the presence of so-called camorristi, since the 1880s, there is ample evidence of Ndrangheta-type groups in police reports and sentences by local courts. At the time they were often being referred to as the picciotteria, onorata società or camorra, an 1897 sentence from the court in Palmi mentioned a written code of rules found in the village of Seminara based on honour, secrecy, violence, solidarity and mutual assistance. In the folk culture surrounding Ndrangheta in Calabria, references to the Spanish Garduña often appear, aside from these references, however, there is nothing to substantiate a link between the two organizations. In many areas of Calabria the verb ndranghitiari, from the Greek verb andragathízesthai, the first time the word Ndrangheta was mentioned before a wider audience was by the Calabrian writer Corrado Alvaro in the Corriere della Sera in September 1955. Until 1975, the Ndrangheta restricted their Italian operations to Calabria, mainly involved in extortion and their involvement in cigarette contraband expanded their scope and contacts with the Sicilian Mafia and the neapolitan Camorra. With the arrival of public works in Calabria, skimming off public contracts became an important source of income. Disagreements over how to distribute the spoils led to the First Ndrangheta war killing 233 people, the prevailing factions began to kidnap rich people from northern Italy for ransom. It is believed that John Paul Getty III, kidnapped for ransom in 1973, was one of their victims, the Second Ndrangheta war raged from 1985 to 1991. The bloody six-year war between the Condello-Imerti-Serraino-Rosmini clans and the De Stefano-Tegano-Libri-Latella clans led to more than 600 deaths, the Sicilian Mafia contributed to the end of the conflict and probably suggested the subsequent set up of a superordinate body, called La Provincia, to avoid further infighting. In the 1990s, the organization started to invest in the international drug trade. Deputy President of the parliament of Calabria Francesco Fortugno was killed by the Ndrangheta on 16 October 2005 in Locri. Demonstrations against the organization then ensued, with young protesters carrying banderoles reading Ammazzateci tutti, the national government started a large-scale enforcement operation in Calabria and arrested numerous ndranghetisti including the murderers of Fortugno. The Ndrangheta has recently expanded its activities to Northern Italy, mainly to sell drugs, in May 2007 twenty members of Ndrangheta were arrested in Milan. On 30 August 2007, hundreds of police raided the town of San Luca, over 30 men and women, linked to the killing of six Italian men in Germany, were arrested. On 9 October 2012, following a long investigation by the central government the City Council of Reggio Calabria headed by Mayor Demetrio Arena was dissolved for alleged ties to the group
Pataphysics or pataphysics is an absurdist, pseudo-scientific literary trope invented by French writer Alfred Jarry, that enigmatically resists being pinned down by a simple definition. A practitioner of pataphysics is a pataphysician or a pataphysicist, there are over one hundred differing definitions of ‘pataphysics. Pataphysics is the science of that which is superinduced upon metaphysics, whether within or beyond the latter’s limitations, … ‘Pataphysics will be, above all, the science of the particular, despite the common opinion that the only science is that of the general. ‘Pataphysics will examine the laws governing exceptions, and will explain the universe supplementary to this one, as cited in Pataphysics passes easily from one state of apparent definition to another. Thus it can present itself under the aspect of a gas, … Jarry performs humorously on behalf of literature what Nietzsche performs seriously on behalf of philosophy. Jarry mandated the inclusion of the apostrophe in the orthography, pataphysique and pataphysics, the words pataphysician or pataphysicist and the adjective pataphysical should not include the apostrophe. Only when consciously referring to Jarrys science itself should the word pataphysics carry the apostrophe, the term pataphysics is a paronym of metaphysics. These puns include patte à physique, as interpreted by Jarry scholars Keith Beaumont and Roger Shattuck, pas ta physique, Jarry considered Ibicrates and Sophrotatos the Armenian as the fathers of this science. The Collège de Pataphysique, founded in 1948 in Paris, France, is a society committed to learned, the motto of the college is Latin, Eadem mutata resurgo. The permanent head of the college is the Inamovable Curator, Dr. Faustroll, assisted by Bosse-de-Nage, the Vice-Curator is the first and most senior living entity in the colleges hierarchy. The current Vice-Curatrice is Tanya Peixoto of the London Institute of Pataphysics and she was elected in 2014 to succeed Her Magnificence Lutembi - a crocodile. Jean-Christophe Averty was appointed Satrap in 1990, publications of the college, generally called Latin, Viridis Candela, include the Cahiers, Dossiers and the Subsidia Pataphysica. The Oulipo began as a subcommittee of the college, although France had been always the centre of the pataphysical globe, there are followers up in different cities around the world. In 1966 Juan Esteban Fassio was commissioned to draw the map of the Collège de Pataphysique, the college stopped its public activities between 1975 and 2000, referred to as its occultation. However through that time, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, The Netherlands, in the 1950s, Buenos Aires in the Western Hemisphere and Milan in Europe were the first cities to have pataphysical institutes. London, Edinburgh, Budapest, and Liège, as well as many other European cities, during the Communist Era, a small group of pataphysicists in Czechoslovakia started a journal called PAKO, or Pataphysical Collegium. Alfred Jarrys plays had an impression on the countrys underground philosophical scene. The London Institute of Pataphysics was established in September 2000 to promote ‘pataphysics in the English-speaking world, the Institute also contains a pataphysical museum and archive and organised the Anthony Hancock Paintings and Sculptures exhibition in 2002
01.007 Fighter Squadron "Provence"
01.007 Fighter Squadron Provence or EC 1/7 is a French Air Force fighter squadron currently stationed at Saint-Dizier – Robinson Air Base. In 2006 it was the first unit to fly the Dassault Rafale, the Squadron’s aircraft are marked 113-HA to 113-HZ. 1/7 Provence fighter squadron originated as 1/7 fighter group Dijon in 1932 which itself traces its origin back to two World War I wings, SPA15 and SPA77, in January 1939 the fighter group 1/7 relocated to Tunisia, and subsequently moved to Egypt after the 1940 armistice. It was disbanded in October 1942, 1/7 fighter group received its first Mistral in April 1953, participated in the Algerian war and was reequipped with Mystère IV operating out of Dijon military base. It was disbanded in September 1961, 1/7 Provence fighter squadron was recreated in March 1962 at Nancy – Ochey 133 Air Base, using Mystère IV. In 1973, the Squadron became the first Air force unit to be equipped with SEPECAT Jaguar, 1/7 Provence Jaguars engaged in combat missions in Mauritania, in Chad, in the Gulf War and in Bosnia. After the 2/11 Vosges fighter squadron was disbanded, 1/7 Provence Squadron was expanded to 3 flights, in July 2001 the squadron received several two-seat Jaguars and the Alpha Jets previously used by 2/7 Argonne Squadron. The Jaguars were retired in July 2005 and replaced by Rafale one year later, in January 2007 1/7 Provence Squadron had twenty Rafale B and C. In March 2007 three Rafales were deployed to Dushanbe in Tajikistan, and carried out their first patrol over Afghanistan two days later, in September 2007, 1/7 Provence Squadron’s Alpha Jets were transferred to the newly created 5/2 Côte dOr Squadron
1st Belgian Infantry Brigade
The 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, also known as the Piron Brigade after its commander Jean-Baptiste Piron, was a Belgian and Luxembourgish military unit in the Free Belgian forces during World War II. It participated in the Battle of Normandy and, later, the liberation of Belgium, Brigade Piron originated in 1940, with hundreds of Belgian soldiers who had escaped to Britain, as had the Belgian Government. A new command of the Belgian Army, under Lieutenant-General Victor van Strydonck de Burkel, was created in Tenby on 25 May 1940, three days before the Belgian capitulation. At the end of July 1940 there were 462 men in the Belgian Forces in exile, in an artillery competition, the Belgian battery came first. The Belgian Forces in Britain were officially made available to the Allies on 4 June 1942. By the end of the year the army had been restructured, including the creation of the 1st Belgian Brigade, under the command of Major Piron, with a mix of infantry, artillery, troop training continued through 1943 and landing exercises were conducted in early 1944. A Luxembourgish unit was assigned to Brigade Piron in March, forming an artillery troop, because the Belgians had arrived from around the world, thirty-three languages were spoken in the Brigade in 1944. The D-Day landings took place on 6 June 1944 without Brigade Piron, to the disappointment of its 2,200 men. Piron lobbied the Belgian government in exile, which requested the British Government to send the Belgian troops to the front, on 29 July 1944, the Brigade was ordered to be ready to move. Its first units arrived in Normandy on 30 July and the body arrived at Arromanches and Courseulles on 8 August. The Brigade operated under the command of the British 6th Airborne Division, the Belgians entered active service on 9 August. The Belgian Brigade participated in Operation Paddle, Clearing the Channel coast from 17 August with British, merville-Franceville-Plage was liberated in the evening, Varaville on 20 August. The Brigades armoured vehicles were detached to assist British units, dives-sur-Mer and Cabourg were taken on the morning of 21 August and Houlgate in the afternoon. The Brigade took Villers-sur-Mer and Deauville on 22 August, and Trouville-sur-Mer, the Belgian armoured vehicles were reunited with the rest of the Brigade on 26 August at Foulbec, when Brigade Piron came under command of the 49th Infantry Division. On 29 August, the Brigade crossed the Seine to support Operation Astonia, at the last moment the Brigade was withdrawn from the front and transferred to the Second Army for operations in Belgium. The efforts of Brigade Piron on Normandys Côte Fleurie are commemorated by memorials, road names, on 2 September, the Brigade and the Dutch Princess Irene Brigade had been transferred to the Second Army and ordered to move as quickly as possible to the Belgian border. The British were already in Belgium and expected to enter Brussels on the following day, the Brigade arrived at the French–Belgian border on 3 September, after an overnight journey and continued to Rongy in Brussels the following day, just after the British. During their advance through Belgium, the Belgian troops were sometimes mistaken for French Canadians, Brigade Piron liberated other Belgian towns and cities before reaching the Netherlands border on 22 September